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How Does Exercise Reduce The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes?

Physical Activity/exercise And Type 2 Diabetes

Physical Activity/exercise And Type 2 Diabetes

A consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association For decades, exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes management, along with diet and medication. However, high-quality evidence on the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes was lacking until recent years. The present document summarizes the most clinically relevant recent advances related to people with type 2 diabetes and the recommendations that follow from these. Our recently published technical review on physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes (1) includes greater detail on individual studies, on prevention of diabetes, and on the physiology of exercise. The present statement focuses on type 2 diabetes. Issues primarily germane to type 1 diabetes will be covered in a subsequent technical review and ADA Statement. The levels of evidence used are defined by the ADA in ref. 2. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PREVENTION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES Two randomized trials each found that lifestyle interventions including ∼150 min/week of physical activity and diet-induced weight loss of 5–7% reduced the risk of progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes by 58% (3,4). A cluster-randomized trial found that diet alone, exercise alone, and combined diet and exercise were equally effective in reducting the progression from IGT to diabetes (5). Therefore, there is firm and consistent evidence that programs of increased physical activity and modest weight loss reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in individuals with IGT. EFFECTS OF STRUCTURED EXERCISE INTERVENTIONS ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND BODY WEIGHT IN TYPE 2 DIABETES Boulé et al. (6) undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of structured exercise interventions in clinical trials of ≥8 weeks duration Continue reading >>

Exercise And Diabetes

Exercise And Diabetes

Exercise plays a key role in treating diabetes, particularly in type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes). Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common and appears to be related to the growing number of people who are overweight. Why is weight gain such an issue now? Put simply, if we eat more fuel than our body needs, it's stored as fat. Physical activity burns this energy from food. But compared with 50 years ago, we are pretty inactive: we take cars for journeys of a few hundred yards we sit in trains for hours commuting we spend long periods of the day sat behind desks technology means we spend huge amounts of time watching TV, surfing the Internet, playing computer games, etc, so-called 'couch potatoes'. And for most us, feeding ourselves means a walk along supermarket aisles, not working a plot of land. All this means activity levels have dropped – the result is, as a nation, we're getting larger. How does exercise improve diabetes? Exercise reduces the body's need for insulin by keeping weight down. It also increases the body's sensitivity to insulin, so glucose is used more effectively. Insulin is needed to shift glucose from your blood into your muscles. In the absence of insulin, muscles use fat as an alternative energy source. If this goes on too long, it leads to acidosis – which can be fatal. As long as you have enough insulin in your body, your muscles burn glucose during exercise, naturally reducing your blood sugar level. For all types of diabetes, exercise: lowers blood sugar levels increases the effectiveness of insulin in your body lowers blood pressure lowers levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) and increases good cholesterol (HDL) increases fat loss helps weight loss builds muscle mass reduces stress improves wellbeing improves circulation Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

You may be able to prevent type 2 diabetes. Even if you have several of the risk factors and even if you’ve been told you have pre-diabetes, you can take action and reduce your risk of developing diabetes. Don’t delay: if you’ve been told that you’re at risk of developing diabetes, get started as soon as possible. Your healthcare provider can help you develop a plan, but it should include: Getting to—and staying at—a healthy weight: Being overweight (BMI greater than 25) increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, so if you’re overweight, you should take steps to lose weight. By losing 5% to 10% of your body weight, you can reduce your risk. You can do this by eating smaller portions and being more physically active, which, conveniently enough, are two other ways to prevent type 2 diabetes. Reduce portions and eat healthier: You should choose healthier food choices by reducing portions and limiting added fat and sugar. Choose more whole grains, vegetables, and lean meats and dairy products. Seek out new, healthy recipes; there are many cookbooks that offer lower-fat and healthier recipes. A terrific rule to follow is: everything in moderation. Reduce portion sizes overall. Limit your intake of alcohol; you don’t have to entirely avoid it. Eat small, well-balanced meals spread throughout the day; larger meals can make it more difficult to keep your blood glucose level in a healthy range. Exercising: Exercise is important to help prevent type 2 diabetes because it has so many benefits. It can help you lose weight, and if you’re insulin resistant, it can help your body increase its sensitivity to insulin (exercise can help you use insulin better). Plus, exercise keeps your heart strong, makes you sleep better, and can even put you in a better mood. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes And Exercise

