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How Does The Environment Affect Diabetes

The Emerging Links Between Diabetes And Chemicals In The Environment

The Emerging Links Between Diabetes And Chemicals In The Environment

When Rob Sargis, an endocrinologist at the University of Chicago, talks about his research on metabolism, obesity, and diabetes, he makes it clear what he’s really trying to understand. “Diabetes is the thing that matters. That’s what causes the amputations, the kidney failure, the blindness and the heart attacks,” he said. “Whether obesity is a part of that or not isn’t as important.” Obesity is the popular explanation for the global epidemic of diabetes. Modern humans simply eat too much and don’t exercise enough, which leads to being overweight, becoming insulin resistant and eventually developing full-blown diabetes. But the explanation of physical inactivity plus poor diet alone doesn’t account for the sheer scale and speed of the epidemic. In 2014, the International Diabetes Federation estimated that 387 million people had diabetes, and by 2035 that number will rise to 592 million—the vast majority of those type 2. Obesity also doesn’t account for the alarming increase in type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune condition that has nothing to do with body weight. A 2012 American Diabetes Association report showed a 23 percent rise in type 1 diabetes in American children from 2001 to 2009. No one doubts that unhealthy lifestyles play a huge role in the diabetes epidemic, but Sargis’ work is part of a growing field of research into another factor, that exposure to chemicals in the environment disrupts the endocrine system in ways that can lead to diabetes and other metabolic diseases. The idea that chemicals in the environment could affect human health entered into the public imagination in the 1960s, after Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring exposed the dangers of pesticides like DDT. Exposure to pesticides or industrial toxic waste is usually associated w Continue reading >>

How Environment Affects Diabetes | Diabetes

How Environment Affects Diabetes | Diabetes

Continual inhalation of polluted air is majorly responsible for uncontrolled weight gain Inhaling polluted air is also associated with enhanced insulin resistance If you dont smoke, you should avoid secondary smoke as well Diabetes is primarily of 3 types: type 1 diabetes , which is genetic, type 2 diabetes , which stems from insulin resistance and type 3 diabetes or gestational diabetes that occurs in pregnant women. Apart from the fact that diabetes results from high blood sugar levels, it is also known for its associated repercussions on cardiovascular conditions and kidney health that are potentially serious. Apart from managing diabetes with medications, it is also important to understand how environment affects diabetes to counter the ill effects. Continual inhalation of polluted air is majorly responsible for uncontrolled weight gain. Considering that most metropolitan cities are high on pollution levels, urban dwellers are more at risk. Increased weight affects diabetics adversely. Inhaling polluted air is also associated with enhanced insulin resistance. Furthermore, high pollution levels can aggravate cardiovascular problems in diabetics. Hence, they may not be able to control their blood sugar levels effectively thereby, amounting to complication. If you live in an environment thats full of secondary smoke, exposure to it can aggravate your diabetic condition because primary and secondary smoke worsens insulin resistance. Besides, inhaling smoke causes inflammation in the lining of the arteries resulting in cardiovascular complications, which can make the diabetic condition even worse. Therefore, if you smoke, you must quit at the earliest to preserve good health. If you dont smoke, you need to avoid secondary smoke as well. Stress, which is primarily a reac Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Linked To Environmental Pollution?

Is Diabetes Linked To Environmental Pollution?

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Is Diabetes Linked To Environmental Pollution? Scientists are advocating additional research into the little understood links between environmental pollution and type 2 diabetes. Some recent research has demonstrated a very strong relationship between the levels of POPs in blood, particularly organochlorine compounds, and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Cambridge scientists are advocating additional research into the little understood links between environmental pollution and type 2 diabetes. In the journal The Lancet, Drs. Oliver Jones and Julian Griffin highlight the need to research the possible link between persistent organic pollutants (POPs, a group which includes many pesticides) and insulin resistance, which can lead to adult onset diabetes. In their commentary, Dr Jones and Dr. Griffin cite peer reviewed research including that of Dr D Lee, et al, which demonstrated a very strong relationship between the levels of POPs in blood, particularly organochlorine compounds, and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Of course correlation does not automatically imply causation, says Dr. Jones. But if there is indeed a link, the health implications could be tremendous. At present there is very limited information. Research into adult onset diabetes currently focuses on genetics and obesity; there has been almost no consideration for the possible influence of environmental factors such as pollution. Interestingly, in the Lee study an association between obesity and diabetes was absent in people with low concentrations of POPs in their blood. In other words, individuals were more at risk of diabetes if they were thin with high levels of POPs in their blood than if they were overweight but with low levels of Continue reading >>

