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How Does Diabetes Cause Alzheimer?

Investigating The Relationship Between Diabetes And Dementia

Investigating The Relationship Between Diabetes And Dementia

Investigating the relationship between diabetes and dementia Investigating the relationship between diabetes and dementia Read about a research project we funded: Diabetes, Defective Nutrient Signalling and Dementia: an Epidemiological Neuropathology Approach. Lead Investigator: Professor Stephen Wharton Comments from members of our Research Network: 'This study could provide important information in identifying how diabetes contributes to cognitive decline and dementia. It could also lead to further important research' 'Diabetes and obesity are two ticking time bombs. Understanding their contribution to dementia is of immense importance' 'The project makes excellent use of a very important brain bank' Research has shown that diabetes can increase the risk of developing both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. This is thought to be because the mechanisms behind diabetes development can damage small blood vessels in the brain, which is likely to contribute towards vascular dementia. It is also thought that diabetes-related blood vessel damage could lead to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which may be a factor in Alzheimer's disease development. Professor Wharton believes that diabetes mechanisms may also directly cause damage to brain cells. He intends to use this project to further investigate the molecular reasons behind the apparent link between diabetes and dementia. The project will also determine whether a common condition called metabolic syndrome can influence dementia development. Metabolic syndrome encompasses a group of symptoms including obesity, high blood pressure, impaired blood glucose processing and impaired metabolic processes in cells. The project will look at several aspects of diabetes and metabolic syndrome and how these could link to dem Continue reading >>

Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed

Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed

Go to: Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss; abundant neurofibrillary tangles; dystrophic neurites; amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β (APP-Aβ) deposits; increased activation of prodeath genes and signaling pathways; impaired energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; chronic oxidative stress; and DNA damage. Gaining a better understanding of AD pathogenesis will require a framework that mechanistically interlinks all these phenomena. Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis. Herein, we review the evidence that (1) T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, but its aggregate effects fall far short of mimicking AD; (2) extensive disturbances in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mechanisms represent early and progressive abnormalities and could account for the majority of molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD; (3) experimental brain diabetes produced by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin shares many features with AD, including cognitive impairment and disturbances in acetylcholine homeostasis; and (4) experimental brain diabetes is treatable with insulin sensitizer agents, i.e., drugs currently used to treat T2DM. We conclude that the term “type 3 diabetes” accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves t Continue reading >>

New Link Found Between Diabetes, Alzheimer's Disease

New Link Found Between Diabetes, Alzheimer's Disease

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! New link found between diabetes, Alzheimer's disease Drugs used to treat diabetes could also be used to treat Alzheimer's disease, and vice versa, according to new research. This is also the first study of its kind to show that Alzheimer's disease can lead to diabetes, as opposed to diabetes occurring first as was previously thought. Drugs used to treat diabetes could also be used to treat Alzheimer's disease, and vice versa, according to new research from the University of Aberdeen. This is also the first study of its kind to show that Alzheimer's disease can lead to diabetes, as opposed to diabetes occurring first as was previously thought. The study reports that Alzheimer's Disease and type 2 diabetes are so closely related that drugs currently used to control glucose levels in diabetes may also alleviate the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The paper, published in the journal Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), found for the first time that dementia-related complications within the brain can also lead to changes in glucose handling and ultimately diabetes. This is contrary to what was previously thought -- that diabetes begins with a malfunction in the pancreas or a high fat, high sugar diet. The research was led by Professor Bettina Platt who formed a unique collaboration between her Alzheimer's research team and the diabetes research team led by Professor Mirela Delibegovic. The teams were keen to investigate why the two diseases are so commonly found together in elderly patients. The researchers developed a model of Alzheimer's disease and were surprised to find that increased levels of a gene involved in the production of t Continue reading >>

Can Diabetes Cause Alzheimer's Disease?

Can Diabetes Cause Alzheimer's Disease?

