What Is Peripheral Neuropathy?
Peripheral neuropathy refers to a problem with the peripheral nerves. These nerves send messages from the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body. The peripheral nerves tell the body when, for example, the hands are cold. It can lead to tingling, prickling, numbness, and muscle weakness in various parts of the body. Peripheral neuropathy can affect a range of different nerves, so it can impact a variety of locations in different ways. It can affect a single nerve, or several nerves at the same time. It is also associated with a number of different underlying medical conditions. Sometimes there is no identifiable cause. It affects some 20 million people in the United States (U.S.). Here are some key points about peripheral neuropathy. More detail is in the main article. Neuropathy is a common complication of a number of different medical conditions. It can involve the autonomic nerves, the motor nerves, and the sensory nerves. Sometimes it affects a single nerve or nerve set, for example, in Bell's Palsy, which affects a facial nerve. Physical trauma, repetitive injury, infection, metabolic problems, and exposure to toxins and some drugs are all possible causes. Treatment Treatment either targets the underlying cause, or it aims to provide symptomatic pain relief and prevent further damage. In the case of diabetic neuropathy, addressing high blood sugars can prevent further nerve damage. For toxic causes, removing the exposure to a suspected toxin, or stopping a drug, can halt further nerve damage. Medications can relieve pain and reduce burning, numbness, and tingling. Drug treatment for neuropathic pain Medications that may help include: Opioid painkillers come with warnings about safety risks. Doctors can also prescribe skin patch Continue reading >>
Dr. Wiley is Professor, Internal Medicine and Director, Michigan Clinical Research Unit, and Dr. Towns is Research Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI. Diabetes, formally known as diabetes mellitus, affects 171 million people worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Type I diabetes usually starts in childhood or early adulthood, while the onset of type 2 diabetes is typically much later, often in middle-age. Diabetes affects many of the body’s systems and functions, not the least of which may be the nervous system. When the nervous system is affected, diabetic neuropathy can result. This occurs when too much sugar (hyperglycemia) circulates in the blood stream over a long period of time. Some people with neuropathy may not have any symptoms at all, while others will experience pain, tingling, or numbness in their hands, arms, feet, or legs. Many patients will first notice numbness, tingling, or pain in the feet. These symptoms are usually mild in the beginning but may worsen over the years, and then actually decrease in later years, as the nerve damage gets worse. It is thought that 60-70% of people with diabetes will develop some form of neuropathy over their lifetimes. While it is still somewhat unclear, diabetic neuropathy tends to occur after about five years of high blood sugar, and it usually peaks after about 25 years. Some people with neuropathy may not have any symptoms at all, while others will experience pain, tingling, or numbness in their hands, arms, feet, or legs. Diabetic neuropathy can also affect different organ systems, including the cardiovascular, genital-urinary, digestive, and vision. Though the origin of type 1 and type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>
The Nerve Damage Of Diabetes
Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve disorder caused by diabetes. Symptoms of neuropathy include numbness and sometimes pain in the hands, feet, or legs. Nerve damage caused by diabetes can also lead to problems with internal organs such as the digestive tract, heart, and sexual organs, causing indigestion, diarrhea or constipation, dizziness, bladder infections, and impotence. In some cases, neuropathy can flare up suddenly, causing weakness and weight loss. Depression may follow. While some treatments are available, a great deal of research is still needed to understand how diabetes affects the nerves and to find more effective treatments for this complication. A 10-year clinical study that involved 1,441 volunteers with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) was recently completed by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The study proved that keeping blood sugar levels as close to the normal range as possible slows the onset and progression of nerve disease caused by diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) studied two groups of volunteers: those who followed a standard diabetes management routine and those who intensively managed their diabetes. Persons in the intensive management group took multiple injections of insulin daily or used an insulin pump and monitored their blood glucose at least four times a day to try to lower their blood glucose levels to the normal range. After 5 years, tests of neurological function showed that the risk of nerve damage was reduced by 60 percent in the intensively managed group. People in the standard treatment group, whose average blood glucose levels were higher, had higher rates of neuropathy. Although the DCCT included only patients with IDDM, researchers believe that people with nonins Continue reading >>
