diabetestalk.net

How Does Diabetes Work On A Cellular Level

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

When Type 2 begins: 10 Years later at diagnosis Weight Gain Tiredness Irritability Blurred vision Numbness or tingling of the feet or legs Infections Slow Healing Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body has trouble using its own insulin to control the blood sugar. At the time of diagnosis, beta cells often are producing as much or more insulin as would be needed by someone else of equal weight. But changes in liver, fat and muscle cells have created resistance to insulin. Fat cells are not responsive to insulin, so they begin releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream and these worsen the response to insulin. The liver does not respond to insulin so it is less able to turn off its production and release of glucose, and the blood sugar rises further. Cells in the muscles would normally pick up glucose from the blood, but insulin resistance weakens this effort. All these cellular changes cause damaging fat and sugar levels to rise in the blood. Those with Type 2 diabetes are actually a small part of a larger group that has metabolic syndome or Syndrome X, which was first recognized in the early 1990's. This syndome includes everyone who has insulin resistance. About 30% of those with insulin resistance eventually develop Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body can no longer produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance and keep up with the body's increased need for insulin. The insulin-resistance syndrome is associated with high triglycerides (over 200), low HDL (under 40 mg/dl), high blood pressure, and gout. Syndrome X is found in one out of every four Americans with signs that include insulin resistance, cholesterol problems (especially a low HDL and high triglycerides), and high blood pressure. Those with an apple figure who ca Continue reading >>

I Would Like To Know How The Cells In The Body React When Someone Has Diabetes And How Is This Different From Someone Who Does Not Have Diabetes?

I Would Like To Know How The Cells In The Body React When Someone Has Diabetes And How Is This Different From Someone Who Does Not Have Diabetes?

You have asked a complex question. I will try to explain this as clearly as I can. People who have diabetes have a lack of insulin in their blood. Insulin is made in an organ called the pancreas. Insulin is important to allow glucose (blood sugar) to get into the cells of the body. Put another way, insulin opens the door to let blood sugar to enter most cells in the body. Blood sugar is a food for the bodies cells. If insulin is low or absent in the blood then the cells don't get fed the blood sugar they need. If the blood sugar can not get into the bodies cells then it builds up in the blood stream and the sugar count increases on the blood tests that we do. Also, as the blood sugar increases and can not get into the bodies cells it has the effect of drawing water out of the cells and shrinks them up making them even less healthy. The nerves in the body are affected a bit differently. Nerve cells will allow blood sugar in with out insulin, however without insulin present the sugar is not used by the nerve cell properly and the sugar accumulates in the cell. Over time this will damage the nerve cell and cause the nerve to die. This causes numbness and tingling in the feet and sometimes in the hands.Blood vessels are also made up of cells. As the sugar builds up in these cells it swells them up and this causes a narrowing of the blood vessel. This causes a decrease in the circulation to the feet, the kidneys and the eyes. This is why people with diabetes often loose their legs their eye sight and kidney function. It is very important that people with diabetes learn about their condition, control their blood sugar, and exercise. Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet. Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults.[1] Although this type of chronic insulin resistance is harmful, during acute illness it is actually a well-evolved protective mechanism. Recent investigations have revealed that insulin resistance helps to conserve the brain's glucose supply by preventing muscles from taking up excessive glucose.[2] In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. Insulin resistance is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) resulting from reduced insulin activity; it is also part of a larger constellation of symptoms called the metabolic syndrome. Insuli Continue reading >>

Biology Diagrams: Type 2 Diabetes At The Cellular Level

Biology Diagrams: Type 2 Diabetes At The Cellular Level

Author's Perspective: I loved biology when I was in school. But, now I really loved biology because it gave me a better insight into understanding diabetes pathology and how to defeat the disease at the cellular level. It also helped me to break down the complex medical terms and describe the biology in layman's terms. Being able to explain the biology of diabetes at the cell level in layman's terms provided the audience with a clear understanding of the biochemical and hormonal processes that fuel Type 2 diabetes. The benefit of this insight (to you) will empower you because you will have enough of an understanding of diabetes to comprehend whether the diabetes book that you are planning to purchase will actually help you. You will also have enough of an understanding to ask your doctor the right questions and give you some insight into what your doctor really knows about diabetes. This is not meant for you to go behind your doctor's back, but, to understand his/her limitations so that you don't get angry or frustrated with his recommendations for your diabetes. In addition, this information provides insight into how diabetes is damaging your body. This information will help you better understand the changes you need to make in order to control your diabetes and achieve tighter blood glucose control, insulin utilization, and blood glucose stability. By understanding these biological processes, you will gain a better insight into how to successfully reverse and defeat your diabetes. As a bonus, especially for healthcare professionals, you will gain an insight into how the author used "reverse engineering" as one of his engineering methodologies to better define how to control the disease, stop the progression of the disease, and then reverse the progression of Type 2 di Continue reading >>

