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How Does Diabetes Begin?

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Although the signs of diabetes can begin to show early, sometimes it takes a person a while to recognize the symptoms. This often makes it seem like signs and symptoms of diabetes appear suddenly. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to your body, rather than simply brushing them off. To that end, here are some type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms that you may want to watch out for: If you’re experiencing frequent urination your body might be telling you that your kidneys are trying to expel excess sugar in your blood. The resulting dehydration may then cause extreme thirst. Along the same lines, the lack of available fluids may also give you dry mouth and itchy skin. If you experience increased hunger or unexpected weight loss it could be because your body isn’t able to get adequate energy from the food you eat. High blood sugar levels can affect blood flow and cause nerve damage, which makes healing difficult. So having slow-healing cuts/sores is also a potential sign of diabetes. Yeast infections may occur in men and women who have diabetes as a result of yeast feeding on glucose. Other signs of diabetes Pay attention if you find yourself feeling drowsy or lethargic; pain or numbness in your extremities; vision changes; fruity or sweet-smelling breath which is one of the symptoms of high ketones; and experiencing nausea or vomiting—as these are additional signs that something is not right. If there’s any question, see your doctor immediately to ensure that your blood sugar levels are safe and rule out diabetes. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… Polyuria occurs when your body urinates more frequently—and often in larger amounts—than Continue reading >>

Early Detection: Gestational Diabetes & Preeclampsia

Early Detection: Gestational Diabetes & Preeclampsia

Diabetes and preeclampsia are among two of the reasons why regular prenatal visits are so important. Gestational Diabetes: The Basics Chances are you'll sail through pregnancy without trouble. But even if you're feeling great, you should still seek regular prenatal care because some health problems that could hurt your baby are symptomless. These include gestational diabetes, which raises blood sugar levels during pregnancy, and preeclampsia, a form of high blood pressure. But with early detection and treatment, you can manage these problems and still have a healthy baby. What Is It? Gestational diabetes occurs when pregnancy hormones interfere with the body's ability to use insulin, the hormone that turns blood sugar into energy, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Each year, up to 4 percent of women develop this serious illness in pregnancy. While most women with gestational diabetes have no symptoms, a small number may experience extreme hunger, thirst, or fatigue. How Do I Know If I Have It? Your doctor will probably screen you for gestational diabetes between your 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. If you have certain risk factors (see "Who's at Risk?" below), your doctor may opt to screen you sooner. During your screening, you'll drink a sugary liquid, then take a blood test. If your blood sugar levels appear high, you'll need to take a longer test, during which you'll drink more liquid and your blood sugar will be tested several times to determine whether you have gestational diabetes. What Are the Risks Associated with It? Women who fail to seek treatment for gestational diabetes run the risk of giving birth to big babies (9 pounds or more), since much of the extra sugar in the mother's blood ends up going to the fetus. Larger babies are more likely to suffer b Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

Frederick Banting (right) joined by Charles Best in office, 1924 Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[1] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning “too great emptying of the urine.”[2] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[2] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[2] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 250 BC by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis.[2] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with obesity.[2] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by Thomas Willis in the late 1600s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus which is also associated with frequent urination.[2] Further history[edit] Plaque in Strasbourg commemorating the 1889 discovery by Minkowski and Von Mering The first complete clinical description of diabetes was given by the Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl. 1st century CE), who also noted the excessive amount of urine which passed through the kidneys.”[3] Diabetes mellitus appears to have been a death sentence in the ancient era. Hippocrates makes no mention of it, which may indicate that he felt the disease was incurable. Aretaeus did attempt to treat it but could not give a good prognosis; he commented that "life (with diabetes) is short, disgusting and painful."[4] The disease must have been rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[2] In medieval Persia, Avicenna (980–1037) provided a detailed account on diabet Continue reading >>

When Does Diabetes Really Start?

When Does Diabetes Really Start?

For most of my professional life, a diagnosis of diabetes was made when the fasting blood glucose exceeded 140 mg/dL. In 1998, a consensus committee, based on an extensive review of data, changed that to 126 mg/dL. A normal fasting blood glucose was now 100 mg/dL. A glucose between those values is now impaired fasting glucose. Similarly, glucose 2 hours after a meal or glucose load should be 140 mg/dL. A postprandial value becomes diabetes when it exceeds 200 mg/dL. Between 140 and 199 is impaired glucose tolerance. A more convenient way to look at it is the HbA1c test, a reflection of the mean blood glucose over 90 days. It took many years, but now norms have been established and the A1c may be used for screening and diagnosis. Normal is less than 5.7%, prediabetes is between 5.7% and 6.5%, and clinical diabetes is over 6.5%. It gets confusing when the numbers are at the edge of diagnosis. For example, if someone has a fasting glucose of 127, they are considered diabetic, but at 125 they are prediabetic. That's why I believe it is best to look at all of this as a single disease starting at birth or even in utero. What we are really interested in is RISK, especially risk for complications. At the different points on the line of progression, when does risk begin and when do we intervene? This is salient for the following reason. Studies have shown that risk for complications begins to progress slightly at different levels of glucose. Therefore, a blood glucose of 90 has more risk than a blood glucose of 70. With this limited tutorial in mind, we now face what is truly a major problem. Prediabetes is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Over a period of time, this is progressive while the blood glucose finally reaches criteria for diagnosing diabetes Continue reading >>

