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How Does Gut Microbe Affect Diabetes

How The Microbiome Diet Can Help Type 2 Diabetes

How The Microbiome Diet Can Help Type 2 Diabetes

A study published in Nature, from researchers at the University of Copenhagen, suggests that a gut bacteria imbalance may raise the risk of developing insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the metabolic process involved in the development of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Raphael Kellman, MD, author of The Microbiome Diet and Founder of The Kellman Center for Integrative and Functional Medicine is a microbiome expert. In light of this study, we ask him questions about how we can pay attention to our microbiome in order to reap the benefits of a healthy gut. These benefits include better blood sugar levels, more energy, weight loss, and a better mood. DD: What is the microbiome and why is having a balanced one important for preventing diseases? The microbiome is made up of trillions of microscopic organisms, the majority of which flourish in the gastrointestinal track playing a huge role in the health and function of the entire body. Similar to an Intel processor in a computer, the microbiome is our internal software that unifies all the systems of our bodies to make us the super-organisms that we are. These ideas about tapping into healing the microbiome are only now beginning to permeate the conventional medical world. The microbiome is the key to healing diseases and an essential part to healthy weight loss. The microbiome affects everything from our metabolism to our immune system and has been revolutionary in helping to manage developmental illness, mood disorders, chronic illness, endocrinology conditions and the list goes on and on. The microbiome is also the key to preventing and even reversing such major illnesses as diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disorders, and autism and other developmental d Continue reading >>

How Intestinal Bacteria Can Affect Your Blood Sugar And Lipid Levels

How Intestinal Bacteria Can Affect Your Blood Sugar And Lipid Levels

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! How intestinal bacteria can affect your blood sugar and lipid levels Intestinal bacteria have attracted recent attention since they were discovered to influence various physiological functions and diseases in humans. Researchers analyzing the influence of changes in intestinal bacteria on sugar and lipid metabolism have found that secondary bile acids produced by intestinal bacteria can influence blood glucose and lipid concentrations as well as parts of their molecular mechanisms. Comparison of sugar and lipid concentration fluctuations in blood in a dysbiosis mouse model and non-antibiotic administered mice. Both sugar and lipid concentrations decreased in mice that received antibiotics only. Comparison of sugar and lipid concentration fluctuations in blood in a dysbiosis mouse model and non-antibiotic administered mice. Both sugar and lipid concentrations decreased in mice that received antibiotics only. Intestinal bacteria have attracted recent attention since they were discovered to influence various physiological functions and diseases in humans. Researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan analyzing the influence of changes in intestinal bacteria on sugar and lipid metabolism have found that secondary bile acids produced by the bacteria can influence blood glucose and lipid concentrations as well as parts of their molecular mechanisms. This result is expected to lead to the treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and dyslipidemia by targeting intestinal bacteria that produce secondary bile acid. More than 100 trillion bacteria from an estimated 1,000 different species inhabit our intestines. It has been reported that the profiles of intestinal bacteria in obese and non-obese Continue reading >>

Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

Microbiota Associated With Type 2 Diabetes And Its Related Complications

1. Introduction The rapid increase of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past decades has made it a widespread metabolic disorder. In recent years, an increasing understanding of how our microflora is linked to obesity-related T2DM has provided a new potential target for reducing the risk of T2DM. The human body reservoir harbors trillions of bacteria and the genetic content of the gut microbiome is 150 times more than that of other parts of the human body [1]. However, the host–microbe interactions have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this review is to expand our view on key roles of microflora during the onset and development of T2DM as well as its complications. 1.1. Gut microbiota in the pathogensis of type 2 diabetes It is well established that the gut microbiota is involved in the process of energy harvest accounting for the development of obesity [2]. Some researches support the view that the gut microbiota is essential for the host immunity development [3]. As one of the most concerned obesity-related disorders, T2DM is associated with abnormal energy metabolism and low-level chronic inflammation in fat tissues [4,5]. Some hypotheses have proposed its relation with the presence of gut microbiota. Principally, the gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression of prediabetes conditions, such as insulin resistance. Growing evidence in clinical studies suggested that obese people with insulin resistance were characterized by an altered composition of gut microbiota, particularly an elevated Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio compared with healthy people [6,7]. Furthermore, transplantation of the obese gut microbiota in animals greatly affected the energy harvest of hosts [7]. Consequently, it is proposed that altered microbiota in obesit Continue reading >>