Early Life Factors And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Early Life Factors And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 1Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Ziqiang Road 139, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China 2Department of Physiology, Hebei Medical University, Zhongshan Road 361, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, China 3Department of Endocrinology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Ziqiang Road 139, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China 4Orthopaedic Biomechanical Laboratory of Hebei Province, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Ziqiang Road 139, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, China Received 7 October 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013 Copyright 2013 Xinli Jiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased Continue reading >>

An Exploration Of The Hygiene And Overload Hypotheses

An Exploration Of The Hygiene And Overload Hypotheses

Objective To assess the relationship between selected maternal and infant characteristics and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus, specifically characteristics identified from birth records that may pertain to the hygiene or overload hypotheses. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Washington State from 1987 to 2005. Participants All children younger than 19 years hospitalized for type 1 diabetes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 250.x1 and 250.x3) identified (n = 1852) from hospital discharge data and linked with their birth certificates. Controls (n = 7408) were randomly selected from birth records, frequency matched on year of birth. Main Exposures Maternal factors included age, race, educational attainment, marital status, use of Medicaid insurance, body mass index, prepregnancy weight, prior births, timing and adequacy of prenatal care, and cesarean delivery. Infant factors included birth weight, size for gestational age, and gestational age. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome was first hospitalization for type 1 diabetes mellitus; adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association of selected maternal and infant characteristics with type 1 diabetes. Results Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, type 1 diabetes was negatively associated with having older siblings (for ≥3 siblings, odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.70) and with indicators of lower economic status or care access, such as an unmarried mother (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91), inadequate prenatal care (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40-0.71), or Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.77). Related to the overload hypothesis, maternal body mass index of 30 or higher (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.64) was associated with increased risk of d Continue reading >>

Are There Environmental Causes For Type 1?

Are There Environmental Causes For Type 1?

A T1D activist and researcher dives into the available research for clues. Sarah Howard is the national coordinator for the Diabetes-Obesity Working Group of the Collaborative on Health and the Environment. A mom with Type 1 with a child with Type 1, she has dedicated herself to scouring research to study possible environmental factors in rising rates of Type 1 diabetes. With a master’s degree in environmental policy and education from the the University of Michigan’s School of Natural Resources and Environment, she has had eight articles and letters published in peer-reviewed science journals. Sarah shared some of her findings with Insulin Nation. Is Type 1 diabetes all in the genes? No, but genetics do play a role. The incidence of Type 1 diabetes has been increasing in children living in industrialized countries worldwide since the 1950s, on the order of 3% per year. That sort of increase cannot be explained by genetics alone. Certain genes, generally those linked to the immune system, are linked to Type 1 risk, and they can provide a protective effect or increase the risk. Anyone can develop this disease, even with low-risk genes—and not everyone with high-risk genes will develop the disease. What is the role of the environment? Type 1 researchers generally agree that the increasing incidence in Type 1 diabetes must be due to environmental factors. What those factors are, however, remains an area of active debate and research. Some of the top contenders include: viruses (either too many or too few), vitamin D deficiency, the gut microbiota, diet/nutrition (including cow’s milk or gluten), being overweight or obese, and environmental chemicals. It very well could be a combination of factors to blame, with different factors playing different roles in each pers Continue reading >>

Environmental/lifestyle Factors In The Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

Environmental/lifestyle Factors In The Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status. In general, these factors promote an increase in body mass index. Since loss of β-cell function is the ultimate cause of developing overt type 2 diabetes, environmental and lifestyle changes must have resulted in a higher risk of β-cell damage in those at genetic risk. Multiple mechanistic pathways may come into play. Strategies of diabetes prevention should aim at promoting a ‘diabetes-protective lifestyle’ whilst simultaneously enhancing the resistance of the human organism to pro-diabetic environmental and lifestyle factors. More research on diabetes-protective mechanisms seems warranted. Background Over the past decades, there has been a major increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in most regions of the world [1]. After adjusting for the impact of ageing populations, diabetes prevalence in adults (85–95% T2D) almost doubled between 1980 and 2014 worldwide. Increases were more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries and in men compared to women [1]. Recognition of the environmental and lifestyle factors responsible for these changes in theory may lead to the development of strategies to decrease the number of new cases to reach those of 20–40 years earlier. This review presents the current state Continue reading >>

Can Living In A Noisy Environment Increase Your Risk Of Diabetes? | Everyday Health

Can Living In A Noisy Environment Increase Your Risk Of Diabetes? | Everyday Health