Diabetes may be affecting much more than your blood sugar -- perhaps even your thoughts. Researchers are curious about how diabetes may be linked to the development of serious mind matters, including cognitive decline and forms of vascular dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. Vascular Issues Measuring the links between cognitive problems and diabetes is challenging because it can be difficult to untangle over time the effects of high and low blood glucose levels, high blood pressure, and other risk factors, such as obesity, that often are present, especially in people with type 2 diabetes. These can contribute to blood vessel damage in the brain, which can affect cognition. Hypoglycemia In addition to the role of vascular issues on cognition, hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) raises concerns. Does severe low blood glucose (requiring the help of others), particularly in children or the elderly, cause cognitive problems? In the immediate term, severe hypoglycemia can cause short-term cognitive impairment, such as slowed ability to accurately subtract numbers. But over time the effects seem to do no long-term damage. A look at adolescents in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial found that "despite relatively high rates of severe hypoglycemia, cognitive function did not decline over an extended period of time in the youngest cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes," says Gail Musen, Ph.D., an investigator at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. A Lack of Evidence? Not everyone is convinced that the correlation between diabetes and cognitive decline is strong. Many applicable studies don't follow patients for decades, so they have to rely on assumptions of later outcomes. Gerald Bernstein, M.D., director of the Diabetes Management Program at the Friedman Diabetes I Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Alzheimer's Linked

Diabetes And Alzheimer's Linked

Diabetes may increase your risk of Alzheimer's. Reduce this risk by controlling your blood sugar. Diet and exercise can help. Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are connected in ways that aren't yet fully understood. While not all research confirms the connection, many studies suggest people with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, are at higher risk of eventually developing Alzheimer's dementia or other dementias. Taking steps to prevent or control diabetes may help reduce your risk of cognitive decline. Understanding the connection Diabetes can cause several complications, such as damage to your blood vessels. Diabetes is considered a risk factor for vascular dementia. This type of dementia occurs due to brain damage that is often caused by reduced or blocked blood flow to your brain. Many people with diabetes have brain changes that are hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Some researchers think that each condition fuels the damage caused by the other. Ongoing research is looking at trying to better understand the link between Alzheimer's and diabetes. That link may occur as a result of the complex ways that type 2 diabetes affects the ability of the brain and other body tissues to use sugar (glucose) and respond to insulin. Diabetes also may increase the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, a condition in which people experience more thinking (cognitive) and memory problems than are usually present in normal aging. Mild cognitive impairment may precede or accompany Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. As researchers examine the connections between diabetes and Alzheimer's, they're also studying potential ways to prevent or treat both diseases. Reducing your risk Working with your health care team to prevent diabetes or ma Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Alzheimer's Disease: Shared Pathology And Treatment?

Diabetes Mellitus And Alzheimer's Disease: Shared Pathology And Treatment?

Diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease: shared pathology and treatment? Kawser Akter , Emily A Lanza , Stephen A Martin , Natalie Myronyuk , Melanie Rua , and Robert B Raffa Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Professor Robert B. Raffa PhD, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, 3307 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.Tel.: +1 215 707 4976 Fax: +1 215 707 5228 E-mail: [email protected] Received 2010 May 28; Accepted 2010 Sep 22. Copyright 2011 The British Pharmacological Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggest a possible shared pathophysiology between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has even been hypothesized that AD might be type 3 diabetes. The present review summarizes some of the evidence for the possible link, putative biochemical pathways and ongoing clinical trials of antidiabetic drugs in AD patients. The primary and review literature were searched for articles published in peer-reviewed sources that were related to a putative connection between T2DM and AD. In addition, public sources of clinical trials were searched for the relevant information regarding the testing of antidiabetic drugs in AD patients. The evidence for a connection between T2DM and AD is based upon a variety of diverse studies, but definitive biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Additional study is needed to prove the existence or the extent of a link between T2DM and AD, but sufficient evidence exists to warrant further study. Presently, AD patients might benefit from treatment with pharmacotherapy currently used to treat T2DM and clinical trials of such therapy are currently underway. Keywords: Alzheimer Continue reading >>

