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How Does Diabetes Cause Periodontal Disease?

Gum Disease

Gum Disease

Tweet Gum disease, also known as periodontal disease, is the sixth most common disease in the world. People with diabetes are more likely to experience gum disease if they’ve had poor blood sugar levels for a long period of time. What is gum disease? Gum disease affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth and eventually leads to tooth loss. The good news, though, is that gum disease is preventable and can be easily treated in the early stages of the disease. What does gum disease have to do with diabetes? People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing gum disease. Poorly managed blood sugar levels can cause damage to nerves, blood vessels, the heart, the kidneys, the eyes and the feet. In the same way, the gums can too be affected. Because high blood sugar levels lead to damage to blood vessels, this reduces the supply of oxygen and nourishment to the gums, making infections of the gums and bones more likely. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause levels of glucose to rise in the saliva and this creates a breeding ground for bacteria, increasing the risk of gum disease and dental decay. Severe gum disease can negatively affect your blood sugar control and increase your chances of suffering from other common long-term complications of diabetes. The inflammation, which occurs in the gums, escapes into the bloodstream and upsets the body’s defence system which in turn affects blood sugar control. In other words, gum disease and diabetes are linked in both directions. The European Federation of Periodontology recommends that following a diagnosis of diabetes you should inform your dentist and undergo a comprehensive dental check up. People with diabetes should have regular dental check-ups, including a review of gum health. If your dentist or hygienist Continue reading >>

Does Periodontal Disease Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Does Periodontal Disease Cause Type 2 Diabetes?

Diabetes has long been a risk factor for periodontal disease; new research may point to reverse causation. Diabetes has long been believed to be a risk factor for periodontal disease. Results of a new study show that the reverse might also be true, according to researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Ryan T. Demmer, PhD, MPH, associate research scientist in the department of epidemiology, said that these findings add a “new twist” to the association, suggesting that periodontal disease may lead to diabetes. “It has been generally accepted that periodontal disease is a consequence of diabetes despite the fact that this association has not been studied with the same methodological rigor applied to coronary and stroke outcomes,” he told Endocrine Today. “We found that over two decades of follow-up, individuals who had periodontal disease were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life when compared to individuals without periodontal disease.” The researchers studied over 9,000 participants without diabetes from a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population, with more than 800 eventually developing diabetes. They then compared the risk of developing diabetes over the next 20 years between people with varying degrees of periodontal disease and found that individuals with elevated levels of periodontal disease were nearly twice as likely to become diabetic in that 20-year timeframe. Demmer said to keep an open mind about the results, however. “They certainly are thought-provoking, biologically plausible and supported by longstanding research regarding periodontal disease and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. While there are no immediate clinical implications that stem from these findings, they do suggest a Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems

Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems

How can diabetes affect my mouth? Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes can cause pain, infection, and other problems in your mouth. Your mouth includes your teeth your gums your jaw tissues such as your tongue, the roof and bottom of your mouth, and the inside of your cheeks Glucose is present in your saliva—the fluid in your mouth that makes it wet. When diabetes is not controlled, high glucose levels in your saliva help harmful bacteria grow. These bacteria combine with food to form a soft, sticky film called plaque. Plaque also comes from eating foods that contain sugars or starches. Some types of plaque cause tooth decay or cavities. Other types of plaque cause gum disease and bad breath. Gum disease can be more severe and take longer to heal if you have diabetes. In turn, having gum disease can make your blood glucose hard to control. What happens if I have plaque? Plaque that is not removed hardens over time into tartar and collects above your gum line. Tartar makes it more difficult to brush and clean between your teeth. Your gums become red and swollen, and bleed easily—signs of unhealthy or inflamed gums, called gingivitis. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to gum disease called periodontitis. In periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and form spaces, called pockets, which slowly become infected. This infection can last a long time. Your body fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line. Both the bacteria and your body’s response to this infection start to break down the bone and the tissue that hold the teeth in place. If periodontitis is not treated, the gums, bones, and tissue that support the teeth are destroyed. Teeth may become loose and might need to be removed. If you hav Continue reading >>