For example, an observational study presented in June 2017 at the 12th ICBEN Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem linked repeated exposure to varying degrees of noise from airplanes, trains, and road traffic in Switzerland to a greater risk of developing diabetes . Another observational study, published in August 2015 in Occupational and Environmental Medicine ,found that people in Sweden who lived in places with louder road traffic noise were 18 percent more likely to have central obesity or fat around their waistlines which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes . The same study drew a link between noise from a combination of road traffic, trains, and airplanes and a nearly doubled risk for central obesity. The Link Between Traffic Noise and Diabetes When someone is under stress from any source, elevated hormones can increase the risk of insulin resistance , the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Stress can also cause sleep disturbances, which may increase the risk for diabetes, according to the National Sleep Foundation . Anytime the body is under a stress response , blood sugars will probably elevate due to elevated cortisol levels, says Ruth S. Pupo, RDN, a certified diabetes educator at White Memorial Medical Center in Los Angeles. Traffic noise may also affect people who already have type 2 diabetes. Emotional stress and physical stress can raise epinephrine and cortisol, and that can cause hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes, says Susan E. Spratt, MD , an endocrinologist at Duke Health in Durham, North Carolina. Because of the limitations of research thus far, at least for now experts agree that traffic noise and diabetes only have an association, not a proven cause-and-effect relationship. In the future, research that analyzes broader geographic areas and Continue reading >>

Environmental Triggers And Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Environmental Triggers And Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is perceived as a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically susceptible subjects. A series of evidence supports a critical role of exogenous factors in the development of type 1 diabetes, such as 1) the fact that <10% of individuals with HLA-conferred diabetes susceptibility do progress to clinical disease, 2) a pairwise concordance of type 1 diabetes of <40% among monozygotic twins, 3) a more than 10-fold difference in the disease incidence among Caucasians living in Europe, 4) a several-fold increase in the incidence over the last 50 years, and 5) migration studies indicating that the disease incidence has increased in population groups who have moved from a low-incidence to a high-incidence region. This article discusses the trigger-booster hypothesis claiming that the diabetic disease process is triggered by an exogenous factor with definite seasonal variation and driven by one or several other environmental determinants. In addition, there are a series of modifying factors affecting the fate and pace of the process. Accordingly, progression to clinical type 1 diabetes typically requires the unfortunate combination of genetic disease susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, and a high exposure to a driving antigen. Clinical type 1 diabetes represents end-stage insulitis, and it has been estimated that at the time of diagnosis, only 10–20% of the insulin-producing β-cells are still functioning. Environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes both as triggers and potentiators of β-cell destruction (1–3), although the contribution of any individual exogenous factor has not yet been definit Continue reading >>

Diabetes Risk Factors

Diabetes Risk Factors

Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar for energy. The three types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in childhood, although it can occur in adults also. Type 1 diabetes affects the body’s ability to produce insulin. This hormone is vital to helping the body utilize blood sugar. Without enough insulin, the extra blood sugar can damage the body. According to the American Diabetes Association, 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition that affects a body’s ability to use insulin properly. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes make some insulin. However, they can’t make enough to keep up with rising blood sugar levels. Doctors associate type 2 diabetes with lifestyle-related factors like obesity. Gestational diabetes is a condition that causes women to have very high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This condition is typically temporary. Having risk factors does not mean that someone will get diabetes. Doctors don’t know the exact cause of type 1 diabetes. Family history of type 1 diabetes is considered a risk factor. According to the American Diabetes Association, the child of a man with type 1 diabetes has a 1 in 17 chance of developing type 1 diabetes. If a woman has type 1 diabetes, her child has a 1 in 25 chance if the child was born when the woman was younger than 25. Women with type 1 diabetes who give birth at age 25 or older have a 1 in 100 chance of having a child with type 1 diabetes. Having a parent with type 2 diabetes also increases diabetes risk. Because diabetes is often related to lifestyle choices, parents may pass on poor health habits to their children. This increases their risk Continue reading >>

How Many Factors Actually Affect Blood Glucose?

How Many Factors Actually Affect Blood Glucose?

A printable, colorful PDF version of this article can be found here. twitter summary: Adam identifies at least 22 things that affect blood glucose, including food, medication, activity, biological, & environmental factors. short summary: As patients, we tend to blame ourselves for out of range blood sugars – after all, the equation to “good diabetes management” is supposedly simple (eating, exercise, medication). But have you ever done everything right and still had a glucose that was too high or too low? In this article, I look into the wide variety of things that can actually affect blood glucose - at least 22! – including food, medication, activity, and both biological and environmental factors. The bottom line is that diabetes is very complicated, and for even the most educated and diligent patients, it’s nearly impossible to keep track of everything that affects blood glucose. So when you see an out-of-range glucose value, don’t judge yourself – use it as information to make better decisions. As a patient, I always fall into the trap of thinking I’m at fault for out of range blood sugars. By taking my medication, monitoring my blood glucose, watching what I eat, and exercising, I would like to have perfect in-range values all the time. But after 13 years of type 1 diabetes, I’ve learned it’s just not that simple. There are all kinds of factors that affect blood glucose, many of which are impossible to control, remember, or even account for. Based on personal experience, conversations with experts, and scientific research, here’s a non-exhaustive list of 22 factors that can affect blood glucose. They are separated into five areas – Food, Medication, Activity, Biological factors, and Environmental factors. I’ve provided arrows to show the ge Continue reading >>