The Truth About Diabetes: The Relationship Between Gut Health And Disease

The Truth About Diabetes: The Relationship Between Gut Health And Disease

Over the past several years, research into diabetes has found a link between diabetes, intestinal permeability, and gut bacteria. (1) It turns out that the microflora in your digestive tract may play a role in the development of diabetes. Healthy gut bacteria can nurture the lining of your digestive tract, while harmful bacteria can cause inflammation to spread throughout your whole body - leaving you at risk for serious conditions like diabetes. In a 2012 study, a team of researchers induced poor gut function in mice by giving them a drug we use in Western medicine called Tamoxifen. The Tamoxifen was able to completely disrupt the inner ecology of the mice. (2) Scientists discovered a strong similarity between the intestinal linings of the mice fed Tamoxifen and those with diabetes. Both groups showed improvement when given insulin. According to the group of scientists, this means that there is a noteworthy relationship between gut bacteria, gut mucosa, and diabetes. Other previous studies have found that certain external stressors have a similar effect. (3)(4) External stressors that influence microbial residents and have been linked to diabetes are things like: Antibiotic use Environmental toxins Common prescription medications While scientists are still piecing together the puzzle, so far what they do know is that external stressors can do enough damage to the lining of the gut to change its microbial residents. These changes not only effect digestion, but they can also have a systemic, or whole-body, effect. Our Inner Ecology: Just How Important Is It? Interest in the bacteria that we harbor in and on our bodies has been growing, especially since 2008 when the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was launched. This initiative supports a full-scale investigation into cate Continue reading >>

For Diabetics, A High-fiber Diet Feeds Gut Microbes, Lowering Blood Sugar

For Diabetics, A High-fiber Diet Feeds Gut Microbes, Lowering Blood Sugar

For diabetics, a high-fiber diet feeds gut microbes, lowering blood sugar lenty of fiber: Thats long been the recommendation for a healthy diet. But why? The main rationale has been that fiber is made up of undigestible bulk that prevents people from eating unhealthy food and helps keep the digestive tract regular. But new research suggests that dietary fibers actually play a critical role in feeding the trillions of microbes that reside in our bodies, known collectively as the microbiome . And that specifically for people with type 2 diabetes, a high-fiber diet along with a favorable gut microbiome can keep patients blood sugar and body weight under control. Researchers in China were able to pinpoint the specific good bacteria that ferment fiber into acids, andultimately improves insulin regulation. These bugs, according to lead investigator Liping Zhao, chair of applied microbiology at Rutgers University, create an acidic microenvironment in the gut that helps beneficial, blood-sugar-lowering bacteria proliferate and might even keep pathogens at bay. Access to exclusive, in-depth pharma, biotech, business and policy coverage. Join now. The study really gets at the mechanistic reasons of why these fiber-rich, plant-based diets may be helpful, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes, said Dr. Clare Lee, an endocrinologist at Johns Hopkins University who also studies the link between diabetes and the microbiome. She was not involved in the study. Its an exciting step towards understanding potential mechanisms that can help us prevent and treat diabetes, she said. Fiber, of course, has long been shown to improve blood sugar, and diabetics are encouraged to eat plenty of it. But the benefits of fiber may be much more complex than scientists previously understood. Leaf Continue reading >>

Obesity, Diabetes, And Gut Microbiota

Obesity, Diabetes, And Gut Microbiota

2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. Corresponding author: Giovanni Musso, [email protected]_innavoig . Received 2010 Mar 23; Accepted 2010 Jul 1. Copyright 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in adipose tissue and liver, modulation of gut peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, activation of the lipopolysaccharide toll-like receptor-4 axis, and modulation of intestinal barrier integrity by GLP-2. Instrumental for gut microbiota manipulation is the understanding of mechanisms regulating gut microbiota composition. Several factors shape the gut microflora during infancy: mode of delivery, type of infant feeding, hospitalization, and prematurity. Furthermore, the key importance of antibiotic use and dietary nutrient composition are increasingly recognized. The role of the Western diet in promoting an obesogenic gut microbiota is being confirmation in subjects. Following encouraging results in animals, several short-term randomized controlled trials showed the benefit of prebiotics and probiotics on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory markers, postprandial incretins, and glucose tolerance. Future Continue reading >>

Is An Imbalance Of Gut Bacteria Really Linked To Diabetes?

Is An Imbalance Of Gut Bacteria Really Linked To Diabetes?

