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How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect Lifestyle

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

Everyday Living With Diabetes Described By Family Members Of Adult People With Type 1 Diabetes

Everyday Living With Diabetes Described By Family Members Of Adult People With Type 1 Diabetes

International Journal of Family Medicine Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 967872, 8 pages School of Health Sciences, Nursing Science, University of Tampere, Kuntokatu 4, 33520 Tampere, Finland Academic Editor: Christos D. Lionis Copyright © 2013 Tuula-Maria Rintala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The aim of this study was to explore family members’ experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members’ views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members’ participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members’ point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases all over the world. The aim of diabetes management is good metabolic control and the preventio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

Type 1 diabetes tends to start when people are under 25, although it can be diagnosed later in life. With Type 1 diabetes (also called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin is the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide fuel. When glucose can't enter the cells, it builds up in the blood and the body's cells literally starve to death. Everyone with Type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood glucose levels. The cause of Type 1 diabetes is unknown but it is thought to be an autoimmune disease, where the body's immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Not all diabetes in children and teenagers is the kind called Type 1. Type 2 diabetes is being seen increasingly in young people. Where Type 1 diabetes always requires insulin, Type 2 can require insulin but often it can be treated with other medicines such as tablets. This section deals only with young people who have Type 1 diabetes. We have talked to a range of young people who've lived with Type 1 diabetes from those who were very young when they were first diagnosed to those who were diagnosed when they were teenagers. We have also talked to some young people only recently diagnosed. In this section young people talk about the signs and symptoms that prompted them to seek medical help. Signs of diabetes Most people remembered that the first symptoms of diabetes had crept up on them over weeks or even months- most had felt thirsty all the time and said that they started to drink more and more and found that they were unable to quench their thirst. Lots of people described realising something must be wrong wi Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 1 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin (figure 1). Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to absorb and use glucose and other nutrients from food, store fat, and build up protein. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal. Type 1 diabetes requires regular blood sugar monitoring and treatment with insulin. Treatment, lifestyle adjustments, and self-care can control blood sugar levels and minimize the risk of disease-related complications. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or young adulthood but can develop at any age. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all cases of diabetes. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are available: (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Insulin treatment (Beyond the Basics)".) (See "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) THE IMPACT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and it is common to have questions about why it developed, what it means for long-term health, and how it will affect everyday life. For most patients, the first few months after being diagnosed are filled with emotional highs and lows. You and your family can use this time to learn as much as possible so that diabetes-related care (eg, self-blood sugar testing, medical appointments, daily insulin) becomes a "normal" part of your routine. (See "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) In addition, you should talk with your doctor or nurse about re Continue reading >>

Life Expectancy For Type 1 Diabetes

Life Expectancy For Type 1 Diabetes

New study shows recent improvement in years of life lost. With minimal studies to evaluate the impact of type 1 diabetes on life expectancy, studies have been developed to retrospectively look at the effects of diabetes on mortality. Diabetes was also compared to other disease states and causes that had an influence on years of life lost (YLL). The YLL of patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with other disease states were compared to those of the general healthy population. This autoimmune disorder accounts for 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes, and the ability to prevent the development of type 1 diabetes is minimal. Causes have been linked to genetics, and viral infections such as mumps, rubella, cytomegalovirus, measles, influenza, encephalitis, polio, or Epstein-Barr virus. In a study conducted on Australians with type 1 diabetes between the years of 1997 and 2010, researchers looked at the estimated YLL of the type 1 diabetic patients compared to the general public. Researchers used the Chiang method to estimate life expectancy and Arriaga’s method to estimate the impact of age-specific and cause-specific mortalities. Results showed no disparity in terms of YLL from type 1 diabetes in women vs. men. When the YLL was organized into two groups, 1997-2003 and 2004-2010, the 2004-2010 groups showed improvement in life expectancies of 1.9 years in men and 1.5 years in women. Overall, over the time period of the study, patients with type 1 diabetes had a life expectancy of 12.2 years less than the general population. The majority of the YLL was attributed to endocrine and metabolic diseases that occurred between the ages of 10-39, and circulatory diseases that occurred after the age of 40. Medical advances over the years may account for the YLL improve Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?

Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes (Juvenile)? Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that usually starts in childhood, but can occur in adults (30 to 40-year-olds). In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces very little insulin. Insulin helps cells in the body convert sugar into energy. When the pancreas cannot make enough insulin, sugar starts to build up in the blood, causing life-threatening complications. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must take some form of insulin for the rest of their lives. Unusual Thirst Symptoms Unusual thirst is a very common symptom of type 1 diabetes. This condition causes the kidneys to remove excess sugar in the blood by getting rid of more water. The water is removed through urinating, causing dehydration and dehydration causes you to drink more water. Weight Loss Symptoms Patient with type 1 diabetes develop unintentional weight loss and an increase in appetite because blood sugar levels remain high and the body metabolizes fat for energy. Disrupted glucose metabolism also causes patient to feel a lack of energy and drowsy for extended periods Excess urination also cause weight loss because many calories are leaving the body in urine. Skin Problems Symptoms The disruption in glucose metabolism in patient with type 1 diabetes causes skin changes. Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk for bacterial infections and fungal infections. Poor blood circulation in the skin may also occur. Patient with type 1 diabetes are often infected with fungal infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Common fungal infections include athlete's foot, vaginal yeast infection in women, jock itch, ringworm, and diaper rashes in babies. Diaper rash caused by the yeast Candida albicans can spread to other areas of the body such as the stomach and legs. Other Dangero Continue reading >>

7 Tips To A Better Type 1 Sex Life

7 Tips To A Better Type 1 Sex Life

From talking to experts, we’ve gathered ideas for how to have more fun in the bedroom, without letting Type 1 diabetes get in the way. Too often, discussions of sex with Type 1 diabetes focus on all that can go wrong. While that discussion is important, it’s just as important to discuss ways to make sure everything goes right. Just as with almost everything with Type 1 diabetes, a healthy sex life requires dedication to staying healthy and, sometimes, a little advanced planning. From discussions with Type 1 diabetes sex experts, we’ve assembled 7 ideas that will improve your chances of a good time with your sexual partner: 1) Talk to your partner. Whether this is your spouse of 20 years or a newfound friend, talk to them about your Type 1 diabetes. For a new partner, you don’t have to feel obligated to give the whole story; a barebones explanation will do. For a longtime partner, keep them informed, as how Type 1 diabetes affects you can change over time. Don’t be afraid to freak out someone new. If they can’t handle it, they can’t handle you. Better to show them the door if they’re going to be that way about it. 2) Make a pump plan. If you use an insulin pump, decide the best place for it beforehand. Some people prefer to create a small piece of clothing that can hold the pump during sex, and they even have been incorporated into lingerie. If you have to make pump adjustments before the event, use it as a laughable excuse to trot out the “slip into something more comfortable” line. Others decide to detach their pumps. If that’s the case, you should develop a routine of where you put it in such situations, preferably away from where it might get knocked over during the festivities. 3) Always be prepared. No matter how much you know your Type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And Exercise

Type 1 Diabetes And Exercise

Exercise is an absolutely vital part of type 1 diabetes treatment. Staying fit and active throughout your life has many benefits, but the biggest one for people with diabetes is this: it helps you control diabetes and prevent long-term complications. Exercise makes it easier to control your blood glucose (blood sugar) level. Exercise benefits people with type 1 because it increases your insulin sensitivity. In other words, after exercise, your body doesn't need as much insulin to process carbohydrates. If your child has type 1 diabetes, making sure he or she gets enough exercise is not only a great way to help manage his or her diabetes but also instill healthy habits from an early age. To learn more about how to safely incorporate exercise into your child's routine, read our article about physical activity for children with type 1 diabetes. Exercise can also help people with type 1 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. As you can read about this in our article on type 1 diabetes complications, people with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis. Additionally, there are all the traditional benefits of exercise: Lower blood pressure Better control of weight Leaner, stronger muscles Stronger bones More energy One person who certainly understands the benefits of exercise in managing type 1 diabetes is Jay Cutler, quarterback for the Chicago Bears. He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2008, but the disease hasn't interfered with his football career. To learn more, read our article about Jay Cutler's experience with type 1 diabete Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What is type 1 diabetes? It's a disease in which the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that controls the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and adolescents and is a lifelong (chronic) disease. In type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin to let glucose get into the cells, so sugar builds up in the bloodstream where it can cause life-threatening complications. Diabetes lowers the body's ability to fight infection and slows healing. People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections every day. In type 2 diabetes, the body may not be producing enough insulin or the insulin is not working adequately (insulin resistance). The pancreas initially makes extra insulin to compensate, but with time fails to produce enough to regulate blood glucose levels. This type of diabetes usually develops in adulthood and is more common. According to the American Diabetes Association, only 5 percent of people with diabetes have the type 1 form of the disease. People who suffer from diabetes are at high risk for tooth decay and other oral health problems. Symptoms Exhibited by Children with Diabetes According to JDRF, children with diabetes may exhibit the following symptoms: Thirst. Fatigue. Weight loss. Frequent urination. Vision changes. Fruity, sweet-smelling breath. Good blood sugar control requires a balance of food, exercise and medication. A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D helps to ensure strong bones and teeth. Proper blood sugar control is key to controlling and preventing oral health problems. Diabetes can contribute to bacteria growth in the mouth, plaque buildup and gum disease while also weakening the body's ability to fight back. Other Oral Complications According to the American Dental Associati Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects Your Sex Life