Five Environmental Causes Of Diabetes

Five Environmental Causes Of Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is usually blamed on people’s genes or their behavior, not on the environment. But diabetes rates are soaring worldwide. Genes could not change that fast. Here are five ways environmental changes are causing diabetes. This information is updated from my book Diabetes: Sugar-Coated Crisis, published in 2007. Since then, things have changed, mostly for the worse. Hopefully, knowing how the environment makes people sick will help you protect yourself against it. Unhealthful food. People were not made to eat large quantities of refined carbohydrates — the “white things,” such as sweets, breads, pastas, etc. These foods don’t occur in nature and do not trigger normal digestion and absorption. Refined carbohydrates. Carbs that have had their bran and germ layers — which contain most of the fiber and nutrients — removed are widely available, cheap, taste good, and may well be addictive. They raise your serotonin and dopamine levels, making you feel good for a short while. Then your blood glucose drops and you feel miserable again, and you need another fix. Barriers to physical activity. People used to move their bodies in the course of work, food gathering, transportation, and recreation. Most of this is now done by machines, so you have to consciously seek physical activity. This is much harder when you have too many other demands, not enough support, and mixed motivation. (“Life is hard enough already without having to exercise.”) Stress. Stress is the body’s response to a threat, often called the “fight-or-flight” response. Stress hormones, particularly cortisol, raise blood glucose levels and blood pressure. They do this so muscles involved in fight or flight will have enough fuel. Under stress, only the cells actually being used to Continue reading >>

Causes Of Diabetes

Causes Of Diabetes

Tweet Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. There is no common diabetes cause that fits every type of diabetes. The reason there is no defined diabetes cause is because the causes of diabetes vary depending on the individual and the type. For instance; the causes of type 1 diabetes vary considerably from the causes of gestational diabetes. Similarly, the causes of type 2 diabetes are distinct from the causes of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself. There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved: Viral or bacterial infection Chemical toxins within food Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause. Type 2 diabetes causes Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial - more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause. There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition. These include: Living a sedentary lifestyle Increasing age Bad diet Other type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors. Gestational diabetes causes The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of deve Continue reading >>

How Genes And Environment Conspire To Trigger Diabetes

How Genes And Environment Conspire To Trigger Diabetes

MORE Diabetes appears to be a disease written deeply in human genes, a feature millions of years old, which can emerge yet also retreat through the influence of environmental forces such as diet, a new study suggests. Researchers looked at how obesity, in particular, can trigger the onset of Type 2 diabetes in both mice and humans by manipulating how genes are expressed. They found that obesity, in effect, can change the chemical tags associated with DNA, called the epigenome. These epigenetic changes modify how genes behave and can alter the production of proteins necessary for proper metabolism and secretion of insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. The good news is that diseases brought on by such epigenetic changes can be reversed, the scientists at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore said in their study, published Jan. 6 in the journal Cell Metabolism. The study may help explain why Type 2 diabetes, a disease that was hardly seen a few generations ago, now affects more than 300 million adults worldwide, with some populations far more affected than others — a conspiracy of both genetic and epigenetic factors. [8 Reasons Our Waistlines Are Expanding] In people with Type 2 diabetes, the body has lost either the ability to produce enough insulin, or the ability to respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is the hormone that triggers the body's cells to take up sugar from the bloodstream, so in people with Type 2 diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood rises too high. It is well established that people who are obese are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, so the Hopkins scientists first studied obese mice to understand how obesity is related to the disease. The mice in the study were clones — all had identical genetics. The r Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes. Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2. Researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, but it’s difficult to pinpoint which genes carry the risk. The medical community is hard at work trying to figure out the certain genetic mutations that lead to a risk of type 2. Lifestyle Is Very Important, Too Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes. Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight (BMI greater than 25) and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin. Lack of exercise: Physical activity has many benefits—one of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if you’re susceptible. Unhealthy meal planning choices: A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber (which you can get from grains, vegetables, and fruits) increases the likelihood of type 2. Overweight/Obesity: Lack of exercise and unhealthy me Continue reading >>

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