Overview Peripheral neuropathy develops when nerves in the body's extremities – such as the hands, feet and arms – are damaged. The symptoms depend on which nerves are affected. In the UK, it's estimated that almost 1 in 10 people aged 55 or over are affected by some degree of peripheral neuropathy. The peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves that lie outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). It includes different types of nerves with their own specific functions, including: sensory nerves – responsible for transmitting sensations, such as pain and touch motor nerves – responsible for controlling muscles autonomic nerves – responsible for regulating automatic functions of the body, such as blood pressure and bladder function Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy The main symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can include: numbness and tingling in the feet or hands burning, stabbing or shooting pain in affected areas loss of balance and co-ordination muscle weakness, especially in the feet These symptoms are usually constant, but may come and go. Read more about symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. When to see your GP It's important to see your GP if you experience the early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, such as: pain, tingling or loss of sensation in the feet loss of balance or weakness a cut or ulcer on your foot that isn't getting better It's also recommended that people at highest risk of peripheral neuropathy, such as people with diabetes, have regular check-ups. Your GP will ask about your symptoms and may arrange some tests to help identify the underlying cause. You may be referred to hospital to see a neurologist (a specialist in conditions affecting the nervous system). Generally, the sooner peri Continue reading >>
Targeting Ages Signaling Ameliorates Central Nervous System Diabetic Complications In Rats
Copyright © 2015 Mohamed Naguib Zakaria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder associated with several complications as hypertension, advanced brain aging, and cognitive decline. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is an important mechanism that mediates diabetic complications. Upon binding to their receptor (RAGE), AGEs mediate oxidative stress and/or cause cross-linking with proteins in blood vessels and brain tissues. The current investigation was designed to investigate the effect of agents that decrease AGEs signaling, perindopril which increases soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and alagebrium which cleaves AGEs cross-links, compared to the standard antidiabetic drug, gliclazide, on the vascular and central nervous system (CNS) complications in STZ-induced (50 mg/kg, IP) diabetes in rats. Perindopril ameliorated the elevation in blood pressure seen in diabetic animals. In addition, both perindopril and alagebrium significantly inhibited memory decline (performance in the Y-maze), neuronal degeneration (Fluoro-Jade staining), AGEs accumulation in serum and brain, and brain oxidative stress (level of reduced glutathione and activities of catalase and malondialdehyde). These results suggest that blockade of AGEs signaling after diabetes induction in rats is effective in reducing diabetic CNS complications. 1. Introduction Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder resulting from inadequate insulin release or insulin insensitivity . The prevalence of diabetes worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030 . The pr Continue reading >>
Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The best way to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy is to keep your blood sugar (glucose) and blood pressure well controlled, to attend regular diabetes checks and to avoid smoking. The outcome for early diabetic neuropathy can be good but severe neuropathy is often associated with a poor outcome. The best way to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy is to keep your blood sugar (glucose) and blood pressure well controlled, to attend regular diabetes checks and to avoid smoking. The outcome for early diabetic neuropathy can be good but severe neuropathy is often associated with a poor outcome. What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Your peripheral nervous system is a network of nerves called peripheral nerves. These transmit information between your central nervous system and all the other parts of your body, including your arms, legs and organs. Your peripheral nervous system is divided into: Sensory nerves. Electrical impulses transmitted along your sensory nerves allow you to touch and feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The information from the sensory nerves passes to your spinal cord and brain. Motor nerves. Electrical impulses that pass along these nerves pass information from your brain and spinal cord to stimulate your muscles to move. Autonomic nerves. Your autonomic nervous system controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart and the widening or narrowing of your blood vessels. When something goes wrong in this system, it can cause serious problems which can affect: Continue reading >>
Elevated blood sugars can damage the peripheral nerves. muscle weakness such as trouble climbing stairs nausea and vomiting Elevated levels of blood sugar can injure the blood vessels supplying the peripheral nerves, irritating and damaging them in the process. Such accumulated nerve damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Better blood glucose control can help restore healthy nerve function. Nerve Disease The nervous system includes our brain (central nervous system) and all of the nerves going from the brain to the rest of the body (peripheral nervous system). The nervous system is always at work. Sometimes – when we move or feel something – we are aware of it. But much happens automatically, including the control of our heart rate, the movement of food through the stomach and intestines and regulation of our blood pressure. Your health care provider can determine that your symptoms are related to diabetes and not to some other condition. The best way to improve all forms of diabetic neuropathy is to control your blood sugar levels. There are two categories of diabetic neuropathy: Sensory and motor neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy Symptoms of neuropathy include: Muscle weakness such as foot drop, double vision, trouble climbing stairs and getting out of a chair Stomach symptoms including bloating, nausea, vomiting of undigested food many hours after a meal, feeling full without eating much food. This is also referred to as gastroparesis. Bowel trouble such as episodes of diarrhea especially at night Difficulty with bladder emptying Sexual dysfunction Dizziness and lightheadedness from a very fast heart rate and trouble keeping the blood pressure high enough when sitting or standing up. What is the treatment? Before any treatment can be decided upon, you need to report Continue reading >>
What Effect Does Sugar Have On The Nervous System?
