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How Does Diabetes Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy, or nerve damage caused by diabetes, is one of the most common known causes of neuropathy. It is one of many complications associated with diabetes, with nearly 60 percent of diabetics having some form of nerve damage. It is a progressive disease that can involve loss of sensation, as well as pain and weakness, in the feet and sometimes in the hands. Peripheral neuropathy may be more prevalent in people who have difficulty managing their blood sugar levels, have high blood pressure, are overweight, and are over 40 years old. A clinical examination may identify early signs of neuropathy in diabetics without symptoms. Today, doctors are exploring a link between pre-diabetes (also known as impaired glucose tolerance or IGT) and peripheral neuropathy. Approximately 10% of adults in America have what is being called “pre-diabetes” or “borderline diabetes”—a condition where the body has higher than normal blood sugar levels, but not high enough to be diagnosed as true diabetes. If left untreated, people with pre-diabetes are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and nerve damage (which could result in peripheral neuropathy.) People with pre-diabetes or IGT can significantly reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes through diet, exercise and learning to control their blood sugar levels. Pre Diabetes Symptoms & Signs (Not all symptoms and signs may be present.) People with IGT often have no symptoms. People who actually have diabetes—and who therefore are at greater risk of developing peripheral neuropathy—often don’t realize it because the symptoms of diabetes come on so gradually. Pre Diabetic symptoms and its complications include: Frequent urination Blurred vision Constant thirst Fatigue Frequent infections Cuts and Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy—DPN for short—is diabetes-related damage to nerves that sit near the surface of your skin. DPN usually affects the feet and the hands, but can also harm nerves in arms and legs. Approximately 50 percent of people with type 2 diabetes and 20% of those with type 1 diabetes develop this kind of nerve damage.1 DPN can be extremely painful—or cause numbness so that you have little feeling, especially in your feet. DPN damages two different types of nerves close to the surface of your skin. DPN can affect small nerves that protect your body by sending signals about pain and temperature changes to your brain. This condition can also attack large nerves that detect touch, pressure and help you keep your balance. 2 Symptoms are different for each type. Most people with DPN have damage to both types of nerves. DPN usually affects extremities—feet, hands, legs and arms—where nerve fibers are the longest and most numerous. 3 Causes Experts are still investigating exactly how diabetes harms and kills these nerve cells. “The causes remain unknown,” the American Diabetes Association noted in a definitive 2017 review. One thing is certain: The conventional wisdom—that high blood sugar is the cause—is just part of the story. New research is revealing a bigger cast of culprits. These include high cholesterol, high triglycerides (another blood fat), high blood pressure, obesity and smoking, according to a British research report in a widely-cited 2005 study that tracked 1,172 people with diabetes for seven years. 4 The threats are major: Obesity and high triglycerides each doubled risk in people with diabetes in a 2013 University of Utah study of 218 people with type 2 diabetes. 5 Smoking increased risk by as much as 42% in a 2015 Harvard M Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy definition and facts Diabetes is thought to damage nerves as a result of prolonged elevated levels of blood glucose. Peripheral neuropathy most commonly causes: Autonomic neuropathy causes symptoms related to dysfunction of an organ system, such as: Diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy is usually done by a clinical exam. There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but treatments are available to manage the symptoms. Diabetic nerve pain may be controlled by medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, duloxetine (Cymbalta), or certain antiseizure medications. Keeping tight control of blood sugar levels is the best way to prevent diabetic neuropathy and other complications of diabetes. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy? The symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy depend upon the type of neuropathy that is present. Signs and symptoms can also vary in severity among affected people. Signs and symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy include: Numbness or tingling of the feet and lower legs Pain or burning sensations Loss of sensation in the feet or lower legs Sometimes, but less commonly, these symptoms can occur in the hands or arms Signs and symptoms of diabetic proximal neuropathy include: Pain, usually on one side, in the hips, buttocks, or thighs Signs and symptoms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy depend upon the organ system that is involved and can include: Feeling full after eating a small amount Inability to empty the bladder completely Decrease in vaginal lubrication in women Rapid resting heartbeat Signs and symptoms of diabetic focal neuropathy also depend upon the location of the affected nerve. The symptoms can appear suddenly. It usually does not cause a long t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Print Overview Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, but diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your extremities to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. For some people, these symptoms are mild; for others, diabetic neuropathy can be painful, disabling and even fatal. Diabetic neuropathy is a common serious complication of diabetes. Yet you can often prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress with tight blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle. Symptoms There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy. You may have just one type or symptoms of several types. Most develop gradually, and you may not notice problems until considerable damage has occurred. The signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy vary, depending on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected. Peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. Your feet and legs are often affected first, followed by your hands and arms. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are often worse at night, and may include: Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes A tingling or burning sensation Sharp pains or cramps Increased sensitivity to touch — for some people, even the weight of a bed sheet can be agonizing Muscle weakness Loss of reflexes, especially in the ankle Loss of balance and coordination Serious foot problems, such as ulcers, infections, deformities, and bone and joint pain Autonomic neuropathy The autonomic nervous system controls your hea Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Nerve damage or diabetic neuropathy resulting from chronically high blood glucose can be one of the most frustrating and debilitating complications of diabetes because of the pain, discomfort and disability it can cause, and because available treatments are not uniformly successful. Some patients find some relief from this nerve damage or neuropathy by keeping blood sugars as closely controlled as possible, getting regular exercise and keeping their weight under control. Using non-narcotic pain relievers consistently throughout the day—rather than waiting until nighttime when symptoms can become more severe—also seems to help if pain is the major symptom. Surprisingly, clinicians have also found that certain antidepressants may be helpful and can take the edge off the pain of neuropathy. Although pain or numbness in the legs or feet may be the most common complaint from people diagnosed with neuropathy, it is not the only symptom of this complication. Neuropathy can cause a host of different types of symptoms, depending on whether nerves in the legs, gastrointestinal tract, or elsewhere in the body are affected. If you have any of these symptoms, neuropathy may be the culprit: inability to adequately empty the bladder of its contents, resulting in frequent infections; nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness or bloating, diarrhea, or constipation; low blood pressure upon standing that causes fainting or dizziness; inability to lift the foot or new deformities of the foot, or foot ulcers; trouble achieving or maintaining an erection. Although physicians have found some medications and other treatments that help ease these symptoms in some people, prevention continues to be the key. "Hemoglobin A1C readings should ideally be at 7.0% or lower. Those that are consistently n Continue reading >>

