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How Does Weight Gain Cause Diabetes?

Mechanism Linking Diabetes Mellitus And Obesity

Mechanism Linking Diabetes Mellitus And Obesity

Go to: Abstract Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, obesity, insulin resistance Go to: Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder that can alter carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. It is caused by the absence of insulin secretion due to either the progressive or marked inability of the β-Langerhans islet cells of the pancreas to produce insulin, or due to defects in insulin uptake in the peripheral tissue. DM is broadly classified under two categories, which include type 1 and type 2 diabetes.1 Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children, but it can sometimes also appear in adult age groups, particularly in those in their late thirties and early forties. Patients with type 1 diabetes are generally not obese and frequently present with an emergency status known as diabetes ketoacidosis.2 The etio Continue reading >>

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes? You Asked Google – Here’s The Answer

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes? You Asked Google – Here’s The Answer

‘Cause” is a strong word. It means that A results in B happening. Causality is also surprisingly difficult to prove. Most medical studies only show association between A and B, while causality often remains speculative and frustratingly elusive. Obesity and diabetes are no exception. There are many types of diabetes. All are unified by elevated levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes accounts for less than 10% of cases and results from autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas, which produce and release insulin. (In an autoimmune process, antibodies that normally target and fight infection instead target one’s own cells). Type 3c (secondary) diabetes can occur when there has been destruction of the pancreatic beta cells through some other process, such as excessive alcohol, inflammation or surgical resection. There are also many genetic forms of diabetes, each usually resulting from a single gene mutation that affects pancreatic function in some way. Finally, there is type 2 diabetes (T2D), which accounts for more than 90% of cases globally. Media reports of diabetes, particularly in the context of obesity, usually relate to T2D, the two terms often being used interchangeably. Only T2D appears to be associated with obesity. Epidemiological studies across the world have shown that the greater one’s body mass index (BMI), the greater the chance of developing T2D. However, this is not the same as saying that obesity causes T2D. The majority of people who are obese will never develop T2D – a fact that exposes the statement “obesity causes diabetes” as absurd. Rather than referring to obesity as a cause of diabetes, it is more accurate to frame the issue as one of association between obesity and T2D (which is incontrovertibly true). As we gain wei Continue reading >>

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes?

Why Does Obesity Cause Diabetes?

Being overweight or obese increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes. In this disease, the body makes enough insulin but the cells in the body have become resistant to the salutary action of insulin. Why does this happen? New Research: A report this week in Science proposes that being overweight stresses the insides of individual cells. Specifically, overeating stresses the membranous network inside of cells called endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the ER has more nutrients to process than it can handle, it sends out an alarm signal telling the cell to dampen down the insulin receptors on the cell surface. This translates to insulin resistance and to persistently high concentrations of the sugar glucose in the blood -- one of the sure signs of diabetes. Comment: Research into diabetes today is far ranging. It ranges from the environment to the deep dark recesses of the single cell. It is much easier to look at the environment, for example, "Super Size Me" in a fast-food culture, than it is to sort out what is going on inside the workings of an individual cell. Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D. Frederick Hecht, M.D. Medical Editors, MedicineNet.com Study Suggests How Obesity Causes Diabetes HealthDay Reporter THURSDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDayNews) -- Scientists know that obesity is a key player in the development of type 2 diabetes, but exactly how excess weight causes the disease isn't clear. While trying to answer that question, Harvard University researchers have discovered a new pathway that sets in motion a series of reactions that leads to the development of insulin resistance, a precursor of type 2 diabetes, a new study reports. The researchers found that obesity causes stress in a system of cellular membranes called endoplasmic reticulum (ER Continue reading >>