A new study suggests that a gut bacteria imbalance is one of the factors behind insulin resistance which can lead to type 2 diabetes. Researchers investigated the possibility that harmful bacteria, taking over areas in the gut may be linked to metabolic syndrome in humans. The intestinal epithelium is the layer of cells that create the lining of the colon and gastrointestinal tract. In studies, people with intestinal bowel disease (IBD) are found to have gut bacteria that is close or touching the epithelium which in control subjects isn’t observed, explain the study authors. In a healthy tissue lining this “dense inner layer of mucus rarely exhibits bacteria.” In studying mice, the study authors wrote in their abstract that this bad bacteria is encroaching into what should be an “almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis.” This growing imbalance in gut bacteria has also been seen in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, “which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation.” Is an Imbalance of Gut Bacteria Tied to Insulin Resistance? The researchers used confocal microscopy to measure bacterial-epithelial distance of the nearest bacteria per high-powered field in colonic biopsies of subjects who were willing and at the time going through a cancer colonoscopy screening. They found that in all the participants they studied, “bacterial-epithelial distance was inversely correlated with body mass index, fasting glucose levels, and hemoglobin A1C.” They did note that this link was present in test subjects who had diabetes or insulin resistance, regardless of their body mass index (BMI). When they tested only obese and non-obese people with no blood sugar issues like insulin resistance or d Continue reading >>

Future Blood Sugar Solution: Harness Your Gut Bacteria

Future Blood Sugar Solution: Harness Your Gut Bacteria

Shhh…you’re not alone. One hundred trillion bacteria are feasting, reproducing and releasing their waste in your digestive system right now.1 Many provide health benefits in exchange for room and board, but a growing stack of research suggests that disturbances of your microbiome may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Now, Belgian experts say future treatments to prevent or control diabetes will harness this roiling, microscopic world.2 It’s a hot topic. Plenty of research is underway looking at the effects of foods, supplements, drugs and even “fecal transfers” on the 1,000-plus types of bacteria in the human gut, according to a recent review in the journal Diabetologia. The authors, long-time microbiome investigators from the Université catholique de Louvain in Brussels, say gut bugs are “promising targets” for the future management of blood sugar. But, they add, we’ll have to wait. It’s too soon to recommend specific pills, special diet plans or treatments. There’s lots more to learn. Australian dietitian Nicole Kellow, who is researching gut bacteria in people with prediabetes at Monash University and Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, agrees. “It is very early days in gut bacteria research, because we still don't know what the optimal numbers and proportions of different bacterial species in the gut should be,” she says. “I think there will eventually be a time in the future when people will have their gut bacterial composition analyzed (from a stool sample) and are provided with a cocktail of prebiotics and probiotics to improve their gut and total body health. But we are certainly not at that point yet.” Possible future treatments Prebiotics plus diabetes medications. In mouse studies, a combination of the oral diab Continue reading >>

Study Shows High Fiber Diets Encourage The Growth Of Gut Bacteria That Control Blood Sugar And Diabetes

Study Shows High Fiber Diets Encourage The Growth Of Gut Bacteria That Control Blood Sugar And Diabetes

March 9, 2018 -- Scientists say theyve found a direct connection between blood sugar and gut bacteria . By exploiting that connection with a very high-fiber diet , theyve successfully treated a small group of people with type 2 diabetes . The finding could be important not only for the 100 million American adults with diabetes or prediabetes , but also for anyone whos trying to manage their weight. Doctors and nutritionists have long known that fiber is important for good health. Studies have shown that people who eat diets high in fiber and low in saturated fat have lower risks for many chronic diseases, including heart disease , diabetes, and some intestinal problems like constipation and diverticulitis . What hasnt been well-understood is exactly how fiber gives you these benefits. Evidence has been mounting that fiber plays a key role in the types of bacteria that thrive in our guts and how they work. Last year, new research from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study showed that people who ate more fiber had more of an anti-inflammatory chemical in their blood called indolepropionic acid, which is made by gut bacteria. They were also less likely to go on to get type 2 diabetes. The new study builds on that by showing how fiber helps grow bacteria in the gut that produce chemical signals that help to regulate appetite and blood sugar. Overall, this study adds to what we know about how important the gut microbiota is when it comes to the development of some chronic diseases, like type 2 diabetes, says Vanessa de Mello Laaksonen, PhD, an assistant professor in nutrigenomics at the University of Eastern Finland, who was not involved in the research. Could High-Fiber Diets Stave Off Diabetes? About 1 in 11 Americans has diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form Continue reading >>