Alzheimer's Disease - Alzheimer's Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Alzheimer's Disease - Alzheimer's Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Discuss complications in the Diabetes Forum Country guides for people with diabetes travelling abroad Browse test strips and get online VAT relief Join 250,009 people in the Diabetes Forum Alzheimers is a form of dementia which has been found to be closely linked with type 2 diabetes . Alzheimers is characterised by confusion and loss of memory. This is generally diagnosed later in life. Currently Alzheimers cannot be cured but it can be treated to help slow progression of the illness. Alzheimers disease is form of dementia which is thought to affect about 1 in 15 people over the age of 65. The disease is brought on by damage to nerves and cells in the brain, with the early signs of recognisable by confusion, speech difficulties and forgetfulness. The name, Alzheimers, comes from the German psychiatrist, Alois Alzheimer, who first noted the disease. How are type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers linked? The cause of Alzheimers in itself is not well enough understood at present, and the link between Alzheimers and diabetes therefore, is also not clear. However, the two conditions seem to be linked and people who are over 60 with type 2 diabetes are thought to be twice as likely to develop Alzheimers than those without diabetes. One reason why Alzheimers may be more prevalent in people with diabetes is that diabetes can damage the small blood vessels which feed cells and nerves . Damage to these blood vessels can therefore lead to damage to the cells and nerves they feed. If brain cells are damaged in this way, Alzheimers can result. Similarities between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers There are a number of similarities which type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers share. Alzheimers is a progressive illness meaning the condition is expected to gradually worsen over time. As Alzheimers dev Continue reading >>

The Deadly Connection Between Diabetes And Alzheimer's

The Deadly Connection Between Diabetes And Alzheimer's

With skyrocketing incidence rates that are expected to soar even higher in the future, diabetes is rapidly transforming the health landscape of the United States and other Western nations. It is no exaggeration to say that diabetes now looms as one of the most costly, destructive medical epidemics of the early twenty-first century. Those affected with diabetes face a host of insidious health threats that include heart disease, impotence, stroke, and blindness, to name just a few. Even worse, new research suggests that those with insulin resistance or diabetes are at significantly higher risk of developing one of today's most devastating and incurable neurological disorders: Alzheimer's disease. The emerging connection between diabetes and Alzheimer's is yet another compelling reason for those who value their health to address issues of impaired insulin sensitivity before it is too late. Although diabetes is an emerging epidemic, it is also wholly preventable and reversible through strategies that incorporate dietary changes, lifestyle modifications, and nutritional supplementation. Achieving and maintaining optimal blood sugar and insulin sensitivity may thus be one of the most important steps you can take to protect yourself against an array of life-threatening conditions—including diabetes and mind-destroying dementia. Type II Diabetes Fuels a Growing Epidemic It is frightening, but unsurprising, to think that almost everyone in America knows someone—a friend, relative, coworker—who has diabetes. Nearly 21 million adults and children in the United States have diabetes, while an estimated 41 million people between the ages of 40 and 74 have pre-diabetes.1 Type I diabetes, which affects fewer than 2 million people in the US, occurs when the body does not produce a Continue reading >>

Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?

Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?

Just in case you need another reason to cut back on junk food, it now turns out that Alzheimer’s could well be a form of diet-induced diabetes. That’s the bad news. The good news is that laying off soda, doughnuts, processed meats and fries could allow you to keep your mind intact until your body fails you. We used to think there were two types of diabetes: the type you’re born with (Type 1) and the type you “get.” That’s called Type 2, and was called “adult onset” until it started ravaging kids. Type 2 is brought about by a combination of factors, including overeating, American-style. The idea that Alzheimer’s might be Type 3 diabetes has been around since 2005, but the connection between poor diet and Alzheimer’s is becoming more convincing, as summarized in a cover story in New Scientist entitled “Food for Thought: What You Eat May Be Killing Your Brain.” (The graphic — a chocolate brain with a huge piece missing — is creepy. But for the record: chocolate is not the enemy.) The studies [1] are increasingly persuasive, and unsurprising when you understand the role of insulin in the body. So, a brief lesson. We all need insulin: in non-diabetics, it’s released to help cells take in the blood sugar (glucose) they need for energy. But the cells can hold only so much; excess sugar is first stored as glycogen, and — when there’s enough of that — as fat. (Blood sugar doesn’t come only from sugar, but from carbohydrates of all kinds; easily digested carbohydrates flood the bloodstream with sugar.) Insulin not only keeps the blood vessels that supply the brain healthy, it also encourages the brain’s neurons to absorb glucose, and allows those neurons to change and become stronger. Low insulin levels in the brain mean reduced brain funct Continue reading >>

