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How Is Diabetes Diagnosed In Adults

Ask An Expert: Can A Young, Healthy, Active Adult Get Diabetes?

Ask An Expert: Can A Young, Healthy, Active Adult Get Diabetes?

Q: Can an active, 32-year-old Caucasian female who eats well and who does not suffer from obesity, high blood pressure or high cholesterol be diagnosed with diabetes or pre-diabetes? If so, how common is this? Answer from Susanna Reiner, R.N., B.S.N., diabetes nurse educator, Providence Diabetes Education: Yes — even though a healthy diet, weight and lifestyle greatly reduce the chances of developing diabetes, there is still a small chance that the woman you described could be diagnosed with pre-diabetes or diabetes due to risk factors beyond her control. It’s relatively uncommon, but it does happen. Fortunately, her healthy lifestyle will be an asset to her. If the woman in question is diagnosed with pre-diabetes, then staying physically active, maintaining a low-stress lifestyle and following a well-balanced diet will help her prevent or delay the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, according to the Diabetes Prevention Program. If she is diagnosed with diabetes, she’ll have a much better chance of preventing complications related to uncontrolled diabetes if she continues to follow her healthy habits. What could cause diabetes in such a young, otherwise healthy adult? Let’s first consider type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases of diabetes in the United States according to the National Diabetes Fact Sheet. Some of the most common risk factors for type 2 diabetes don’t appear to apply to the woman you’ve described. These include the following: Obesity, particularly around the waistline (associated with 90 percent of people who have type 2 diabetes, according to the World Health Organization) Certain non-Caucasian ethnic backgrounds (African-Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are a Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Misdiagnosed In Many Adults

Type 1 Diabetes Misdiagnosed In Many Adults

Many might think type 1 diabetes is a "disease of childhood", but research, published in the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, has found it has similar prevalence in adults. More than 40% of Britons diagnosed with the condition are over 30. Many of these are initially diagnosed with type 2, and receiving the wrong treatment can be life-threatening. Charity Diabetes UK is calling for doctors not to rule out the possibility a patient over 30 might have type 1. 'Banging my head against a wall' Helen Philibin, a mother of two from Torquay, who was 40, slim and active when she was diagnosed. She said: "Having the wrong diagnosis was extremely frustrating. I just knew it wasn't right. "I'm always running around with my two young kids and I walk the dog every day." She visited her GP complaining of extreme thirst. A blood test strongly indicated she had diabetes. Her doctor diagnosed her with type 2 and prescribed metformin, the most commonly-used drug for the condition. She was also sent on a course to learn about lifestyle factors including a low-sugar diet. "All the other people on the course were in their mid-60s and overweight. I was 5ft 10in and nine-and-a-half stone. I stood out like a sore thumb," said Helen. "When I raised it with nurses or my GP, I was told that type 1 diabetes is always diagnosed in childhood, so I had to be type 2. I felt like I was banging my head against a wall." Helen changed her diet to get better blood sugar control - but she began vomiting up to four times a week. "It was horrible," she said. "Even a single piece of toast would send my blood sugar levels through the roof and I was losing even more weight." Helen's story isn't unique. According to the new report, misdiagnosis may be a surprisingly common occurrence in the UK. The team analysed Continue reading >>

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Type 1 diabetes used to be called "juvenile diabetes," because it's usually diagnosed in children and teens. But don't let that old-school name fool you. It can start when you're a grownup, too. Many of the symptoms are similar to type 2 diabetes, so it's sometimes tricky to know which kind you've got. But it's important to learn the differences and figure out what's going on so you can get the treatment that's right for you. Causes Doctors aren't sure exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. They believe your genes may play a role. Researchers are also checking to see if there are things that trigger the disease, like your diet or a virus that you caught. What experts do know is that when you have type 1 diabetes, something goes wrong with your immune system -- the body's defense against germs. It destroys beta cells in your pancreas that are responsible for making a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose -- or sugar -- to get into your cells, where it's turned into energy. But if you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't make insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream and, over time, can cause serious health problems. Symptoms If you have type 1 diabetes, you may get similar symptoms as your friends who have type 2. You may notice that you: Get extremely thirsty or hungry Need to pee often Feel unusually tired or weak Lose weight suddenly Get blurred vision or other changes in the way you see Get vaginal yeast infections Have breath that smells fruity Can't breathe well Sometimes, type 1 diabetes could even make you lose consciousness. Who's Most Likely to Get It as an Adult? People of all races and ethnic groups can get type 1 diabetes, but it's most common among those of northern European descent. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Overview Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin These pages are about type 1 diabetes. Other types of diabetes are covered separately (read about type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, which affects some women during pregnancy). Symptoms of diabetes Typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk The symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop very quickly in young people (over a few days or weeks). In adults, the symptoms often take longer to develop (a few months). Read more about the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. These symptoms occur because the lack of insulin means that glucose stays in the blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Find your local GP service Read about how type 1 diabetes is diagnosed. Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin. So, glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Type 1 diabetes is o Continue reading >>