Type 2 Diabetes And Exercise

When you have type 2 diabetes, physical activity is an important component of your treatment plan. It’s also important to have a healthy meal plan and maintain your blood glucose level through medications or insulin, if necessary. If you stay fit and active throughout your life, you’ll be able to better control your diabetes and keep your blood glucose level in the correct range. Controlling your blood glucose level is essential to preventing long-term complications, such as nerve pain and kidney disease. Exercise has so many benefits, but the biggest one is that it makes it easier to control your blood glucose (blood sugar) level. People with type 2 diabetes have too much glucose in their blood, either because their body doesn’t produce enough insulin to process it, or because their body doesn’t use insulin properly (insulin resistant). In either case, exercise can reduce the glucose in your blood. Muscles can use glucose without insulin when you’re exercising. In other words, it doesn’t matter if you’re insulin resistant or if you don’t have enough insulin: when you exercise, your muscles get the glucose they need, and in turn, your blood glucose level goes down. If you’re insulin resistant, exercise actually makes your insulin more effective. That is—your insulin resistance goes down when you exercise, and your cells can use the glucose more effectively. Exercise can also help people with type 2 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. People with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis. Additionally, there ar Continue reading >>

How Does Exercise Reduce The Risk Of Diabetes?

How Does Exercise Reduce The Risk Of Diabetes?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that by 2050, one in three American adults could have diabetes. Exercise, whether aerobic or resistance-based such as weight training, is considered one of the most effective lifestyle habits individuals at risk can adopt to prevent potential cases from becoming actual cases. It has been shown that exercise has a greater protective effect for those at highest risk. In some instances, exercise has a greater beneficial effect than dietary modifications or even weight loss on the management of blood sugar. Effects on Blood Sugar Regulation Exercise causes skeletal muscle to be more sensitive to insulin, the chemical signal that tells cells to absorb glucose. As a result, exercise speeds the clearance of glucose out of the blood and into skeletal muscle cells, which need glucose in higher quantities during increased activity. Exercise also increases blood flow to muscles, thereby making more glucose available for the muscles to absorb. In older individuals, decreased insulin sensitivity, which is a lowered responsiveness of cells to insulin, is common. This is associated primarily with decreased levels of physical activity and is readily reversed through resumption or increase in exercise levels. There is an alternate pathway, carried out by an enzyme called AMP kinase, that initiates glucose transport from blood to cells without the use of insulin. This is especially important and helpful in light of the prevalence of insulin resistance in those at risk for diabetes. Exercise is found to increase levels of AMP kinase. Certain storage and distribution patterns of fat are seen as red flags for health risks. Individuals who have the tendency to store fat around the abdomen are often found to have other health risk facto Continue reading >>

Exercise And Diet Reduce Risk Of Diabetes, Us Study Shows

Exercise And Diet Reduce Risk Of Diabetes, Us Study Shows

Exercise and diet reduce risk of diabetes, US study shows This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Patients vulnerable to type 2 diabetes can more than halve their risk of developing the disease by eating a low fat diet and taking half an hour of exercise a day, says new US research from the National Institutes of Health. The study found that for patients at risk of type 2 diabetes diet and exercise were more effective than the drug metformin at preventing the disease. The findings come from the diabetes prevention programme, a clinical trial comparing diet and exercise with metformin treatment in preventing type 2 diabetes. It was conducted at 27 US medical centres and involved 3234 people with impaired glucose tolerance, a condition that often precedes diabetes. On the advice of the diabetes prevention programme's external data monitoring board, the trial ended a year early because the data had clearly answered the main research questions. The research has not been published in a journal, but a full report of the study is available on the National Institutes of Health website ( www.nih.gov ). Forty five per cent of the participants were from minority groups in whom type 2 diabetes is disproportionately prevalent, including African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians. The trial also recruited other high risk groups, including people aged 60 and above, women with a history of gestational diabetes, and people with a first degree relative with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One made intensive lifestyle changes, with the aim of reducing weight by 7% through a low fat diet and exercising for 150 minutes a week. A second was treated twice daily with 850 mg metformi Continue reading >>