High-fiber Generates Gut Bacteria Good For Type 2 Diabetes

High-fiber Generates Gut Bacteria Good For Type 2 Diabetes

High-Fiber Generates Gut Bacteria Good for Type 2 Diabetes A select "guild" of gut bacteria responsible for the benefits of high-fiber diets in type 2 diabetes has been identified in a study in which those patients on the high-fiber diet showed improved control of HbA1c. Effectively, eating the right dietary fibers may rebalance the gut microbiome and lead to reduced blood sugar and body weight, and may pave the way for a new nutritional approach to preventing and managing type 2 diabetes, say the researchers. The specific bacteria thought to be effective produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). "Targeted promotion of the active SCFA producers...via personalized nutrition may present a novel ecological approach for manipulating the gut microbiota to manage type 2 diabetes and potentially other dysbiosis-related diseases," write the authors led by Liping Zhao, PhD, from the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University-New Brunswick, New Jersey. The research was conducted in China, and was published in the March 9 issue of Science. However, separately, in an article published online November 1, 2017, in Gut, a whole-grain diet failed to alter insulin sensitivity and the gut microbiome in healthy individuals at risk for development of metabolic syndrome. But the high-fiber diet did lead to lower body weight and less systemic low-grade inflammation. Certain Fibers Could Become Part of the Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes In their paper, Zhao and colleagues explain that gut microbes play a range of roles in response to food intake, and they suggest that chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, may in part result from a deficiency in SCFA production from carbohydrate fermentation in the gut. Prior clinical trials have shown that increased intake of nond Continue reading >>

Gut Bacteria Invading Colon Lining Linked To Type 2 Diabetes

Gut Bacteria Invading Colon Lining Linked To Type 2 Diabetes

A link has been found between and invading the lining of , researchers have said. A US study has been looking at how people develop , a term used to describe the presence of factors including , imbalanced levels and insulin resistance. The team from the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State say the findings have given them an insight into how people develop resistance, which can lead to type 2 diabetes. Lead author Professor Andrew Gewirtz, who specialises in research on innate immunity, microbiome, intestinal and diabetes, said: "Alterations in bacteria have been associated with , including obesity and type 2 diabetes, but mechanisms remain elusive." Professor Gerwirtz said there has already been research which has looked at bacteria penetrating the epithelium, the mucus that lines : "Previous studies in mice have indicated that bacteria that are able to encroach upon the epithelium might be able to promote inflammation that drives metabolic diseases, and now we've shown that this is also a feature of metabolic disease in humans, specifically type 2 diabetics who are exhibiting microbiota encroachment." Human samples taken from people aged at least 21 were used in this most recent study. They were recruited via the Veteran's Administration Hospital in Atlanta and had no major health problems, other than type 2 diabetes, and were being screened for . Biopsies taken from the left colon were studied, along with the individuals' medical history and gastrointestinal complaints. The researchers think the gut bacteria penetrating the epithelial cells drives inflammation which leads to . The study stated: "We conclude that microbiota encroachment is a feature of insulin resistance-associated dysglycemia in humans." Dr Samuel Klein, chief of the Division of Geriatr Continue reading >>

New Research Explores Link Between Gut Health And Diabetes

New Research Explores Link Between Gut Health And Diabetes

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy Diabetes is growing at an alarming rate.As an endocrinologist, I have been trying to understand the underlying causes of itsincrease in the United States and the rest of the world.I suspect few of us working in the field of endocrinology could have imagined that one day we might link the microbes in our gut to be possibly one of the causes of this increase. We carry almost six pounds of microbes in our gut, which form our gut microbiome. Each personhas a unique gut microbiome (also known as gut microbiota) based on a number of factors. Your gut microbiota is as personalized asyour signature.For example, some groups of microbes are inherited, and others are environmentally acquired. A group called Christensenellaceae is associated with a lean and healthy lifestyle and is very strongly inherited in families. This unique mix of bacteria is diverse and responsible for numerous functions. For instance, some of our gut bacteriaprotect against external bacteria and support our immune system. They also help regulate intestinal hormone secretion and synthesize vitamin K and several B-vitamins, including folate and vitamin B12. New research links gut microbes to Type 2 diabetes In recent years, new research suggests that microbes in our gut may play a role in the development of Type 2 diabetes . Some microbes form toxins that enter the gut and cause inflammation in the body, which affects the liver and fat cells. As a result, insulin sensitivity and overall metabolism can change. Studies have focused on two main populations of microbes: bacteroidetes, which are thought to be important for protein and carb Continue reading >>