Adults Being Diagnosed With Wrong Diabetes

Adults Being Diagnosed With Wrong Diabetes

Adults are just as likely to develop type 1 diabetes as children, a study has revealed. The autoimmune condition is often considered a ‘disease of childhood’ and is commonly referred to as ‘juvenile diabetes’. But experts at the University of Exeter have found 40 per cent of new cases occur after the age of 30. The researchers warned many adults are misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a completely different condition which is treated in a different way. The Prime Minister of Britain, Theresa May, who developed type 1 diabetes in 2013 at the age of 56, is one of those who has fallen victim to the confusion. She was initially told she had type 2 diabetes and given tablets which did not control her blood sugar. The scientists, whose work is published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal, found it takes a year on average for adults with type 1 diabetes to be diagnosed correctly. Dr Richard Oram of the University of Exeter said: ‘Diabetes textbooks for doctors say that type 1 diabetes is a childhood illness. ‘But our study shows that it is prevalent throughout life. ‘The assumption among many doctors is that adults presenting with the symptoms of diabetes will have type 2 but this misconception can lead to misdiagnosis with potentially serious consequences. The Prime Minister is an example of someone who was misdiagnosed in this way at first. This study should raise awareness that type 1 diabetes occurs throughout adulthood and should be considered as a diagnosis.’ Type 1 diabetes is an irreversible autoimmune disease which usually strikes in childhood, and stops the body producing insulin. Its cause is unclear, but it is thought to be genetic. The only treatment is insulin injections, which have to be taken several times a day for the rest of a pati Continue reading >>

How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed?

How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed?

Type 1 diabetes affects about 10% of all diabetics, Its incidence is increasing steadily for 30 years.The National Institute of Health Surveillance (VS) estimated it to 8 per 100,000 children aged under 15 in 1988 and 15 per 100,000 children in 2007. What is it ? Diabetes type 1 or insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) is a disorder of assimilation, use and storage of sugars provided in the diet. This disorder results in glucose levels in the blood (blood sugar) too much: this is called hyperglycemia. Thus, diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. How it is explained? Insulin is a hormone released into the blood, whose function is to regulate blood sugar (glucose level in the blood). It is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It is the destruction of these cells and therefore the disappearance of insulin they broadcast that causes type 1 diabetes because the body is then no way to regulate his blood sugar. It is still unclear exactly what causes the destruction of these cells. A genetic predisposition exists but is too small to explain the destruction of the pancreatic cells. At present, it is suspected that environmental factors are also involved. But none have been clearly identified. What are the symptoms ? In the vast majority of cases, type 1 diabetes occurs suddenly before the age of 30, most often in children or adolescents. It causes important states of fatigue, intense thirst, a massive weight loss or a frequent need to urinate. How to diagnose? It is diagnosed based on criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the fasted state, when the sugar is greater than or equal to 1.26 grams per liter of blood. And at any other time of the day, when blood glucose is greater than 2 grams per liter of blood. T Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults: Diagnosis And Management

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults: Diagnosis And Management

Excerpt Type 1 diabetes affects over 370,000 adults in the UK, representing approximately 10% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. Given the complexity of its treatment regimens, successful outcomes depend, perhaps more than with any other long-term condition, on full engagement of the adult with type 1 diabetes in life-long day-by-day self-management. In order to support this, the health service needs to provide informed, expert support, education and training as well as a range of other more conventional biomedical services and interventionsfor the prevention and management of long term complications and disability. The number of adults with type 1 diabetes means that, while the condition is certainly not rare, it is not common enough to provide and maintain all the necessary skills in its management for all healthcare professionals who will deal with it. The aim of this guideline is, therefore, to provide evidence-based, practical advice on the steps necessary to support adults with type 1 diabetes to live full, largely unrestricted, lives and avoid the acute and long-term complications of both the disease and of its treatment. NICE last produced such a guideline in 2004. The present guideline is an update of many sections of that guideline, focusing on areas where new knowledge and new treatment opportunities have arisen in the last decade. There have been many such developments, resulting in improving outcomes for adults with type 1 diabetes, but also presenting more challenges in the diversity and complexity of the tools they now have to achieve these outcomes. Continue reading >>