Glucose Insulin And Diabetes

Glucose Insulin And Diabetes

Every cell in the human body needs energy to survive and do its different functions. If we're talking about a brain cell, it needs energy to keep stimulating other brain cells and sending on signals and messages. If it's a muscle cell, it needs energy to contract. They need energy just to do the basic functions of a cell. And the place that they get that energy from, or the primary source of that energy, is from glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar. If you were to actually taste glucose, it would taste sweet. And glucose gets delivered to cells through the bloodstream. So this right here, I'm drawing some blood that's passing by a cell. Maybe the blood is going in that direction over there. And inside the blood, let me draw some small glucose molecules passing by. And so in an ideal situation, when a cell needs energy, glucose will enter the cell. Unfortunately, it's not that simple for the great majority of cells in the human body. The glucose won't enter by itself. It needs the assistance of a hormone or a molecule called insulin. So let me label all of these. This right here is the glucose, and it needs insulin. So let me draw insulin as these magenta molecules right over here. That over there, that is insulin. And the surface of the cells, they have insulin receptors on them. And I'm just drawing very simplified versions of them, kind of a place where these magenta circles can attach, can bind. And what happens is, in order for the glucose to be taken up by the cell, insulin has to attach to these receptors, which unlocks the channels for glucose. In order for the glucose to go in, insulin has to bind to the insulin receptors. And then, once that happens, then the glucose can be taken up by the cell. Now, unfortunately, things don't always work as planned. So let me d Continue reading >>

The Causes And Progression Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Causes And Progression Of Type 2 Diabetes

Many people are born with a genetic predisposition to developing diabetes at some point in life – though this does not necessarily mean that they are destined to develop diabetes. We explore why and how type 2 diabetes develops in some people, and not others. First comes love…then comes marriage…then comes a baby - wait. That's not the progression we are talking about. We're talking about the progression of a disease. A very deadly disease at that, with type 2 diabetes being the 7th leading cause of death, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How does Type 2 Diabetes Develop? Many people are born with a genetic predisposition to developing diabetes at some point in life - though this does not necessarily mean that they are destined to develop diabetes. It does, however mean that you they are more likely to develop diabetes than someone who is not genetically predisposed. Even if you don't have diabetes running in your family - you can certainly still develop it. After conception, your genes are all planned out and locked in for life, you might say. After this point, lifestyle takes over and plays the biggest role in whether you will develop type 2 diabetes in your lifetime. It's the classic nature vs. nurture argument, and we must consider both genetics and environment to explain how you get type 2 diabetes. As you grow and develop as toddler, how you eat can begin to influence the progression of type 2 diabetes. If you consume lots of sugary drinks and fruit juices, candy, and simple carbohydrates like crackers, cookies, and chips, then you are already increasing your risk, as a child, for type 2 diabetes. These kinds of foods cause your pancreas to begin working overtime to produce insulin in order to process all that sugar. So when you c Continue reading >>

The Cellular Fate Of Glucose And Its Relevance In Type 2 Diabetes

The Cellular Fate Of Glucose And Its Relevance In Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder with diminished insulin secretion and insulin action contributing to the hyperglycemia and wide range of metabolic defects that underlie the disease. The contribution of glucose metabolic pathways per se in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. The cellular fate of glucose begins with glucose transport and phosphorylation. Subsequent pathways of glucose utilization include aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, glycogen formation, and conversion to other intermediates in the hexose phosphate or hexosamine biosynthesis pathways. Abnormalities in each pathway may occur in diabetic subjects; however, it is unclear whether perturbations in these may lead to diabetes or are a consequence of the multiple metabolic abnormalities found in the disease. This review is focused on the cellular fate of glucose and relevance to human type 2 diabetes. I. Introduction III. Glucose Utilization Pathways A. Glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis pathway B. Glycogen synthesis and breakdown pathways C. Pentose phosphorylation shunt/hexose monophosphate pathway D. Hexosamine biosynthesis pathway IV. Conclusion I. Introduction THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF type 2 diabetes involves impairments in both insulin action and insulin secretion (1–3). Insulin sensitivity is determined by the ability of insulin to promote glucose uptake and utilization. Thus, in insulin-resistant conditions, there is decreased glucose clearance in response to insulin. Insulin regulates glucose homeostasis primarily through suppression of hepatic glucose production and stimulation of peripheral (and to a lesser degree, splanchnic) glucose uptake (4). Clinical studies in man have demonstrated impaired ability of insulin to promote glucose clearance in type 2 diabetic subjects asses Continue reading >>