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

How can you tell if you have diabetes? Most early symptoms are from higher-than-normal levels of glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. The warning signs can be so mild that you don't notice them. That's especially true of type 2 diabetes. Some people don't find out they have it until they get problems from long-term damage caused by the disease. With type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually happen quickly, in a matter of days or a few weeks. They're much more severe, too. Both types of diabetes have some of the same telltale warning signs. Hunger and fatigue. Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy. But your cells need insulin to bring the glucose in. If your body doesn't make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can't get into them and you have no energy. This can make you more hungry and tired than usual. Peeing more often and being thirstier. The average person usually has to pee between four and seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may go a lot more. Why? Normally your body reabsorbs glucose as it passes through your kidneys. But when diabetes pushes your blood sugar up, your kidneys may not be able to bring it all back in. This causes the body to make more urine, and that takes fluids. You'll have to go more often. You might pee out more, too. Because you're peeing so much, you can get very thirsty. When you drink more, you'll also pee more. Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because your body is using fluids to make pee, there's less moisture for other things. You could get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itchy. Blurred vision. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and lose their a Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Occur?

How Does Diabetes Occur?

Diabetes is a metabolic condition in which the body does not properly regulate the glucose, or sugar, in the blood. When you eat carbohydrates, your body breaks them down into sugars, including glucose. Glucose is transported by the bloodstream to the cells, where it is used for energy. The hormone insulin, secreted by the pancreas, is responsible for moving glucose from the blood into the cells. People with diabetes either do not make insulin, or their body does not properly respond to insulin, resulting in chronically elevated blood glucose. Video of the Day Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes develops as a result of an autoimmune attack on the pancreas that causes it to stop producing the hormone insulin. Without insulin, blood glucose is not regulated and type 1 diabetes develops. The exact cause is unknown, but the illness tends to run in families. Among people with a genetic predisposition for type 1 diabetes, an environmental trigger appears to stimulate the immune system attack on the pancreas. Certain viral infections in the first year of life are associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases. Type 2 diabetes typically begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which the pancreas produces insulin but the body cells do not respond to it properly. As the disease progresses, the pancreas may eventually lose its ability to produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes also involves a strong genetic component combined with other risk factors, including obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. Gestational diabetes is a form of glucose intolerance that develops during pregnancy. According to the CDC, as many as 18 percent of pregnancie Continue reading >>

Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know

Insulin And Type 2 Diabetes: What You Should Know

Insulin and Type 2 Diabetes If your health care provider offered you a medication to help you feel better and get your blood sugar under control, would you try it? If so, you might be ready to start taking insulin. Does insulin immediately make you think of type 1 diabetes? Think again. Between 30 and 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes take insulin. In fact, there are more people with type 2 diabetes who take insulin than type 1 because of the much larger number of people with type 2. Experts believe even more people with type 2 should be taking insulin to control blood sugar -- and the earlier, the better. With an increase in people developing type 2 at a younger age and living longer, more and more people with type 2 will likely be taking insulin. "If you live long enough with type 2 diabetes, odds are good you'll eventually need insulin," says William Polonsky, Ph.D., CDE, associate clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego; founder and president of the Behavioral Diabetes Institute; and author of Diabetes Burnout: What to Do When You Can't Take It Anymore (American Diabetes Association, 1999). Producing Less Insulin Naturally Over Time Research has shown that type 2 diabetes progresses as the ability of the body’s pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin dwindles over time. Your beta cells -- the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin -- slowly lose function. Experts believe that by the time you're diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you've already lost 50-80 percent of your beta cell function and perhaps the number of beta cells you had. And the loss continues over the years. "About six years after being diagnosed, most people have about a quarter of their beta cell function left," says Anthony McCall, M.D., Ph.D., endocri Continue reading >>

General Diabetes Facts And Information

General Diabetes Facts And Information

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high. There are two major types of diabetes. In type 1 (fomerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, the body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose found in foods for energy. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age. Type 2 (formerly called adult-onset or non insulin-dependent) diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (insulin resistance). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly occurring in younger people, particularly adolescents. How do people know if they have diabetes? People with diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include: being very thirsty frequent urination weight loss increased hunger blurry vision irritability tingling or numbness in the hands or feet frequent skin, bladder or gum infections wounds that don't heal extreme unexplained fatigue In some cases, there are no symptoms — this happens at times with type 2 diabetes. In this case, people can live for months, even years without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Who gets diabetes? Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes - What Happens