Type 1.5 Diabetes: An Overview

Type 1.5 Diabetes: An Overview

Type 1.5 Diabetes (T1.5D) is also known as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA). LADA is considered by some experts to be a slowly progressive form of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) while other experts in the field consider it a separate form of Diabetes. LADA or T1.5D is sometimes thought of as T1D that is diagnosed in adults over the age of 30—T1D is commonly diagnosed in children and younger adults. T1.5D is often found along with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D): up to 25% of individuals with T1.5D also have characteristics of T2D.1 This is sometimes called “double diabetes”. Individuals with T1.5D are all eventually dependent on insulin for treatment, and have a very high risk of requiring insulin within months or years (up to six years) after the initial diagnosis. This is in contrast to people with T1D—these people tend to need insulin within days or weeks of diagnosis.2 Individuals diagnosed with T2D relatively rarely require insulin treatment. Current recommendations are to treat individuals with T1.5D immediately with insulin, though this is not universally accepted (see below). The Causes of T1.5D Just as with other forms of diabetes, we don’t truly understand the underlying cause(s) of T1.5D. There are autoimmune components in Types 1, 1.5 and 2 diabetes with some overlap in the types of antibodies formed, so it is clear that as in T1D, the immune system has become “confused” and begins to act against the beta cells of the pancreas—the source of the insulin needed to control blood sugars. Both T1D and T1.5D have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or anti-GAD antibodies. As with T1D, individuals with T1.5D tend not to be obese, whereas in T2D, most individuals are overweight or obese. Genetics and Environmental Susceptibility Individuals with T1.5D Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Adults.

Diagnosis And Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Adults.

Note from the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI): ICSI has made a decision to transition to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system as a method of assessing the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are presented in the form of 3 algorithms, accompanied by detailed annotations. Algorithms are provided in the original guideline document for: Diagnosis, Management, and Cardiovascular Risk Management (see the "Guideline Availability" field); clinical highlights and selected annotations (numbered to correspond with the algorithm) follow. Quality of evidence (Low Quality, Moderate Quality, and High Quality) and strength of recommendation (Weak or Strong) ratings are defined at the end of the "Major Recommendations" field. Clinical Highlights Education and self-management support is necessary for people with prediabetes and T2DM to manage his/her disease. Focus on cardiovascular risk reduction (blood pressure control, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control primarily with statin use, aspirin use and tobacco cessation). Glycated hemoglobin (A1c) levels should be individualized to the patient. Aggressive blood pressure control is just as important as glycemic control. Systolic blood pressure level should be the major factor for detection, evaluation, and treatment of hypertension. The use of two or more blood pressure lowering agents is often required to meet blood pressure goal. Prevent microvascular complications through annual or biannual eye exams, foot risk assessments and foot care counseling, and annual screening for proteinuria. Initial therapy with lifestyle treatment and m Continue reading >>

1 In 5 Cases Of Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed In The Over-40s

1 In 5 Cases Of Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed In The Over-40s

Save for later More than one in five cases of Type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in people aged over 40, according to new figures announced today at Diabetes UK’s annual Diabetes Professional Conference. The figures, which are based on analysis from the National Diabetes Audit data, shows that in the year 2011–12, 8,952 people were diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. This included 2,035 people who were aged over 40 at the time of their diagnosis, of who more than 500 were aged over 69. The research confirms what Diabetes UK has always said that, though most cases are commonly diagnosed between the ages of 10–14, Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. The charity pointed to Home Secretary Theresa May’s Type 1 diagnosis last year as a high profile example of this. The charity’s announcement comes as new research from the Royal Gwent Hospital in Wales suggests that lack of awareness about late onset Type 1 diabetes is leading to some people not being diagnosed early enough and in some cases people can become seriously ill before the condition is identified. Signs and symptoms This research highlights the need for healthcare professionals not to rule out Type 1 diabetes just because a patient is older. It is also important for the public to be aware of the main signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes, which include being tired, thirsty, losing weight and going to the toilet a lot, especially at night. People also need to understand that they should contact their GP if they have any of these symptoms. Simon O’Neill, Director for Health Intelligence and Professional Liaison for Diabetes UK, said, "This study highlights that Type 1 diabetes is not just a condition that strikes the young. We hear of reports where people who develop the condition later in life are only diagnosed Continue reading >>

For Adults

For Adults

For Adults Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) as an adult can be difficult. People often don’t know much about T1D, and don’t expect an adult to be diagnosed with the disease. As an adult, you already have responsibilities and tasks that you need to perform each day, and you may be feeling that diabetes will get in the way of what you want to do. A diagnosis of diabetes is somewhat like starting a journey on a new and unfamiliar road. If you developed T1D as a child, your parents most likely played an active role in helping you learn to manage your diabetes. Transitioning to adulthood brings a whole series of new responsibilities to you, and a whole series of new questions; however, you will notice that, over the past several decades, living with T1D has gotten easier and easier. Still, it remains a far distance away from being easy. At home, we’ve gone from measuring glucose levels through urine tests that told you roughly where you might have been hours ago to home blood glucose tests that tell you in as little as five seconds exactly where you are right now. Insulin is no longer derived from pigs or cows, but is made in laboratories to resemble and act like human insulin as closely as possible. The days of carrying syringes and vials wherever you went have been replaced with insulin pumps, and slim, barely noticeable, pre-packed and easy-to-set dosage pens that can make giving yourself an injection a private affair, even in the most public of arenas. Continue reading >>