Gum Disease And Diabetes

Gum Disease And Diabetes

New evidence shows that patients with diabetes are more likely to experience signs of gum disease than those without. There are several factors that contribute to this increased risk. In order to prevent the need for laser treatment for periodontal disease in Albany, NY, patients with diabetes are strongly encouraged to practice good oral hygiene and visit Dr. Alexander S. Choe for regular checkups and cleanings. How does diabetes contribute to gum disease? Diabetes causes changes in the blood vessels that can impede the flow of nutrients and slow the rate at which waste is removed. As a result of impaired blood flow and high levels of waste in the bloodstream, the gum tissue is weakened and can more easily become infected. Additionally, uncontrolled diabetes can create high levels of glucose in the saliva and other fluids which can cause signs of gum disease to become more prevalent and severe. How can I prevent gum disease? Due to the fact that diabetes can make it harder for the body to fight off infections, it is extremely important to brush and floss regularly and schedule checkups at the minimum on a biannual basis, and sometimes more often if recommended by Dr. Choe. It is also helpful to eat healthy and avoid foods with little nutritional value. Finally, using tobacco products can greatly increase the appearance of the signs of gum disease. Avoiding these products is highly recommended for both patients with and without diabetes. Laser Treatment for Periodontal Disease in Albany, NY In combination with poor oral hygiene and an unhealthy lifestyle, diabetes can quickly lead to the onset of advanced periodontal disease. In these cases, laser gum surgery is often recommended as the most effective and most comfortable method for eliminating signs of gum disease. For Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Gum Disease

Diabetes & Gum Disease

We all love a beautiful smile. Smiling can help us feel better, whether it’s us or others we meet who are doing the smiling. As people with diabetes, we have to be extra vigilant to help keep our gums and teeth healthy, protecting our beautiful smile. Although it’s not discussed as often as it should be, diabetes is the leading cause of periodontal (gum) disease. People with diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) experience three times greater risk of periodontal disease than non-diabetics. 1, 2 It’s also reported that higher A1c levels were a sign that periodontal disease and root destruction would progress more rapidly in people previously diagnosed with treated for periodontitis. 3 Oral Health and Diabetes: The interaction between periodontal disease and diabetes is somewhat of the-chicken-or-the-egg scenario, acting in a cyclical pattern: High blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) cause both microvascular changes throughout the body, along with high glucose levels in saliva. Microvascular changes and high glucose in saliva can lead to increased plaque build-up on the teeth, which causes receding gums and pockets below the gumline These pockets allow more plaque bacteria to grow beneath the gumline and is not easily cleaned, which then causes infection, bad breath, gingivitis and ultimately, periodontitis. This oral Infection caused by periodontitis will then cause blood glucose levels in people with diabetes to increase (as will any infection in the body) Increased blood glucose levels increase the microvascular damage throughout the body and prevent healing. This vicious cycle of periodontal disease in diabetes can lead to pain, oral bone loss and ultimately tooth loss. Oral Health and Your Heart: Studies that say the oral bacteria that causes tooth plaque and ulti Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Periodontal Disease The Relation

Diabetes And Periodontal Disease The Relation

1. Periodontal Inflammation and Diabetes: a two way relationshipKaumudi Joshipura BDS, MS, ScD Center for Clinical Research and Health PromotionSchool of Dental MedicineUniversity of Puerto RicoHarvard University 2. Biological Pathways: Periodontal Disease, Systemic Inflammation and Cardiometabolic ConditionsCommon Risk FactorsAgeSmokingObesity, DiabetesPhysical ActivityGeneticsRaceAlcoholComorbidityMedicationsFluorideMicrobesAccess to CarePeriodontitisCariesToothlossSystemic Inflammation Nutrition (Body Composition,(Biomarkers) Dietary intake; Nutritional Status) Dyslipidemia Arterial StiffnessObesityAdverse Pregnancy OutcomesHypertensionPre-diabetesAtherosclerosis DiabetesCHDPADStrokeGestationalDiabetesPre-eclampsia2Kidney DiseaseCancer 3. Dental CariesCavities are holes or structural damage to the teeth.There may be no symptoms, but if present, may include:Toothache or painful sensation in the teeth, especially after consuming sweet drinks or hot or cold foodRisk factors include: Poor oral hygiene Fermentable carbohydrates 4. It is an infection and inflammation affecting the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth.Periodontitis occurs when infection and inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) progresses to involve other surrounding tissues. Periodontitis 5. Healthy GingivaPeriodontal Disease 6. Pocket DepthHealthy gingivaPeriodontal Pocket 7. Attachment Level6mm6mm 8. Bone Loss 9. Gingival RecessionCauses:

  • Periodontal Disease 10. Traumatic tooth cleaning technique 11. Local irritants (plaque or calculus) 12. Orthodontic tipping 13. Provisional crowns 14. Extraction of adjacent teeth 15. Occlusal forces
9 16. U.S. Adults PeriodontalDiseasePrevalence (≥1 site Pocket Depth ≥4mm)NHANES III, 1988-94Adapted: Burt and Eklund, 2005 17. U.S. Adults Cum Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Gums