Exercise Changes The Way Our Bodies Work At A Molecular Level

Exercise Changes The Way Our Bodies Work At A Molecular Level

Exercise is good for you, this we know. It helps build muscle, burn fat and make us all into happier, healthier people. But long before you start looking the way you want, there are other hidden, more immediate, molecular and immunological changes taking place inside your cells. Changes which could be responsible for protecting us from heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes – and even stave off old age and cancer. You may think that “molecular” changes may not be that much of a big deal. Surely it is fat loss and muscle gain that are the best outcomes of exercise? Actually molecular changes affect the way genes and proteins are controlled inside cells. Genes can become more or less active, while proteins can be rapidly modified to function differently and carry out tasks such as moving glucose into cells more efficiently, or protect cells from harmful toxins. Type 2 diabetes causes all kinds of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, blindness, kidney failure and nerve damage, and may lead to limb amputation. The underlying cause is the development of a heightened inflammatory state in the body’s tissue and cells. This damages cells and can eventually lead to insulin resistance and, ultimately, type 2 diabetes. The main risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. However, we have found that even low intensity exercise, such as brisk walking, can increase the body’s insulin sensitivity. This means that people at risk of developing diabetes become less prone because they are able to metabolise glucose more efficiently. In our study, we asked 20 sedentary people who were at risk of developing diabetes to walk briskly for 45 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. Altho Continue reading >>

Diabetes On A Cellular Level

Diabetes On A Cellular Level

Transcript of Diabetes on a Cellular Level What is it? Q and A The age range of people who commonly have Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is 0-30 years old, though it can be diagnosed in anyone at any age. To have type one means that the pancreas is not producing the right amount of insulin, or any at all, and the body's immune system is destroying the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. When the immune system attacks the body like this it is called an autoimmune disease. Type 1 Characteristics Type 1 Characteristics Continued Diabetes on a Cellular Level Type 1 Diabetes An autoimmune disease Because the body does not have the insulin required to keep it functioning properly the person has to monitor it and self inject it. This disease was previously known as "juvenile diabetes" as it is most commonly found in children and young adults. Parents are encouraged to know how to help their children be prepared to handle themselves while at school with this condition. Q: How does having diabetes influence you on a daily basis? A: I have to be really careful with my carb intake, since carbs are turned to glucose, and I can't metabolize it well. I also have to avoid a lot of starch, like potatoes, and breads for the same reason. I also have to take insulin. Q: How have your exercise habits changed since you were diagnosed with diabetes? A: I have to make sure to work out regularly to stimulate my metabolism, but I also have to not overdo it, or else my insulin injections become too efficient, and I can get hypoglycemic, which is really dangerous. What it ultimately comes down to is watching my blood sugar very carefully. Citations: Nucleus Medical Media, "Type 1 Diabetes". 2012. YouTube. KnowYourLiver.net Conclusion If you do not have Type 1 diabetes now, the chances are slim that yo Continue reading >>

Destruction Of Tissue, Cells And Organelles In Type 1 Diabetic Rats Presented At Macromolecular Resolution

Destruction Of Tissue, Cells And Organelles In Type 1 Diabetic Rats Presented At Macromolecular Resolution

Finding alternatives for insulin therapy and making advances in etiology of type 1 diabetes benefits from a full structural and functional insight into Islets of Langerhans. Electron microscopy (EM) can visualize Islet morphology at the highest possible resolution, however, conventional EM only provides biased snapshots and lacks context. We developed and employed large scale EM and compiled a resource of complete cross sections of rat Islets during immuno-destruction to provide unbiased structural insight of thousands of cells at macromolecular resolution. The resource includes six datasets, totalling 25.000 micrographs, annotated for cellular and ultrastructural changes during autoimmune diabetes. Granulocytes are attracted to the endocrine tissue, followed by extravasation of a pleiotrophy of leukocytes. Subcellullar changes in beta cells include endoplasmic reticulum stress, insulin degranulation and glycogen accumulation. Rare findings include erythrocyte extravasation and nuclear actin-like fibers. While we focus on a rat model of autoimmune diabetes, our approach is general applicable. Diabetes Mellitus is a life-threatening disease, and its incidence continues to increase, now affecting over 8% of mankind1. The two most prevailing forms are type 2 diabetes, which is caused by insulin-resistance combined with a relative deficiency in insulin, and type 1 diabetes. In the latter, insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune attack. Upon diagnosis, life-long exogenous insulin therapy is immediately initiated2. Fundamental questions in type 1 diabetes remain: What are the triggers? Can it be prevented? Can we diagnose and immune suppress at-onset or near-onset diabetes? Can patients be cured? To address these questions, microscopy is often pivotal, for Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>