How Diabetes Affects Your Sex Life

It's easy to pin a lagging libido on stress, depression, age, or lack of sleep. But if your sexual feelings have changed or if intercourse has become uncomfortable or nearly impossible, either as a result of chronically high blood glucose levels (an occasional high level will not cause long-term problems) or nerve problems, diabetes could be the cause. Experts estimate that 75 percent of men and 35 percent of women with diabetes experience some sexual problems due to diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) to the nerves that stimulate normal sexual response. The good news: Research has shown that people can lower their risk for diabetes-related sexual problems by taking steps to control their diabetes, including: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), a 10-year National Institutes of Health study of individuals with type 1 diabetes, found that improved diabetes control decreased the risk of developing neuropathy by 60 percent. This means the steps you can take to manage your diabetes are the same keys that open the doors to a healthy sexual relationship. What Women Should Know About Sex and Diabetes Women with diabetes may find it difficult to stimulate lubrication, experience orgasm, or even feel sexual desire due to nerve damage. These steps can reduce sexual complications and increase pleasure. Get rid of dryness: For persistent vaginal dryness, purchase a water-base vaginal lubricant over the counter from any pharmacy. You might also work on relaxing the muscles around the vagina with Kegel exercises: contracting your pelvic muscles to control the flow of urine. Lose weight: Being overweight can contribute to low self-esteem and loss of libido. A recent Duke University study found that shedding weight (17.5 percent of body weight) helped obese men and women Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus — IDDM — or juvenile diabetes) occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin because the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by the immune system. Without insulin, sugar is not able to move into the cells. Sugar therefore remains in the blood, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 is the most common type of diabetes found in children and young adults. It is now believed that diabetes develops gradually, over many months or even years. The immune system destroys more and more insulin-producing (beta) cells in the pancreas over time, until the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is made. Who gets type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is seen most often in children and young adults, although the disease can occur at any age. People with Type 1 disease are often thin to normal weight and often lose weight prior to diagnosis. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes: Any combination of the following factors may put people at a higher risk for type 1 diabetes: Self-allergy (autoimmunity): The immune system usually protects us from disease, but in the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system turns against the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin (beta cells). If you have any type of autoimmune disease, your risk of developing diabetes increases. Doctors can test for diabetes antibodies, specifically one called GAD65. Measuring this antibody early in the disease can help your medical team determine if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Genes: People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have inherited genes putting them at risk. Over 50% of those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes also have a close relative with Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Finally Explained