Diabetes And Your Gums

After five years of writing about diabetes, I still think gum care is among the most important and least appreciated aspects of self-management. Studies keep showing how gum (periodontal) disease and diabetes make each other worse. So are you flossing yet? Severe gum disease (periodontitis) can cause diabetes. According to researchers at Marquette University, “Periodontitis may [raise levels of inflammatory cytokines and serum lipids]… These cytokines can produce an insulin resistance syndrome similar to that observed in diabetes and initiate destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to development of diabetes.” Just as gum disease contributes to diabetes, having diabetes worsens gum conditions. According to the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP), “Periodontal disease is often considered the sixth complication of diabetes. Those people who don’t have their diabetes under control are especially at risk.” The link between diabetes and gum disease is that both cause inflammation, not just locally, but through the whole body. Inflammatory cytokines like interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inflame blood vessels, creating small scars. Soon the vessels block up with plaque. These blockage are linked with heart disease, kidney disease, and strokes, all major complications of diabetes. A study from Bangalore, India looked at 200 people, half of whom had recent strokes or heart attacks. Researchers controlled for family history of stroke, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, diabetes, hypertension, total serum cholesterol level, and education level. Those with worse gums (pocket depths greater than 4.5 millimeters) had far higher risk of strokes. Along with inflammation, infection of the gums creates a vicious diabetes circle. Gum infection Continue reading >>

Gum Disease

Gum Disease

Research has come forth that suggests that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes goes both ways-periodontal disease can make it more difficult for diabetics to control their blood sugar. Those who have diabetes are more likely to have periodontal disease than those who do not which makes it vital for diabetics to maintain their blood sugar and seek treatment for periodontal disease. Diabetes Increases Chances of Periodontal Disease Diabetics, as a result of their increased susceptibility to infection, are at greater risk of developing periodontal disease than those without diabetes. Those who do not have their diabetes under control are at an even greater risk for periodontal disease. Uncontrolled diabetes impairs white blood cells, which are the body’s main defense against bacterial infection that can occur in the mouth. Allowing diabetes to be left uncontrolled greatly increases a diabetic’s risk of moderate to severe periodontal disease. Those who have diabetes will often experience dry mouth, gum inflammation, and poor healing in the oral tissues. All of these complications of diabetes can put a patient at greater risk for periodontal disease, but the inflammation of the gums is by far the most threatening. Besides impairing white blood cells, diabetes also causes blood vessels to thicken. Thickened blood vessels slow the flow of nutrients and waste products from the tissues of the mouth. This inflammation greatly reduces the body’s ability to fight infections, such as the bacterial infection that causes periodontitis or gum disease. Additionally, the damage that periodontal disease can do is far greater in a diabetic patient than one without diabetes because healing in diabetics may be impaired, allowing the periodontal disease to cause fa Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Periodontal (gum) Disease

Diabetes And Periodontal (gum) Disease

Diabetes that is not properly controlled can lead to periodontal (gum) diseases in both young and old people. Periodontal diseases are infections of the gums and bone that hold the teeth in place. Because of blood vessel changes that happen with diabetes, the efficiency of the flow of nutrients and removal of wastes from body tissues may become impaired. This impaired blood flow can weaken the gums and bone. This makes them more susceptible to infection. In addition, if diabetes is poorly controlled, higher glucose levels in the mouth fluids will encourage the growth of bacteria that can cause gum disease. Poor blood sugar control decreases the ability of the immune system to fight infections. On the other hand, uncontrolled periodontal disease may also make it more difficult to control the diabetes. A third factor, smoking, is harmful to oral health even for people without diabetes. However, a person with diabetes who smokes is at a much greater risk for gum disease than a person who does not have diabetes. Paired with poor oral hygiene, diabetes can lead to gingivitis, the first stage of periodontal disease, or to periodontitis, severe gum disease. What are the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease? The following are the most common signs and symptoms of gum disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Signs and symptoms may include: Red, swollen, tender gums Bleeding while brushing and/or flossing Receding gums Loose or separating teeth Persistent bad breath Dentures that no longer fit Pus between the teeth and gums A change in bite and jaw alignment The signs and symptoms of gum disease may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Talk with a dentist or other oral health specialist for a diagnosis. What are the different types of Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Periodontal Disease

Diabetes And Periodontal Disease

If you have diabetes, you know the disease can harm your eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart and other important systems in the body. Did you know it can also cause problems in your mouth? People with diabetes have a higher than normal risk of periodontal diseases. Periodontal diseases are infections of the gum and bone that hold the teeth in place. In advanced stages, they lead to painful chewing problems and even tooth loss. Like any infection, gum disease can make it hard to keep your blood sugar under control. Diabetic Control. Like other complications of diabetes, gum disease is linked to diabetic control. People with poor blood sugar control get gum disease more often and more severely, and they lose more teeth than do persons with good control. In fact, people whose diabetes is well controlled have no more periodontal disease than persons without diabetes. Children with IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) are also at risk for gum problems. Good diabetic control is the best protection against periodontal disease. Studies show that controlling blood sugar levels lowers the risk of some complications of diabetes, such as eye and heart disease and nerve damage. Scientists believe many complications, including gum disease, can be prevented with good diabetic control. Blood Vessel Changes. Thickening of blood vessels is a complication of diabetes that may increase risk for gum disease. Blood vessels deliver oxygen and nourishment to body tissues, including the mouth, and carry away the tissues' waste products. Diabetes causes blood vessels to thicken, which slows the flow of nutrients and the removal of harmful wastes. This can weaken the resistance of gum and bone tissue to infection. Bacteria. Many kinds of bacteria (germs) thrive on sugars, including glucose -- the Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Gum Disease: Understanding The Link To Protect Your Health