The Alarming Diabetes-alzheimer’s Connection

The Alarming Diabetes-alzheimer’s Connection

The possible complications posed by diabetes—heart disease and damage to eyes, feet, nerves and so forth—are fairly familiar to the general public. But in recent years, scientists have been scrutinizing a risk that is both less well known and less understood—the heightened likelihood of dementia. Researchers have known for several years about diabetes and the higher risk of vascular dementia, the second most common kind. In ways, it seems only logical: Vascular dementia is caused by damaged blood vessels in the brain, just as diabetes hardens blood vessels elsewhere. The latest research is focused on Alzheimer’s disease, the most common neurodegenerative disorder and one for which it’s harder to figure out the precise relationship with diabetes. On this much, many scientists agree: The rate of Alzheimer’s disease could be cut by close to half if diabetes could be abolished. The connection between the two is so strong that Suzanne M. de la Monte, one of the top researchers in the field, has said that many cases of Alzheimer’s could be dubbed Type 3 diabetes. People who haven’t necessarily developed diabetes might still develop insulin resistance in the brain, said de la Monte, a professor of neurosurgery, pathology and laboratory medicine at Brown University. That’s why she uses the term Type 3 diabetes—one doesn’t necessarily cause the other. But in both cases, she said, people show certain markers at the cellular level. “Growing evidence supports the concept that Alzheimer’s disease is fundamentally a metabolic disease with molecular and biochemical features that correspond with diabetes mellitus and other peripheral insulin resistance disorders,” de la Monte wrote in 2014 in the journal Biochemical Pharmacology. But the picture is more comp Continue reading >>

Connections Between Diabetes And Alzheimer’s Disease

Connections Between Diabetes And Alzheimer’s Disease

Relatively recently, it has been proposed that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a form of diabetes that primarily affects the nerve cells of the brain.[1],[2] Many researchers and physicians now refer to AD as Type3Diabetes or T3D. Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a form of dementia characterized by loss of short-term memory, confusion, forgetfulness and difficulties in speech. Later stages can be characterized by delusional thinking, repetitive behaviors, loss of long-term memory, sometime rapid mood swings and incontinence. It can only be definitively diagnosed by autopsy and microscopic examination of the brain when large amounts of protein (beta amyloid, tau) show up as tangled “threads” in the nerve cells. Currently, there is no blood or other test to diagnose AD. Alzheimer’s disease is believed to affect 20% of those over 65 to varying degrees. By the time an individual is in their 80s, the chances that they will show signs of AD reach 50%. AD, like T1D and T2D is a slowly progressive disease with both environmental and genetic factors at play. Studies have indicated that those individuals with T2D have a 50-65% higher risk of AD. Also, both AD and T2D are chronic inflammatory diseases with evidence of similar types of damage (oxidative) to the cells of the body. Most importantly, recent evidence indicates that the nerve cells of the brain show insulin resistance and resistance to another hormone, insulin-like growth factor or IGF. Insulin resistance and IGF resistance is considered a sign of prediabetes. Since glucose (blood sugar) is the primary source of energy for brain cells, it is thought likely that the increasing degree of insulin and IGF resistance essentially starves the brain cells of its most importance energy source. Over the long ter Continue reading >>

Diabetes Could Cause Alzheimer’s: Link Between High Blood Sugar And Dementia Confirmed

Diabetes Could Cause Alzheimer’s: Link Between High Blood Sugar And Dementia Confirmed

A diet high in sugar not only less to diabetes and obesity but now researchers have revealed it can stop a protein from working efficiently. Experts have confirmed there are biological links between dementia and high blood sugar. Researchers at University of Bath compared brain samples of 30 people with and without Alzheimer’s disease and tested them for protein glycation, a modification caused by high glucose levels in the blood. The team found that a particular enzyme was glycated in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease and that glycation stopped the enzyme from working properly. The enzyme, known as ‘macrophage migration inhibitory factor’ or MIF, has been previously implicated in the inflammatory response that occurs in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Dr Clare Walton, Research Manager at Alzheimer’s Society said: “We know that diabetes can double a person’s risk of developing dementia but we still don’t really understand how the two conditions are linked - this study offers a vital clue. The researchers have found a specific effect of high blood glucose on an enzyme in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s, providing a plausible biological mechanism connecting the two conditions. “With diabetes on the rise, a better understanding of how it affects brain cells can help us to find ways to help people with diabetes manage their risk of dementia. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. “Alzheimer’s Society is currently funding a clinical trial to see whether a diabetes drug can be used as a dementia treatment.” Professor Jean van den Elsen, from Bath's Depa Continue reading >>