When Cell Communication Goes Wrong

When Cell Communication Goes Wrong

The cells in our bodies are constantly sending out and receiving signals. But what if a cell fails to send out a signal at the proper time? Or what if a signal doesn't reach its target? What if a target cell does not respond to a signal, or a cell responds even though it has not received a signal? These are just a few ways in which cell communication can go wrong, resulting in disease. In fact, most diseases involve at least one breakdown in cell communication. Normal blood sugar regulation. After food enters the body (1), it is broken down and sugar enters the bloodstream (2). Sugar stimulates cells in the pancreas to release insulin (3). Insulin travels through the blood to other cells in the body and signals them to take up sugar (4). The food that you eat is broken down into sugar, which enters the blood stream. Normally, cells in the pancreas release a signal, called insulin, that tells your liver, muscle and fat cells to store this sugar for later use. In type I diabetes, the pancreatic cells that produce insulin are lost. Consequently, the insulin signal is also lost. As a result, sugar accumulates to toxic levels in the blood. Without treatment, diabetes can lead to kidney failure, blindness and heart disease in later life. Multiple sclerosis is a disease in which the protective wrappings around nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are destroyed. The affected nerve cells can no longer transmit signals from one area of the brain to another. The nerve damage caused by multiple sclerosis leads to many problems, including muscle weakness, blurred or double vision, difficulty with balance, uncontrolled movements, and depression. Type I and type II diabetes have very similar symptoms, but they have different causes. While people who have type I diabetes are unable Continue reading >>

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes of diabetes worldwide and accounts for 90-95% of cases. Risk Factors Your risk of type 2 diabetes typically increases when you are: Other risk factors are: Family history of diabetes in close relatives Being of African, Asian, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander ancestry High blood pressure High blood levels of fats, known as triglycerides, coupled with low levels of high-density lipoprotein, known as HDL, in the blood stream Prior diagnosis of pre-diabetes such as glucose intolerance or elevated blood sugar In women, a history of giving birth to large babies (over 9 lbs) and/or diabetes during pregnancy Type 2 diabetes is strongly inherited These are some of the statistics: 80-90% of people with Type 2 diabetes have other family members with diabetes. 10-15% of children of a diabetic parent will develop diabetes. If one identical twin has type 2 diabetes, there is up to a 75% chance that the other will also be diabetic. There are many genetic or molecular causes of type 2 diabetes, all of which result in a high blood sugar. As yet, there is no single genetic test to determine who is at risk for type 2 diabetes. To develop type 2 diabetes, you must be born with the genetic traits for diabetes. Because there is a wide range of genetic causes, there is also a wide range in how you will respond to treatment. You may be easily treated with just a change in diet or you may need multiple types of medication. The ha Continue reading >>

Research Into Understanding Disease At Cellular And Molecular Level

Research Into Understanding Disease At Cellular And Molecular Level

Basic knowledge about cells, their differences and how they communicate with each other, is necessary for understanding what happens when we become sick. In recent years, our understanding of diseases and how they occur at cellular and molecular level has grown exponentially. In particular, the latest advances in genome sequencing have advanced knowledge of genetic components making it possible to pose, and answer, brand new questions. Better understanding of communication networks within and between cells also paves the way for new paths towards the treatment and prevention of diseases. Researchers at the University of Copenhagen are working to decode and understand the mechanisms behind diseases such as diabetes, cancer and malaria. Below are some examples of the new knowledge that researchers have already identified. Development of insulin-producing beta cells Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, by what are called beta cells. In people with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. The aim is therefore to develop insulin-producing beta cells. This will require an understanding of the mechanisms that control the formation of beta cells. Researchers from DanStem have shown that the so-called 'notch' signal's ability to inhibit and then stimulate the formation of hormone-producing cells is important for monitoring the development of the beta cells. Several cancers may be caused by diseased stem cells The discovery of more and more of the cells that maintain tissue and organs throughout life (the stem cells) offers new perspectives for the treatment of diseases. In order to find new principles for treatment, we must be able to compare cancer cells with their normal cell of origin. This will only be possible with a suffic Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. How the Body Makes Insulin Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. See Illustration: How Insulin Works Insulin Opens Cell Doors When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows Continue reading >>

More in diabetes