Can’t Lose Weight? Here Are Four Reasons Why…

Can’t Lose Weight? Here Are Four Reasons Why…

Spring is here and many of you are probably looking forward to wearing shorts, bathing suits, and flip-flops. And it’s often this time of year when people somewhat guiltily reflect back on their eating habits over the winter. Did you gain a few pounds? Are your spring pants or skirts feeling a little tight around the waistband? It’s actually normal to put weight on over the winter. After all, you may not have been as active as you usually are, and maybe you opted for those comfort foods over lower-calorie fare, like salads. But the time is here to shed that winter weight. It’s not always easy. And sometimes people find that despite eating fewer calories, cutting out the snacks, and stepping up the exercise, the weight is stubbornly refusing to come off — or it’s taking its own sweet time. This week, I’d like to point out some reasons why it might be harder for you to lose weight (or, why you’re gaining weight). Now, most weight gain occurs because of an imbalance between food intake and physical activity (that is to say, calories in exceed calories out). But if you’ve been struggling to drop those pounds, you might consider these possible causes: Hypothyroidism. It seems all too easy to blame your weight gain on “hormones” that are out of whack. But, as I wrote back in January, thyroid disorders are more common in people with diabetes, especially among people with Type 1 diabetes. Hypothyroidism, or too having too little thyroid hormone, can not only make you feel sluggish and tired, it can cause you to gain weight (or at least, make it hard to lose weight). Have your thyroid hormone (TSH and T4) levels checked every year. If you take thyroid medicine, take it as directed and work with your health-care provider to get your dose regulated, if needed. Continue reading >>

Weight Management In Type 2 Diabetes: Current And Emerging Approaches To Treatment

Weight Management In Type 2 Diabetes: Current And Emerging Approaches To Treatment

Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and cardiovascular disease. Although the benefits of weight loss in the prevention of diabetes and as a critical component of managing the condition are well established, weight reduction remains challenging for individuals with type 2 diabetes due to a host of metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is not enough to achieve weight loss, and alternative options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. However, many traditional glucose-lowering medications may lead to weight gain. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies and on emerging approaches in development to support the glycemic and weight-loss goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight and those developed primarily to induce weight loss that have a favorable effect on blood glucose control. Finally, the potential of combination therapies for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed. Obesity and diabetes are intimately linked (1). Obesity—in particular abdominal obesity—is a major driver in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (2), with the increasing prevalence of obesity mirrored by the rising prevalence of diabetes (3). In addition, obesity and overweight are associated with multiple comorbidities (4). Weight reduction, therefore, is a key therapeutic goal in both the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (5). Weight reduction with intensive l Continue reading >>

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified And What Needs To Be Individualized?

Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified And What Needs To Be Individualized?

OBJECTIVE This report examines what is known about the relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes and how future research in these areas might be directed to benefit prevention, interventions, and overall patient care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS An international working group of 32 experts in the pathophysiology, genetics, clinical trials, and clinical care of obesity and/or type 2 diabetes participated in a conference held on 6–7 January 2011 and cosponsored by The Endocrine Society, the American Diabetes Association, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. A writing group comprising eight participants subsequently prepared this summary and recommendations. Participants reviewed and discussed published literature and their own unpublished data. RESULTS The writing group unanimously supported the summary and recommendations as representing the working group's majority or unanimous opinions. CONCLUSIONS The major questions linking obesity to type 2 diabetes that need to be addressed by combined basic, clinical, and population-based scientific approaches include the following: 1) Why do not all patients with obesity develop type 2 diabetes? 2) Through what mechanisms do obesity and insulin resistance contribute to β-cell decompensation, and if/when obesity prevention ensues, how much reduction in type 2 diabetes incidence will follow? 3) How does the duration of type 2 diabetes relate to the benefits of weight reduction by lifestyle, weight-loss drugs, and/or bariatric surgery on β-cell function and glycemia? 4) What is necessary for regulatory approval of medications and possibly surgical approaches for preventing type 2 diabetes in patients with obesity? Improved understanding of how obesity relates to type 2 diabetes may help advance effectiv Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Obesity