What Is Peripheral Neuropathy?

What Is Peripheral Neuropathy?

Peripheral neuropathy refers to a problem with the peripheral nerves. These nerves send messages from the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body. The peripheral nerves tell the body when, for example, the hands are cold. It can lead to tingling, prickling, numbness, and muscle weakness in various parts of the body. Peripheral neuropathy can affect a range of different nerves, so it can impact a variety of locations in different ways. It can affect a single nerve, or several nerves at the same time. It is also associated with a number of different underlying medical conditions. Sometimes there is no identifiable cause. It affects some 20 million people in the United States (U.S.). Here are some key points about peripheral neuropathy. More detail is in the main article. Neuropathy is a common complication of a number of different medical conditions. It can involve the autonomic nerves, the motor nerves, and the sensory nerves. Sometimes it affects a single nerve or nerve set, for example, in Bell's Palsy, which affects a facial nerve. Physical trauma, repetitive injury, infection, metabolic problems, and exposure to toxins and some drugs are all possible causes. Treatment Treatment either targets the underlying cause, or it aims to provide symptomatic pain relief and prevent further damage. In the case of diabetic neuropathy, addressing high blood sugars can prevent further nerve damage. For toxic causes, removing the exposure to a suspected toxin, or stopping a drug, can halt further nerve damage. Medications can relieve pain and reduce burning, numbness, and tingling. Drug treatment for neuropathic pain Medications that may help include: Opioid painkillers come with warnings about safety risks. Doctors can also prescribe skin patch Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It’s a type of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled high blood sugar levels. You may not initially have any symptoms. The condition usually develops slowly, sometimes over the course of several decades. If you have diabetes and are experiencing numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness of your hands or feet, call your doctor. These are the early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. In cases of severe or prolonged peripheral neuropathy, you may experience injuries or infections in your extremities. In some cases, these can lead to amputation. Damage to other nerves of the body can cause other symptoms. That’s why it’s important to regularly monitor your blood sugar levels and contact your doctor if have any symptoms of neuropathy. It’s common for symptoms of neuropathy to appear gradually. In many cases, the first type of nerve damage to occur involves the nerves of the feet. This can lead to symptoms such as the sensation of pins and needles in your feet. Symptoms vary depending on the nerves affected. Common signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include: sensitivity to touch loss of sense of touch difficulty with coordination when walking numbness or pain in your extremities muscle weakness or wasting nausea and indigestion diarrhea or constipation dizziness upon standing excessive sweating vaginal dryness in women and erectile dysfunction in men Symptoms may vary depending on the type of neuropathy you’re experiencing. The term neuropathy is used to describe several types of nerve damage. In people with diabetes, there are four main types of neuropathy you may develop. Peripheral neuropathy The most common form of neuropathy is peripheral neuropa Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Symptoms Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a condition caused by long-term high blood sugar levels, which causes nerve damage. Some people will not have any symptoms. But for others symptoms may be debilitating. Between 60 and 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Peripheral neuropathy, the most common form of diabetic neuropathy, affects the legs, feet, toes, hands, and arms. Many people do not know that they have diabetes. People unaware of their diabetes may not know what’s causing some of the unusual sensations they’re experiencing. Nerve damage is the result of high levels of blood glucose over long periods of time. It isn’t entirely clear why high glucose levels damage nerves. A number of factors may play a role in nerve fiber damage. One possible component is the intricate interplay between the blood vessels and nerves, according to the Mayo Clinic. Other factors include high blood pressure and cholesterol levels and nerve inflammation. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy usually first appears in the feet and legs, and may occur in the hands and arms later. A common symptom of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is numbness. Sometimes you may be unable to feel your feet while walking. Other times, your hands or feet will tingle or burn. Or it may feel like you’re wearing a sock or glove when you’re not. Sometimes you may experience sudden, sharp pains that feel like an electrical current. Other times, you may feel cramping, like when you’re grasping something like a piece of silverware. You also may sometimes unintentionally drop items you’re holding as a result of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Walking with a wobbly motion or even losing your balance can res Continue reading >>