Type 1 Diabetes Finally Explained

Let me say this with no exaggeration. My whole life, all day, all night, every day and each night is about keeping my blood sugar between the red and yellow lines. Whether I’m wearing, or not wearing, my continuous glucose monitor (CGM), screen pictured below. (The little white dots between the red and yellow lines are my blood sugar levels every five minutes. The 99 mg/dl (5.4 mmol/l) was my blood sugar level the moment I took this photo. The larger white dots are glare from the camera.) I just explained this “staying between the lines” to my mother, now being able to visibly show her on my monitor what I’ve long tried to tell her: Type 1 diabetes is a tightrope walk — all day and all night taking action to anticipate, prevent and recover from my blood sugar going too high and too low. My life is, and will forever be, staying between the lines. I got diabetes in February 1972 when I was 18 years old. I’m now 60. I’ve had diabetes more than four decades, more than two-thirds of my life. I have no memory of what life was like before “staying between the lines.” Type 1 diabetes is the other diabetes. The one you don’t hear about on TV commercials — that’s Type 2 diabetes. People with Type 2 diabetes produce insulin but not enough or their body doesn’t use it effectively. While people with Type 2 diabetes also must keep their blood sugar between the lines, it doesn’t require as intense effort. Even for those who take insulin, certain hormones they have that Type 1s lack, help to regulate their after meal blood sugars from rising too high and offset severe low blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. Your body destroys your pancreas’ insulin-producing (beta) cells. You no longer produce insulin, or at most a trace amount. It’s Continue reading >>

Getting Life Insurance When You Have Type 1 Diabetes

Getting Life Insurance When You Have Type 1 Diabetes

We’ve already covered the prospect of getting life insurance with diabetes as a general topic. But today we’re going to discuss the more specific topic of getting life insurance when you have Type 1 diabetes. From a life insurance perspective, type 1 diabetes is considered to carry a higher risk than type II diabetes. This is because Type 1 diabetes usually comes much earlier in life, and represents a more problematic condition. Proper management of the condition by the person who has it is critical in living with it. And insurance company will want to see that the person is doing just that. What is Type 1 Diabetes and How is it Different from Type 2? According to the American Diabetes Association, there were 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the population, who had diabetes in 2012. This is up from 25.8 million cases in 2010. An estimated 8.1 million of the 2012 cases are undiagnosed. Further, it is also estimated that 81 million Americans are pre-diabetic. Only about 5% of total diabetes cases are Type 1, the rest are Type 2. Once known as juvenile diabetes, Type 1 diabetes is found in children and young adults. With Type 1 diabetes, the body, or more specifically the pancreas, does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. The causes of Type 1 diabetes are unknown, and no preventative therapy is known to exist. It requires daily insulin injections in order to maintain a proper level. With Type 2 diabetes the body become insulin resistant, and is primarily caused by a combination of lifestyle factors and genetics. Lifestyle causes include physical inactivity, obesity, stress, and excess consumption of sugar, saturated fat and white rice. Controlling Type 1 Diabetes Managin Continue reading >>

One Day In The Life Of Type 1 Diabetes

One Day In The Life Of Type 1 Diabetes

DAY 4161 Living with Diabetes As I sit up in bed, my head spins. It’s 7 a.m. I’m shaking, sweating and scared. It’s only then I realize that I missed dinner last night. I know that my blood sugar is dangerously low. I also know that apart from my 13-year-old sister, I’m home alone. Out of the corner of my eye, I see a muesli bar sticking out of my handbag. I try to get out of bed and reach for it, in an attempt to bring my blood-sugar up. That’s the last thing I can remember. My name is Shelby. I’m your average 21-year-old, aside from the fact that I have had Type 1 diabetes since I was 9. One morning in January of 2014, my blood sugar dropped so low that I had a seizure and knocked myself unconscious after hitting the back of my head on my bed frame. It was the first time that an ambulance had ever been called for me. Apart from this instance, I have had several serious hypoglycemic episodes — I’ve had a seizure whilst on camp visiting a crocodile farm, I’ve smashed drinking glasses in my hands in an attempt to fix my blood sugar and I’ve buttered my hands whilst trying to make myself a sandwich. If you haven’t already guessed it, I’m extremely stubborn and independent. I don’t like asking for help; however, it’s because of my diabetes that I have had to learn how to ask for such. Diabetes is debilitating. Diabetes is devastating. Diabetes is draining. We’re allowed to have good days and bad days; just like everyone else. We just need to be prepared. Even on our bad days, we are still diabetics. We still have to stop and test our blood sugars and give insulin. We have highs (fun fact: we don’t understand how odd it sounds to others when we’re in public and say, “I think I’m high”) and then we also have lows (literally). Our blood Continue reading >>

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