How Your Gut Microbiome May Affect Diabetes

How Your Gut Microbiome May Affect Diabetes

How Your Gut Microbiome May Affect Diabetes Is your gut health the answer to better insulin function and blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes? Experts say the gut microbiome is one factor among many that can play a role in diabetes risk. If youve been diagnosed withprediabetesor type 2 diabetes, your doctor has likely told you to focus on healthy eating habits and exercise to help prevent the development, or progression, of the disease. Chances are youve probably also heard that caring for your gut health is the X factor that may decrease the risk of developing full-blown type 2 diabetes . Perhaps you also have heard that it could even reverse the disease as well. So, whats the truth? Your gutmicrobiomeis the collection of microbes in your gastrointestinal (GI) tract that may impact your immunity, your ability to extract energy from food, your metabolism, and more. They play an important role in your health but not the only role. If you look at diabetes and obesity, over 600 million people in the world are obese, and over 400 million have diabetes. There are multiple factors implicated in both diseases, including genetics, culture, environment, and lifestyle, says RuchiMathur, MD , director of Anna and Max Webb & Family Diabetes Outpatient Treatment and Education Centerat Cedars-Sinai inLosAngeles. Gut microbes may play one piece of a very large and complicated puzzle, but theyre not the be-all and end-all, she says. Even what we know about the gutmicrobiome is still in the early stages. We know disruptions in the gutmicrobiometouch almost all diseases we see in medicine. We know these (diabetes) patients may have a different gutmicrobiome than others, says Eugene Yen, MD , a physician in the division ofgastroenterologyatNorthShoreUniversityHealthSysteminEvanston, Il Continue reading >>

Gut Bacteria Compound May Help To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Gut Bacteria Compound May Help To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

New research from Finland suggests that higher blood levels of indolepropionic acid - a product of gut bacteria that is increased by a fiber-rich diet - may help to protect against type 2 diabetes. Writing about the discovery in the journal Scientific Reports, the team - led by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio - suggests that it increases our understanding of the important part played by gut bacteria in the relationship between diet, metabolism, and health. Diabetes is a disease in which the blood contains too much sugar, or glucose - a vital source of energy for the body's cells. If uncontrolled, high blood sugar can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke, and amputation of lower limbs. Levels of blood sugar are regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas. The type of diabetes that develops depends on whether the high blood glucose results from lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the body's inability to use insulin (type 2 diabetes). Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common form of diabetes around the world and largely develops from being overweight and not exercising. Molecular factors in type 2 diabetes less well-understood Once a disease occurring only in adults, the number of children with type 2 diabetes is now on the rise. Adults with diabetes have a two- to threefold higher risk of heart attacks and strokes. Type 2 diabetes patients can be treated with oral medication, but they may also need insulin. More than a fifth of healthcare spending in the U.S. is for people diagnosed with diabetes. The global prevalence of diabetes among adults (90 percent of which is type 2 diabetes) has gone up from 4.7 percent in 1980 to 8.5 percent in 2014. In the United States, there are more than 29 million people Continue reading >>

A High Fibre Diet Helps Treat Diabetes By Changing Gut Bacteria

A High Fibre Diet Helps Treat Diabetes By Changing Gut Bacteria

A high fibre diet helps treat diabetes by changing gut bacteria A diet rich in fruit and vegetables can help treat type 2 diabetes and it seems to do this by changing the bacteria that live in a persons gut . Liping Zhao at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China and his colleagues compared the effects of two different diets in people with type 2 diabetes. Over 12 weeks, 16 people followed a standard low-fat, low-carb diet, while 27 people ate a lot of high-fibre foods, such as wholegrains, seeds and vegetables. Both groups also took a drug called acarbose, which makes people digest starch more slowly than usual. This allows starch to reach the large intestine, where microbes feed upon it. By the end of the trial, 89 per cent of those on the high-fibre diets showed signs that their bodies were regulating their blood sugar levels more effectively compared to 50 per cent of the control group. Volunteers who ate more fibre also lost more weight, and had better blood lipid profiles. Increasing dietary fibres can improve diabetes, says Zhao. To see how this diet affects peoples microbiomes, the team focussed on strains of bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids in our guts. These chemicals are thought to be important for gut health. Examining these bacteria in people who responded to the diet best, the team found that 47 strains reduced in number during the diet, while 15 other strains became more abundant. These strains make butyric acid, which can boost the production of insulin, lowering blood sugar levels, says Zhao. When the team transplanted fecal samples from the volunteers into sterile mice, those that received bacteria from people on the high-fibre diet went on to have the best blood glucose levels. He wants to find other ways to boost the 15 seemingly benefic Continue reading >>

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