How Exercise Lowers Blood Sugar In Type 2 Diabetes

How Exercise Lowers Blood Sugar In Type 2 Diabetes

If you stick with it, exercise can reduce your need for blood-sugar-lowering drugs.(ISTOCKPHOTO) You may consider exercise a nuisance, a chore, or simply a bore. But if you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you need to look at physical activity in a whole new light. Now it's a tool. Just like taking a drug or altering your diet, exercise can lower blood sugar on its own, even if you don't lose weight. "Exercising is the most underused treatment and it's so, so powerful," said Sharon Movsas, RD, a diabetes nutrition specialist at the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City. For most people with diabetes, exercise is a safe and highly recommended way to reduce the risk of complications. However, check with your doctor to make sure you don't have heart problems, nerve damage, or other issues that need special consideration when you are working out. How exercise affects blood sugar In general, blood sugar drops after exercise and is lower for the next 24 to 48 hours, says Movsas. "If I take a blood sugar reading after aqua-aerobics, I usually notice it's down," says David Mair, 79, of Marquette, Mich. When you exercise, your muscles become more sensitive to insulin and absorb more glucose from the blood. However, like many aspects of type 2 diabetes, the response can be highly personal. Exercise can sometimes boost blood sugar. At first, you'll need to test your blood sugar before, after, and sometimes during exercise, to see how your body responds). Exercise also helps lower blood pressurean important benefit since high blood pressure can contribute to heart attacks, strokes, eye problems, kidney failure, and other type 2 diabetes complications. Next Page: Start slow [ pagebreak ]Start slow and work up Even if you know exercise is good Continue reading >>

Does Exercise Really Prevent Type 2 Diabetes?

Does Exercise Really Prevent Type 2 Diabetes?

Even if you have T2 diabetes already, share this post with someone who has prediabetes or risk of getting diabetes. You could save a life and prevent a lot of hassle. “A new study, published this week in the journal Diabetologia, takes a deeper look at the role of exercise in the development of type 2 diabetes. It is the most in-depth study to examine exercise independent from other influential factors, such as diet. The conclusions from the report are clear: “This research shows that some physical activity is good, but more is better.” (says study co-author Dr. Soren Brage) Currently, physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and the United Kingdom recommend 150 minutes of moderate activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity per week; this could include cycling, walking, or sports. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fewer than 50 percent of American adults meet these recommendations. The current study was a result of collaborative work between two institutions – University College London and the University of Cambridge, both of which are based in the U.K. Data from more than 1 million people was collated. In all, the team analyzed 23 studies from the U.S., Asia, Australia, and Europe.” *** “According to the analysis, cycling or walking briskly for 150 minutes each week cuts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by up to 26 percent. Those who exercise moderately or vigorously for an hour each day reduced their risk by 40 percent. At the other end of the scale, for those who did not manage to reach the 150-minute target, any amount of physical activity they carried out still reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes, but to a lesser extent.” Source: Exercise vs. diabetes: New level of detail uncovered – Medical News Toda Continue reading >>