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults

Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles.[3] Adults with LADA may initially be diagnosed incorrectly as having type 2 diabetes based on their age, particularly if they have risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as a strong family history or obesity. The diagnosis is typically based on the finding of hyperglycemia together with the clinical impression that islet failure rather than insulin resistance is the main cause; detection of a low C-peptide and raised antibodies against the islets of Langerhans support the diagnosis. It can only be treated with the usual oral treatments for type 2 diabetes for a certain period of time,[4][5] after which insulin treatment is usually necessary, as well as long-term monitoring for complications. The concept of LADA was first introduced in 1993,[6] though The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus does not recognize the term, instead including it under the standard definition of diabetes mellitus type 1.[7] Signs and symptoms[edit] The symptoms of latent autoimmune diabetes of adults are similar to those of other forms of diabetes: polydipsia (excessive thirst and drinking), polyuria (excessive urination), and often blurred vision.[8] Compared to juvenile type 1 diabetes, the symptoms develop comparatively slowly, over a period of at least six months.[9] Diagnosis[edit] It is estimated that more than 50% of persons diagnosed as having non-obesity-related type 2 diabetes may actually have LADA. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA), islet cell autoantibody (ICA), insulinoma-associated (IA-2) autoantibody, and zinc transporter autoantibody (ZnT8) t Continue reading >>

How Can Overweight People Who Are Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes Continue To Eat High Sugar Foods?

How Can Overweight People Who Are Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes Continue To Eat High Sugar Foods?

TLDR: Get diabetes, eat what you want. Go blind, lose limbs, as well as independence. Totally killing yourself slowly. Think of it like smoking, you aren't directly killing yourself, but you are setting in motion the circumstances of your own demise. As Karen Tiede said, it takes a long time to kill you. You can eat what you want, but be prepared for the horrific health consequences. What CAN kill you quickly, is diabetic shock, or having too low of blood sugar, but that generally happens from injecting too much insulin, or you know... not eating. Fun fact: My dad was diagnosed with diabetes when he was 40. This was before I was even born. He was morbidly obese, I would say, I mean the man is huge in pictures but he was able to get around well enough. No need for a rascal or any other mobility help. Anyway, he ignored his diabetes for over a decade, 13 years in fact. He simply didn't have time to worry about his health when he was working so much and providing for his wife and 8, yes I said 8, children. Well, because he didn't take care of himself for so long, he developed what I would say is an unforeseen side effect doctors don't really tell you about. At least I don't hear much about it in regards to diabetes. He went blind. He drove A LOT for work. He was a regional manager for a major bakery in the northwest. He knew his vision was going bad, but he couldn't afford to not do his job. So he kept quiet about it, until one day when he got into a horrible car accident. What's funny is this accident wasn't on the highway, or some extreme circumstance, he was about a mile from home. His depth perception was shot and he failed to brake at a red light. He isn't dead if that is what you think I am leading up to. No he is very much alive. However, I'm pretty certain he wishe Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Adults

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Adults

NYU Langone doctors are experts at identifying people with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which a person has chronically high levels of blood sugar. It occurs when the body lacks or is resistant to insulin, a hormone that helps the body use glucose, or sugar. As a result, the body is unable to convert glucose into energy. In prediabetes, a person has higher-than-normal levels of blood sugar, which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To help the body use some of the excess blood sugar levels, the pancreas produces more insulin. Over time, prediabetes may progress into type 2 diabetes. In most people, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes develop gradually. If you have prediabetes and take steps to prevent type 2 diabetes, you may be able to avoid it altogether. Risk Factors Being overweight, especially if you are age 45 or older, is the biggest risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In particular, people who are “apple-shaped”—meaning they carry more fat around the abdomen—have a higher risk. Experts believe excess belly fat produces hormones that increase inflammation, which can lead to insulin resistance. Being sedentary also raises the risk of type 2 diabetes. It can lead to weight gain and lower muscle mass, which is required to help use glucose efficiently. People with a family history of type 2 diabetes have a greater chance of developing the condition than those who don’t. The condition can also occur in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormone disorder associated with weight gain and insulin resistance. Conditions that harm insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, such as pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis, also increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that puts Continue reading >>

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