Diabetes And Obesity

Tweet The UK currently ranks as the country with the highest level of obesity in Europe, with more than 1 in 4 (28.1%) adults obese and nearly two out of three (63.4%) overweight. Over the next 20 years, the number of obese adults in the country is forecast to soar to 26 million people. According to health experts, such a rise would result in more than a million extra cases of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer.[10] Obesity is also no longer a condition that just affects older people, although the likelihood does increase with age, and increasing numbers of young people have been diagnosed with obesity. Data from Public Health England suggests that nearly a third (31.2%) of children aged 2 to 15 years old are obese. Links between obesity and type 2 diabetes While the exact causes of diabetes are still not fully understood, it is known that factors up the risk of developing different types of diabetes mellitus. For type 2 diabetes, this includes being overweight or obese (having a body mass index - BMI - of 30 or greater). In fact, obesity is believed to account for 80-85% of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while recent research suggests that obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 22. How does obesity cause type 2 diabetes? It is a well-known fact that if you are overweight or obese, you are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly if you have excess weight around your tummy (abdomen). Inflammatory response Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to release ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals, which can make the body less sensitive to the insulin it produces by disrupting the function of insulin responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin. This is kn Continue reading >>

Your Weight And Diabetes

Your Weight And Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by chronic high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to the body's failure to produce any or enough insulin to regulate high glucose levels. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, which often occurs in children or adolescents, is caused by the body's inability to make insulin or type 2 diabetes, which occurs as a result of the body's inability to react properly to insulin (insulin resistance). Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes and is therefore seen in roughly 90% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes is predominantly diagnosed after the age of forty, however, it is now being found in all age ranges, including children and adolescents. The impact of diabetes goes beyond chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness (diabetic retinopathy), end stage kidney diseases (diabetic nephropathy) and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations (diabetic neuropathy) in working-age adults. People with diabetes are also two to four times more likely to experience cardiovascular complications and strokes. Diabetes and its related complications result in an estimated 200,000+ deaths each year, making diabetes one of the major causes of mortality in the U.S. In 2012, the NIH reported an estimated 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) living with diabetes. Of these, an estimated 8.1 million persons were unaware that they had the disease. How does my weight relate to type 2 diabetes? There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as age, race, pregnancy, stress, certain medications, genetics or family history, high cholesterol and obesity. However, the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obesity. Almost 90% of people living with type 2 diabetes a Continue reading >>

Why Did I Gain Weight When I Started Taking Insulin?

Why Did I Gain Weight When I Started Taking Insulin?

There are several factors at work to lead you to believe that insulin is "to blame" for your weight gain. People who have poorly controlled diabetes also sometimes experience weight loss because their bodies are unable to properly convert food into energy. This is because they either are not producing enough insulin or their bodies are unable to use the insulin they produce properly. This food winds up as excess glucose circulating in the blood (resulting in high blood glucose!). Ultimately the body can't use all that extra glucose circulating in the blood and so it is eliminated in the urine. When your blood glucose runs high, you can become dehydrated as your body works to clear itself of all that excess glucose — which makes you think you've lost weight, but you've only lost water. Then, when you start taking insulin and get your blood glucose under better control, you start over-retaining fluids initially to make up for your dehydration, which makes you think you've rapidly gained a lot of weight. You associate it with taking insulin, but really what is happening is taking your insulin properly is just enabling your body to better use food and maintain a proper water balance. Also, once you start taking insulin injections and start getting your blood glucose under control, you now have enough insulin circulating in your blood to help the glucose get into the body's cells where it can be used as energy. So the glucose produced by the food you eat is no longer spending time in your bloodstream and being excreted out as urine. You gain weight. Your high blood glucose may have also made you feel more hungry because not all the food you were eating was able to get into the cells as energy to nourish the cells. Then, you started taking insulin — and continued to eat t Continue reading >>

Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve Been Set Up

Obesity? Diabetes? We’ve Been Set Up

When it comes to the nation’s growing obesity and diabetes epidemics, the more we know, the more the evidence points to one conclusion: We’ve been set up. Important findings about humanity’s past, about how we live and eat today, and even about how we typically treat type 2 diabetes — with medications that themselves induce weight gain — are providing clues that explain how the past two decades could see an explosion in overweight and obese Americans and skyrocketing cases of type 2 diabetes, which is usually closely tied to the problem. Harvard’s extensive research on the subject weaves a story of ancient humans who were both extraordinarily active and able to easily gain weight in times of plenty. It illuminates how a modern diet rich in refined carbohydrates and heavy in red meat has preyed on Paleolithic instincts, creating an obese nation, a health crisis, and what one researcher describes as a hard-to-escape cycle of weight gain, insulin resistance, and weight-retaining diabetic medication, leading to more pounds. “It’s not just a trap, it’s a trap and a downward spiral,” said Assistant Professor of Medicine Osama Hamdy, a physician at Harvard-affiliated Joslin Diabetes Center and director of a groundbreaking weight loss program being replicated at Joslin affiliates around the world. Hamdy and hundreds of other Harvard investigators in recent decades have produced a dizzying array of findings on obesity and diabetes. Even a casual look at the years of research on the subject shows a slew of results on how lifestyle affects weight and how weight affects health. It shows new genes discovered, laser surgery to save diabetics’ eyesight, new diabetes drug candidates, and advances in using stem cells to replace the insulin-producing beta cells that Continue reading >>

My Diabetes Is Controlled But Why Am I Gaining Weight?

My Diabetes Is Controlled But Why Am I Gaining Weight?

Exercise, eat right, and stay at a healthy weight. These goals are at the core of every type 2 diabetes treatment plan. And, for some people, that’s enough. When it’s not, insulin therapy is one treatment option that can help patients, but one possible side effect is weight gain. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy This can become a cycle for patients who need to control both diabetes and their weight. It’s frustrating when you feel the treatment is part of the problem. With diabetes, however, you have to get the blood sugar under control first. Insulin is used because it works. The cost of insulin can vary, but lower-cost insulin is associated with more weight gain. In a way, weight gain is a sign that the insulin is working — your body is more effectively utilizing sugar, fat and protein. Your body also has the ability to store them, which means if you don’t adjust your food intake, more of those calories turn to fat. Also, insulin is not necessarily the only factor. When you’re managing your diabetes, your body has a better chance to rehydrate, which also can cause weight gain. Of course, dehydration is a greater risk if you have diabetes, with frequent urination and thirst as two common signs of the condition. Drugs you take for other conditions also sometimes cause weight gain. So, what are your options if weight gain and insulin are an issue? Try these three tips: The simplest answer is to adjust your diet and exercise . Talk to your doctor and to a nutrition specialist about a food plan that takes the insulin effects into account. Work a bit more activity or exercise into each day. Don’t self- Continue reading >>

Understanding Excess Weight And Its Role In Type 2 Diabetes Brochure

Understanding Excess Weight And Its Role In Type 2 Diabetes Brochure

To view a PDF version of this brochure, please click here. To view a digital version of this brochure, click here. Please Note: Throughout this brochure, the words “glucose” and “sugar” are used interchangeably. This brochure is designed to help you better understand the impact of excess weight and its role in type 2 diabetes. Excess weight, obesity and severe obesity are all risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes. Often times, individuals are not aware of the health risk of excess weight until they are diagnosed with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Through this educational brochure, we hope to provide you with the information needed to improve your quality of health. We will cover various topics, such as: Type 2 diabetes Complications of high blood sugar levels Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and much more What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal medical condition requiring regular monitoring of an individual’s blood sugar level and treatment. In type 2 diabetes, the body either does not properly produce or use insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps move sugar into cells. Therefore, the body becomes resistant to insulin. This resistance causes high blood sugar levels. What are the complications of high blood sugar levels? Excess sugar in the blood causes many health-related problems. The cells cannot get enough of the sugar they need, and when sugar levels in the blood become too high, it causes damage to nerves and blood vessels, usually in the heart, feet, hands, kidneys and eyes. Other complications of high sugar and insulin resistance include: Increased risk of heart disease and stroke Neuropathy (nerve damage, especially in extremities) Nephropathy (renal impairment, kidney fai Continue reading >>