This One Thing Is The Highest Risk For Diabetes

This One Thing Is The Highest Risk For Diabetes

Regular exercise plays an important role in the daily maintenance of your blood sugar levels Reducing your daily activity and not exercising, even just for a few days, causes changes in your body that are associated with diabetes Exercise directly impacts your risk of developing diabetes, with regular exercise acting as a strong preventive mechanism When using exercise therapeutically for diabetes, high-intensity, burst-type exercises such as Peak Fitness are key By Dr. Mercola The latest research out of the University of Missouri should be required reading for the 79 million Americans with pre-diabetes and the 26 million with the full-blown disease. Taken together, this amounts to one in four Americans struggling with diabetes and the vast majority of these cases are type 2. When diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, many believe their fate has been sealed and all they can do now is "control" it. More than 50 percent of type 2 diabetics are also not even aware they have diabetes, while millions of others are living in a state of insulin resistance (pre-diabetes) that could progress into diabetes at any time. If someone told you there was a "magic" trick you could do that would almost instantly improve the way your body regulates blood sugar, and also reduce the spikes in blood sugar that occur after a meal (elevations in these spikes, known as postprandial glucose, or PPG, are associated with type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and death), would you do it? Well there is. It's called exercise. And now that you know what it is, the next step is up to you ... Want to Prevent or Reverse Diabetes? Exercise! The amazing thing about exercise is that it exerts its effects very quickly. Sure, you will definitely reap long-term benefits, and exercise is well known to impact chronic diseas Continue reading >>

Prediabetes

Prediabetes

Prediabetes is a serious health condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 84 million American adults—more than 1 out of 3—have prediabetes. Of those with prediabetes, 90% don’t know they have it. Prediabetes puts you at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. The good news is that if you have prediabetes, the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you make lifestyle changes to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems. Causes Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into cells for use as energy. If you have prediabetes, the cells in your body don’t respond normally to insulin. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas can’t keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes—and type 2 diabetes down the road. Symptoms & Risk Factors You can have prediabetes for years but have no clear symptoms, so it often goes undetected until serious health problems such as type 2 diabetes show up. It’s important to talk to your doctor about getting your blood sugar tested if you have any of the risk factors for prediabetes, which include: Being overweight Being 45 years or older Having a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes Being physically active less than 3 times a week Ever having gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or giving birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds Race and ethnicity are also a factor: African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and some Asian Americans are at higher risk. Getting Tested You can get a simple blood Continue reading >>

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

Perhaps you have learned that you have a high chance of developing type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes. You might be overweight or have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes. Maybe you had gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that develops during pregnancy. These are just a few examples of factors that can raise your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, and eye and foot problems. Prediabetes also can cause health problems. The good news is that type 2 diabetes can be delayed or even prevented. The longer you have diabetes, the more likely you are to develop health problems, so delaying diabetes by even a few years will benefit your health. You can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by losing a modest amount of weight by following a reduced-calorie eating plan and being physically active most days of the week. Ask your doctor if you should take the diabetes drug metformin to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.1 How can I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows that you can do a lot to reduce your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Here are some things you can change to lower your risk: Lose weight and keep it off. You may be able to prevent or delay diabetes by losing 5 to 7 percent of your starting weight.1 For instance, if you weigh 200 pounds, your goal would be to lose about 10 to 14 pounds. Move more. Get at least 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week. If you have not been active, talk with your health care professional about which activities are best. Start slowly to build up to your goal. Eat healthy foods most of the time. Eat smaller portions to reduce the amount of calories you Continue reading >>