Peripheral Neuropathy And Diabetes

Peripheral Neuropathy And Diabetes

Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage caused by chronically high blood sugar and diabetes. It leads to numbness, loss of sensation, and sometimes pain in your feet, legs, or hands. It is the most common complication of diabetes. About 60% to 70% of all people with diabetes will eventually develop peripheral neuropathy, although not all suffer pain. Yet this nerve damage is not inevitable. Studies have shown that people with diabetes can reduce their risk of developing nerve damage by keeping their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. What causes peripheral neuropathy? Chronically high blood sugar levels damage nerves not only in your extremities but also in other parts of your body. These damaged nerves cannot effectively carry messages between the brain and other parts of the body. This means you may not feel heat, cold, or pain in your feet, legs, or hands. If you get a cut or sore on your foot, you may not know it, which is why it's so important to inspect your feet daily. If a shoe doesn't fit properly, you could even develop a foot ulcer and not know it. The consequences can be life-threatening. An infection that won't heal because of poor blood flow causes risk for developing ulcers and can lead to amputation, even death. This nerve damage shows itself differently in each person. Some people feel tingling, then later feel pain. Other people lose the feeling in fingers and toes; they have numbness. These changes happen slowly over a period of years, so you might not even notice it. Because the changes are subtle and happen as people get older, people tend to ignore the signs of nerve damage, thinking it's just part of getting older. But there are treatments that can help slow the progression of this condition and limit the damage. Talk to your doctors Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetes And Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage caused by chronically high blood sugar and diabetes. It leads to numbness, loss of sensation, and sometimes pain in your feet, legs, and hands. Neuropathy linked with diabetes is also called diabetic polyneuropathy. It is a very common complication of diabetes. The NHS says the longer you have diabetes, the greater your chances are of developing diabetic polyneuropathy. It estimates that around half of all people who have had diabetes for 25 years or more have diabetic polyneuropathy. Studies have shown that people with diabetes can reduce or delay their risk of developing nerve damage by keeping their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. What causes peripheral neuropathy? Chronically high blood sugar levels damage nerves not only in your extremities but also in other parts of your body. These damaged nerves cannot effectively carry messages between the brain and other parts of the body. This means you may not feel heat, cold or pain in your feet, legs, or hands. If you get a cut or sore on your foot, you may not know it, which is why it's so important to inspect your feet daily. If a shoe doesn't fit properly, you could even develop a foot ulcer and not know it. An infection that will not heal because of poor blood flow increases the risk of developing ulcers and can lead to amputation, even death. This nerve damage shows itself differently in each person. Some people feel tingling, then later feel pain. Other people lose the feeling in fingers and toes - they have numbness. These changes happen slowly over a period of years, so you might not even notice it. Because it happens as people get older, experts say they tend to ignore the little tingles or subtle loss of sensation that is occurring - the signs of nerve dama Continue reading >>