Diabetes And Gum Disease: Understanding The Link To Protect Your Health

Do you know that there is a link between diabetes and gum disease? Diabetics have a higher risk of developing gum disease than people who have healthy blood sugar levels. The relationship appears to go both ways; research indicates that having a serious gum infection can make it more difficult to control blood sugar levels. Taking care of your mouth, whether you have diabetes or not, is more important than you may be aware of. What Causes the Increased Gum Disease Risk? What do high blood glucose levels have to do with your oral health? For a person with diabetes it is more difficult to defend the body from a bacterial infection; high glucose levels make it easier for bacteria to flourish in the mouth. Gum disease is an inflammation of the gums caused by a bacterial infection. The germs in plaque infect the teeth and gums, leading to gingivitis, the first stage of this disease. If left untreated, this oral health condition can result in tissue damage and eventual tooth loss. The more serious stages of gum disease are known as periodontitis and advanced periodontitis. How Does Periodontitis Affect Diabetes? The relationship between diabetes and gum disease becomes even more powerful when you look at the potential effect of an infection on blood glucose levels. Having a serious infection may contribute to rising blood sugar levels. This means that not only does having diabetes make an infection harder to fight, but also having serious gum disease may make diabetes harder to control. What can be done to prevent your health from spiraling out of control? Even if you don't have blood glucose problems or periodontitis, you should still make your oral health and overall priority. Brush twice a day and floss once a day before bedtime. Use a toothpaste like Colgate Total which w Continue reading >>

Pardon Our Interruption...

Pardon Our Interruption...

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Periodontal Diseases And Dental Caries In Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Periodontal Diseases And Dental Caries In Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Mediators of Inflammation Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 379626, 8 pages School of Dental Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Karlovo Namesti 32 and Katerinska 32, 121 11 Prague, Czech Republic Academic Editor: Claudio Mastronardi Copyright © 2015 Marta Novotna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Affect Your Teeth And Gums?

Can Diabetes Affect Your Teeth And Gums?

Did you know that trouble keeping your blood sugars in control could lead to an infection? That infection could be in your gums. That’s right. People with diabetes have a higher incidence of gum disease or periodontal disease than people without diabetes. In this article, we will look at the link between diabetes and periodontal disease. We will look at what it is, what are the prevention and treatment options available, some other oral problems that are also linked to diabetes, and more. Just like high blood glucose makes it easier for you to get an infection in other places in your body, high blood glucose levels also make it easier to get a gum infection, or other infection in your mouth. Decaying teeth and poor oral habits contribute to periodontal disease, as does smoking. We will take a look at all of that here. First, let’s see why Martin contacted TheDiabetesCouncil. Martin was interested in learning more about his high blood sugars and their effects on his teeth. He had been trying to get his blood sugar levels down, but nothing he seemed to do with diet, exercise, or medications helped in aiming his target range for blood sugars or in an A1C range that he was comfortable with. He was due to pay a visit to his dentist since his last visit was over a year ago. Martin’s dentist told him that he was at the start of a periodontal disease, and in addition, he had a gum infection. He wondered if the infection in his gums may be a reason for why he was unable to keep his blood glucose in a good range. An infection anywhere in your body could be a reason for unruly blood glucose. Let’s see if we can answer Martin’s question in depth. What is periodontal disease? Periodontal disease is an infection that develops of the gum, and underlying bone, that holds the Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Periodontal Disease

Diabetes And Periodontal Disease

Diabetic patients are more likely to develop periodontal disease, which in turn can increase blood sugar and diabetic complications. People with diabetes are more likely to have periodontal disease than people without diabetes, probably because people with diabetes are more susceptible to contracting infections. In fact, periodontal disease is often considered a complication of diabetes. Those people who don't have their diabetes under control are especially at risk. Research has suggested that the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease goes both ways - periodontal disease may make it more difficult for people who have diabetes to control their blood sugar. Severe periodontal disease can increase blood sugar, contributing to increased periods of time when the body functions with a high blood sugar. This puts people with diabetes at increased risk for diabetic complications. Continue reading >>

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