How To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Six Useful Steps

How To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Six Useful Steps

Type 2 diabetes is a serious but common disease that can harm many organs of the body. Currently, 40 percent of people in the United States are expected to develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. There are ways to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This article will look at six of them. Overview of diabetes Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, refers to a group of metabolic diseases where the body does not adequately produce insulin or use insulin properly. Insulin plays a crucial role in delivering glucose, or sugar, into the cells where it is then used for energy. People with untreated or poorly managed diabetes have abnormally high levels of glucose in their blood. This can lead to organ damage and other complications. Too much glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. Symptoms include fatigue, blurry vision, hunger, increased thirst, and frequent urination. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95 percent of all diagnosed cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body develops a resistance to insulin. This means the body can't use insulin to absorb blood sugar into the cells to be used for energy. Some people with type 2 diabetes may stop producing enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels within normal ranges. Type 2 diabetes usually affects people who are older. It emerges more slowly than type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may not have noticeable symptoms. A person may have type 2 diabetes without knowing it. Treatment of type 2 diabetes involves diet, exercise, and sometimes medications. Lifestyle changes can also help to prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease, thought to be an autoimmune disease that usually develops during childhood and adolescence. In type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Your doctor’s just told you that you have prediabetes. That means there's a good chance you could get , but you don't have to. There are plenty of things you can do to try to prevent it. Focus on the things you can change, like your diet and how active you are. Don’t dwell on the things you can't do anything about, like your age or your family's medical history. Your doctor can let you know where you stand and what you can do to turn things around. Losing extra pounds, eating better, and becoming more active are some of the most important steps you can take. There are people who aren't overweight who have type 2 diabetes. But added pounds do put you at risk. In one study, being overweight or obese was the single most important thing that predicted who would get diabetes. The study results showed that over 16 years, regular exercise -- at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week -- and a low-fat, high-fiber diet helped prevent it. If you're at high risk for the disease, your doctor may recommend taking medication to hold it off. Several studies show that various types of diabetes drugs, along with a healthy lifestyle, can cut the odds that you'll get it One study showed that people most likely to get it could lower their odds by 31%. They took the prescription diabetes drug metformin and made lifestyle and diet changes. That's good. But the study also showed that drastic lifestyle changes are the best way to avoid diabetes. You'll need to work with a dietitian to come up with a meal plan and talk to a trainer about how to get more exercise. Continue reading >>

Exercise And Type 2 Diabetes

Exercise And Type 2 Diabetes

Go to: Introduction Diabetes has become a widespread epidemic, primarily because of the increasing prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2007, almost 24 million Americans had diabetes, with one-quarter of those, or six million, undiagnosed (261). Currently, it is estimated that almost 60 million U.S. residents also have prediabetes, a condition in which blood glucose (BG) levels are above normal, thus greatly increasing their risk for type 2 diabetes (261). Lifetime risk estimates suggest that one in three Americans born in 2000 or later will develop diabetes, but in high-risk ethnic populations, closer to 50% may develop it (200). Type 2 diabetes is a significant cause of premature mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), blindness, kidney and nerve disease, and amputation (261). Although regular physical activity (PA) may prevent or delay diabetes and its complications (10,46,89,112,176,208,259,294), most people with type 2 diabetes are not active (193). In this article, the broader term “physical activity” (defined as “bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that substantially increases energy expenditure”) is used interchangeably with “exercise,” which is defined as “a subset of PA done with the intention of developing physical fitness (i.e., cardiovascular [CV], strength, and flexibility training).” The intent is to recognize that many types of physical movement may have a positive effect on physical fitness, morbidity, and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diagnosis, classification, and etiology of diabetes Currently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the use of any of the following four criteria for di Continue reading >>

The How, What, And Why Of Exercise And Type-2 Diabetes

The How, What, And Why Of Exercise And Type-2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a common problem among the American population and worldwide. Aside from the impacted life span and quality of life, diabetes is associated with an increased burden on society in relation to medical costs which has a great economic impact. The most influential factors that have been found to be related to diabetes include genetic factors and environmental influences. While you may not be able to change your genetics you can make a change on environmental risk factors. Risk factors Obesity and inactivity are two of the main risk factors of acquiring diabetes. Environmental factors may be mostly modifiable which means that many people that acquire diabetes may have been able to avoid this condition and may also be able to reverse this condition with lifestyle changes. Diet is a crucial aspect of the overall management of diabetes as well as exercise and physical activity. Type 1 versus Type 2 Type 2-diabetes can be difficult to treat and can be expensive to manage and that is why avoiding this diagnosis is imperative. Diabetes occurs because the body does not produce or does not properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreases that allows glucose or sugar to enter the cells. If the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin or when muscle, fat, and liver cells do not properly respond to the insulin that is there then glucose builds up in the blood which can become toxic. Hyperglycemia is a condition that occurs when there is too much glucose in the blood. Type 1-diabetes is not related to diet and inactivity but is the type of diabetes that occurs in children and young adults and is the result of the immune system destroying the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. This article will focus now on how to reduce the risk of type Continue reading >>

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