The Link Between Insulin Resistance, Alzheimers, & Type 3 Diabetes

The Link Between Insulin Resistance, Alzheimers, & Type 3 Diabetes

Research shows that people with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of getting Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia later in life. Scientists think there are a few ways that problems with blood sugar control can lead to problems with your memory and thinking. When your cells don't use insulin the way they should, that affects the mechanics of your brain . Your cells don't get the fuel they need, so your brain can't work right. Your blood sugar goes up, and over time, that can cause harmful fatty deposits in your blood vessels. Too much insulin can throw off the balance of chemicals in your brain . These effects on the brain are so strong that some scientists feel that Alzheimer's related to insulin resistance should be called "type 3 diabetes ." With diabetes , you're at greater risk for a heart attack or stroke . And high blood sugar levels can trigger inflammation . None of that is good for your blood vessels. Damaged vessels in your brain could lead to Alzheimer's . Inflammation can also make your cells insulin resistant, especially if you're obese . High blood sugar has been linked to higher levels of protein pieces called beta amyloid. When these clump together, they get stuck between the nerve cells in your brain and block signals. Nerve cells that can't talk to each other is a main trait of Alzheimer's . Your cells are constantly moving food and other supplies along pathways like railroad tracks. A protein called tau helps these tracks that run into, out of, and through the cells stay in straight rows. But in a brain with Alzheimer's, tau gets tangled up. The tracks fall apart, and cells die because they can't move stuff to where they need it. Some studies suggest that people with diabetes have more tangled tau in their brains. That coul Continue reading >>

How Alzheimer’s Could Be Type 2 Diabetes

How Alzheimer’s Could Be Type 2 Diabetes

The link between Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes continues to grow stronger. A new study presented at the Society for Neuroscience shows that the disease may actually be the late stages of type 2 diabetes. Learn more about how Alzheimer’s could be type 2 diabetes. The Correlation Between Alzheimer’s and Type 2 Diabetes A new study done by researchers at Albany University in New York, shows that Alzheimer’s may be the late stages of type 2 diabetes. People who have type 2 diabetes produce extra insulin. That insulin can get into the brain, disrupting brain chemistry and leading toxic proteins that poison brain cells to form. The protein that forms in both Alzheimer’s patients and people with type 2 diabetes is the same protein. Researcher Edward McNay at Albany University, said: “People who develop diabetes have to realize this is about more than controlling their weight or diet. It’s also the first step on the road to cognitive decline. At first they won’t be able to keep up with their kids playing games, but in 30 years’ time they may not even recognize them.” Alzheimer’s, Brain Tangles and Diabetes In the past few years, the connection between the two diseases has grown stronger with each relevant study. People who develop type 2 diabetes often experience a sharp decline in cognitive function and almost 70% of them ultimately develop Alzheimer’s. A recent study published in the journal Neurology found that people with type 2 diabetes were more likely to develop the brain “tangles” commonly see in people with Alzheimer’s disease. They found that participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have the brain tangles, even if they did not have dementia or memory loss. The study evaluated over 120 older adults with type 2 diabetes and Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?

Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?

Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? What do diabetes and dementia have in common? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin it makes properly. Insulin is a hormone used by the body to control glucose levels, or the amount of sugar, in your blood. Glucose is one of the main sources of fuel for the body, providing energy the body needs to perform all necessary functions. There are two main types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. A third type, gestational diabetes, occurs temporarily during pregnancy.Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be a risk factor for Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia and other types of dementia because cardiovascular problems associated with diabetes are also associated with dementia. These include: Heart disease or family history of heart disease Research has also proved that, similar to diabetes, glucose is not used properly in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. This may be caused by nerve cell death, which reduces the brains ability to interpret messages.In the case of vascular dementia, brain cells die due to lack of oxygen, preventing brain cells from communicating with each other. Beta amyloid plaques, which build up in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease, have also been shown to prevent insulin receptors in the brain from doing their job. This can impact insulin production and cause brain cells to become insensitive to insulin. Is Alzheimers disease type 3 diabetes? Recent studies suggest that the brains of people with Alzheimers disease are in a diabetic state, partly due to the decrease in or insensitivity to insulin.There are many similarities in the brains of people with diabetes and the brains of people with Alzh Continue reading >>

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