Weight And Diabetes

Weight And Diabetes

A balanced diet and an active lifestyle can help all kids maintain a healthy weight. For kids with diabetes, diet and exercise are even more important because weight can affect diabetes and diabetes can affect weight. This is true for kids and teens with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. In diabetes, the body doesn't use glucose properly. Glucose, a sugar, is the main source of energy for the body. Glucose levels are controlled by a hormone called insulin , which is made in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes , the pancreas does not make enough insulin. Undiagnosed or untreated type 1 diabetes can cause weight loss. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream if insulin isn't available to move it into the body's cells. When glucose levels become high, the kidneys work to get rid of unused sugar through urine (pee). This causes weight loss due to dehydration and loss of calories from the sugar that wasn't used as energy. Kids who develop type 1 diabetes often lose weight even though they have a normal or increased appetite. Once kids are diagnosed and treated for type 1 diabetes, weight usually returns to normal. Developing type 1 diabetes isn't related to being overweight, but keeping a healthy weight is important. Too much fat tissue can make it hard for insulin to work properly, leading to both higher insulin needs and trouble controlling blood sugar. In type 2 diabetes , the pancreas still makes insulin, but the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should and blood sugar levels get too high. Most kids and teens are overweight when they're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Being overweight or obese increases a person's risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Also, weight gain in people with type 2 diabetes makes blood sugar levels even harder to control. People with type 2 di Continue reading >>

Diabetes Information Symptoms, Causes And Prevention

Diabetes Information Symptoms, Causes And Prevention

The Risks of Treating Diabetes with Drugs Are FAR Worse than the Disease There is a staggering amount of misinformation on diabetes, a growing epidemic that afflicts more than 29 million people in the United States today. The sad truth is this: it could be your very OWN physician perpetuating this misinformation Most diabetics find themselves in a black hole of helplessness, clueless about how to reverse their condition. The bigger concern is that more than half of those with type 2 diabetes are NOT even aware they have diabetes and 90 percent of those who have a condition known as prediabetes arent aware of their circumstances, either. The latest diabetes statistics 1 echo an increase in diabetes cases, both diagnosed and undiagnosed. By some estimates, diabetes has increased more than 700 percent in the last 50 years! At least 29 million Americans are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and another 86 million are prediabetic . Whats hidden behind this medical smokescreen is that type 2 diabetes is completely preventable. The cure lies in a true understanding of the underlying cause (which is impaired insulin and leptin sensitivity) and implementing simple, inexpensive lifestyle adjustments that spell phenomenal benefits to your health. Also known as diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes is a chronic health condition traditionally characterized by elevated levels of glucose in your blood, often simply called high blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes dubbed juvenile onset diabetes is the relatively uncommon type, affecting only about 1 in 250 Americans. Occurring in individuals younger than age 20, it has no known cure. Whats most concerning about juvenile diabetes is that, these numbers have been going up steadily right along with type 2 diabetes: for non-Hispanic white youths ages Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: How To Lose Weight

Type 2 Diabetes: How To Lose Weight

Weight loss is a common recommendation for treatment for type 2 diabetes. Many people are overweight when they’re first diagnosed, and that extra fat actually increases their insulin resistance (when their bodies can’t properly use the hormone insulin). By losing weight, people with type 2 diabetes can become less insulin resistant, and they’re able to use insulin better. (To learn more about how the hormone insulin works, read our article on how insulin regulates blood glucose levels.) If you’ve recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and you're overweight, you should get started as soon as possible on a weight loss plan. It is important to work with a registered dietitian to help you figure out a plan that will work for you—a healthy meal plan, physical activity, and realistic goals will help you reach a healthy weight. There are many advantages to losing weight (and not just diabetes-related ones): Boost your energy level Lower your cholesterol levels (especially important for people with type 2 diabetes) Protect your heart (also important for people with diabetes, since heart-related complications are very common) Make it easier to control your blood glucose level As you may already know, losing weight can be a challenge, but don’t let that stop you. Do whatever you need to in order to stay motivated. It is the amount of calories we eat that contributes to weight gain. Make small changes. Learn portion sizes and reduce the amount of snacks in your day to reduce the total amount of calories you consume each day. Find cookbooks with healthier recipes using low-fat options. For a little fun, take our carb counting quiz to see how well you know the carb content of certain foods; this can help you make healthier choices. Work with a registered dietitian Continue reading >>

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