Type 2 Diabetes - What Happens

When you have type 2 diabetes, your body still makes insulin. But as time goes on, your pancreas may make less and less insulin, which will make it harder to keep your blood sugar in your target range. If your blood sugar gets too high and stays too high for too long, your risk for other health problems increases. Over time, high blood sugar can damage many parts of your body . High blood sugar levels may cause temporary blurred vision. Blurry vision, floaters, or flashes of light may be a sign of diabetic retinopathy, which can cause severe vision loss. To learn more, see the topic Diabetic Retinopathy. You may have less feeling in your feet, which means that you can injure your feet and not know it. Blisters, ingrown toenails, small cuts, or other problems that may seem minor can quickly become more serious. If you develop serious infections or bone and joint deformities, you may need surgery (even amputation) to treat those problems. Common infections can quickly become more serious when you have diabetes. High blood sugar damages the lining of blood vessels. This can lead to stroke, heart attack, or peripheral arterial disease. Erection problems can be an early warning sign of blood vessel disease and may mean a higher risk of heart disease. High blood sugar levels can damage nerves throughout your body. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. There are three kinds of diabetic neuropathy: Diabetic peripheral neuropathyDiabetic peripheral neuropathy. This is damage to the nerves that sense pain, touch, hot, and cold. This type of nerve damage can lead to a deformity called Charcot foot . It can also lead to other problems that may require amputation. Autonomic neuropathyAutonomic neuropathy. This is damage to nerves that control things like your heartbeat, blood p Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes (diabetes In Pregnancy)

Gestational Diabetes (diabetes In Pregnancy)

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that you may develop when you’re pregnant and your blood glucose (sugar) level is too high. It’s also known as GDM, which stands for gestational diabetes mellitus. This condition can lead to problems for both you and your baby if you don’t control it. There are lots of treatments, as well as changes you can make to your lifestyle, that can help to reduce its impact on your pregnancy. Worried about diabetes? Get a picture of your current health and potential future health risks with one of our health assessments. Find out more today. About our health information At Bupa we produce a wealth of free health information for you and your family. We believe that trustworthy information is essential in helping you make better decisions about your health and care. Here are just a few of the ways in which our core editorial principles have been recognised. Legal disclaimer This information was published by Bupa's Health Content Team and is based on reputable sources of medical evidence. It has been reviewed by appropriate medical or clinical professionals. Photos are only for illustrative purposes and do not reflect every presentation of a condition. The information contained on this page and in any third party websites referred to on this page is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice nor is it intended to be for medical diagnosis or treatment. Third party websites are not owned or controlled by Bupa and any individual may be able to access and post messages on them. Bupa is not responsible for the content or availability of these third party websites. We do not accept advertising on this page. For more details on how we produce our content and its sources, visit the 'About our health informati Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. We do not know what causes this auto-immune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors. There is no cure and it cannot be prevented. Type 1 diabetes: Occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin Represents around 10% of all cases of diabetes and is one of the most common chronic childhood conditions Onset is usually abrupt and the symptoms obvious Symptoms can include excessive thirst and urination, unexplained weight loss, weakness and fatigue and blurred vision Is managed with insulin injections several times a day or the use of an insulin pump. What happens to the pancreas? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach, stops making insulin because the cells that make the insulin have been destroyed by the body’s immune system. Without insulin, the body’s cells cannot turn glucose (sugar), into energy. People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day. The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs most frequently in people under 30 years, however new research suggests almost half of all people who develop the condition are diagnosed over the age of 30. About 10-15% of all cases of diabetes are type 1. What happens if people with type 1 diabetes don’t receive insulin? Without insulin the body burns its own fats as a substitute which releases chemical substances in the blood. Without ongoing injections of insulin, the dangerous chemical substances will accumulate and can be life threatening if it is not treated. This is a condition call Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). Here are some key points about diabetes. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels. In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology). Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Gestational Diabetes - this type affects females during pregnancy. The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life. Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels. As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. As smoking might have a serious effect on c Continue reading >>

Menopause And Diabetes: Does Menopause Cause Diabetes?

Menopause And Diabetes: Does Menopause Cause Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United States has the highest rate of diabetes cases in the developing world and it is still increasing in an alarm rate. In 2016, it is estimated that 1 in 10 US individuals have type 2 diabetes (the increase rate of type 1 diabetes is much smaller). By 2050, it is estimated that 1 in 3 individuals will suffer from type 2 diabetes. From the statistics, overweight individuals who are age 40 or older are in the highest risk percentile. How does this information important for women? In the United States, diabetes is ranked as the number 6 most common cause of death for females between 45 to 54 years old and the number 4 common cause of death for females who are between 55 to 64 years old. It seems that as women grow older and reach their menopause stage, they become much more susceptible to develop diabetes. The question is whether menopause can drastically increase the risk of developing diabetes? This article will answer this question along with covering various topics that concerns menopause and its effect on diabetes: Can Menopause Can Trigger Diabetes? We would like to give you a straightforward answer for this question. However, sadly, health research scientists are still struggling to find the answer because it is difficult to separate the correlation and effects of menopause from the correlation and effects of age and weight. In 2011, a scientific correlation study suggests that after taking the age factor out from the correlation study, there is “no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk” (Kim, 2011). Yet there have been studies suggesting that progesterone is correlated with the development diabetes. Although we cannot give you a straight yes or Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

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