Causes Of Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetes And Beyond

Causes Of Peripheral Neuropathy: Diabetes And Beyond

Causes of peripheral neuropathy: Diabetes and beyond J Fam Pract. 2015 December;64(12):774-778,781-783 Department of Family and Community Medicine (Dr. L. Mayans), Department of Internal Medicine (Dr. D. Mayans), University of Kansas School of MedicineWichita; Neurology Consultants of Kansas, Wichita (Dr. D. Mayans) The authors reported no potential conflict of interest relevant to this article. Leg paresthesias can be challenging to evaluate because of the varied causes and clinical presentations. This diagnostic guide with at-a-glance tables can help. 1. Katirji B, Koontz D. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff R, ed. Bradleys Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:1915-1983. 2. Azhary H, Farooq MU, Bhanushali M, et al. Peripheral neuropathy: differential diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81:887-892. 3. Alport AR, Sander HW. Clinical approach to peripheral neuropathy: anatomic localization and diagnostic testing. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:13-38. 4. England JD, Gronseth GS, Franklin G, et al. Practice parameter: evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: role of laboratory and genetic testing (an evidence-based review). Neurology. 2009;72:185-192. 5. Smith AG, Singleton JR. Diabetic neuropathy. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:60-84. 6. Shenoy AM. Guidelines in practice: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:192-198. 7. Gibbons CH. Small fiber neuropathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014;20:1398-1412. 8. So YT. Immune-mediated neuropathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:85-105. 9. Dimachkie MM, Saperstein DS. Acquired immune demyelinating neuropathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014;20:1241-1260. 10. Patwa HS, Chaudhry V, Katzberg H, et al. Evidence-based guid Continue reading >>

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that typically affects the feet and legs and sometimes affects the hands and arms. This type of neuropathy is very common. Up to one-half of people with diabetes have peripheral neuropathy.1,2 Over time, high blood glucose, also called blood sugar, and high levels of fats, such as triglycerides , in the blood from diabetes can damage your nerves and the small blood vessels that nourish your nerves, leading to peripheral neuropathy. What are the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy? If you have peripheral neuropathy, your feet, legs, hands, or arms may feel You may feel extreme pain in your feet, legs, hands, and arms, even when they are touched lightly. You may also have problems sensing pain or temperature in these parts of your body. If you have peripheral neuropathy, you may feel burning or tingling, like pins and needles, in your feet. Symptoms are often worse at night. Most of the time, you will have symptoms on both sides of your body. However, you may have symptoms only on one side. If you have peripheral neuropathy, you might experience: loss of balance, which could make you fall more often loss of muscle tone in your hands and feet What problems does peripheral neuropathy cause? Peripheral neuropathy can cause foot problems that lead to blisters and sores. If peripheral neuropathy causes you to lose feeling in your feet, you may not notice pressure or injuries that lead to blisters and sores. Diabetes can make these wounds difficult to heal and increase the chance of infections. These sores and infections can lead to the loss of a toe, foot, or part of your leg. Finding and treating foot problems early can lower the chances that you will develop serious infections. This type of diabetes-related nerve damage can also Continue reading >>

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy means damage to one or more of your peripheral nerves. The damage means that the messages that travel between your central and peripheral nervous system are disrupted. There are many different conditions that can lead to peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes is the most common cause of persistent (chronic) peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy depend on which type of peripheral nerves are damaged (sensory, motor or autonomic nerves). Neuropathy can affect any one type, or a combination of all three types, of nerves. The aims of treatment for peripheral neuropathy are to treat any underlying cause, to control your symptoms and to help you to achieve maximum independence. Some anatomy of the nervous system Your nervous system is divided into your central nervous system and your peripheral nervous system. Your central nervous system includes your brain and spinal cord. Your peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves, called peripheral nerves, that transmit information from your brain and spinal cord to all the other parts of your body, including your arms, legs and organs. Your peripheral nerves also act as 'messengers' to transmit information back to your spinal cord and brain. For example, say you pick up something too hot, or your feet or fingers are too cold. If your peripheral nerves are damaged in some way, the information that passes along them becomes mixed up or doesn't get through at all to your central nervous system. Your peripheral nerves can be divided into 'sensory' nerves, 'motor' nerves and 'autonomic' nerves. Sensory nerves. Electrical impulses transmitted along your sensory nerves allow you to touch and feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. Motor nerves link up with your muscles. Electrical impulses t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy[1]; mononeuropathy; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful polyneuropathy; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. Signs and symptoms[edit] Illustration depicting areas affected by diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, diabetic neuropathy can affect all organs and systems, as all are innervated. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years. Symptoms may include the following: Trouble with balance Numbness and tingling of extremities Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part) Diarrhea Erectile dysfunction Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping Vision changes Dizziness Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Fasciculation (muscle contractions) Anorgasmia Retrograde ejaculation (in males) Burning or electric pain Pathogenesis[edit] The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of dia Continue reading >>

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

What are diabetic neuropathies? Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness—loss of feeling—in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight. What causes diabetic neuropathies? The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors: metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies? Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which Continue reading >>

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