Ask your own questions, and get answers from specialists on Bayt.com The end metabolic product of sugar is glucose and glucose is very important to the nervous system to transport oxygen and transmission of messages to and from the central nervous system. The main source of energy to the brain is glucose, which is a sugar. so, your brain needs sugar to function well but not more than 40 mg. The high consumption of sugar may affect your brain if yoy are diabetic. Your brain prefers to run on glucose, which is a sugar. About 20% of all the calories you consume become glucose just for your brain. Sugar isn't bad for your brain. Sugar is essential. Your brain just can't function normally unless you get sugar--but it only requires about 40 grams (a little over an ounce) of the sugar-equivalent of carbohydrate foods. That's about the equivalent of a piece of fruit or a slice of bread or, your brain doesn't care, a quarter of a candy bar 3 or 4 times a day. Massive amounts of sugar, on the other hand, are harmful to the brain, especially if you are also diabetic. Sugar is a carbohydrate (which essentially means that it is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) that tastes sweet. Simple sugars like glucose, fructose, and galactose are the ones that most directly affect the human body. Table sugar is a more complex sugar called sucrose that the body breaks down into the simple sugar types. The simple sugar glucose is of the most importance to the central nervous system, particularly the brain. Twenty percent (%) of the total calories consumed are converted into glucose and used solely by the brain. In addition to this, every cell of your body (including the cells of the nervous system) require some glucose to function properly, and it is our blood which transports and deliver Continue reading >>
How Diabetes Affects The Nerves
Diabetic Neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy is a term used to describe one of the more common complications of diabetes in which nerves are damaged in various parts of the body. The most common form of neuropathy that occurs in a person with diabetes is called peripheral neuropathy, which commonly affects the arms, legs and feet, but it can also affect the body's internal organs. Roughly sixty to seventy percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy varying from mild to severe, with the highest rates occurring in those that have had the disease for more than twenty five years. Neuropathy appears to occur most commonly in people that are over forty, those that have trouble keeping blood glucose levels under control, smokers and in those that are overweight/obese. Neuropathy can develop in someone with diabetes at any age, but the longer someone has diabetes the more at risk they become. Damage to nerves often leads to muscle weakness, the loss of reflexes, internal organs not functioning properly, and if left untreated long enough it can also lead to the total loss of feeling in the affected nerves and organ failure. It should be noted that some people with neuropathy can experience no symptoms at all, so for someone with diabetes it is extremely important to see a physician and receive testing for neuropathy. Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy can occur throughout the body because the peripheral nervous system, is divided into two subsystems, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, so symptoms for each will depend on which nerves are affected and may be seen over a period of days, weeks, or even years. Somatic Nervous System Neuropathy in the somatic nervous system can affect nerves in the skin, muscles, and sensory org Continue reading >>
What is neuropathy? Neuropathy – also called peripheral neuropathy – refers to any condition that affects the normal activity of the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves that connects the central nervous system – the brain and spinal cord – to the rest of the body. The peripheral nervous system is made up of 3 types of nerves, each with an important role to play in keeping your body healthy and functioning properly. Sensory nerves carry messages from your senses through your spinal cord to your brain. For example, they tell your brain you are touching something hot. Motor nerves travel in the opposite direction. They carry messages from the brain to your muscles. They tell your muscles to move you away from the hot surface. Autonomic nerves are responsible for controlling body functions that occur outside our control, such as breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure. Neuropathy results when nerve cells, or neurons, are damaged or destroyed. This distorts the way the neurons communicate with each other and with the brain. Neuropathy can affect 1 nerve or nerve type, or a combination of nerves. How common is neuropathy? Neuropathy is very common. It is estimated that about 25% to 30% of Americans will be affected by neuropathy. Neuropathy occurs in 60% to 70% of people with diabetes. Who gets neuropathy? Neuropathy affects people of all ages; however, older people are at increased risk. It is more common in men and in Caucasians. People in certain professions, such as those that require repetitive motions, have a greater chance of developing compression-related neuropathy. What causes neuropathy? There are many causes of neuropathy. The cause can be hereditary (runs in families) or acquired (de Continue reading >>
Sensory Neurons Link The Nervous System And Autoimmune Diabetes
View all Images/DataFigure 1 In normal mice (not shown), a feedback loop involving islet β cells and sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 maintains balanced levels of insulin and substance P. In NOD mice, insulin secretion by islet β cells fails to properly stimulate the sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 to release neuropeptides due to the presence of a hypofunctional polymorphism in the trpv1 gene. Suboptimal local levels of neuropeptides lead to insulin resistance and β cell stress as well as a local proinflammatory milieu, while physiological cell death of neurons and islet β cells leads to the presentation of auto-antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in draining lymph nodes. Infiltration of Schwann cell and islet-specific T cells is sustained by the local proinflammatory milieu resulting from defective TRPV1 signals in sensory neurons. The initial factors that trigger the autoimmune response against pancreatic islets in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse are still unknown. In this issue of Cell, Razavi et al. (2006)) propose that a defect in a subset of sensory neurons innervating the pancreas plays a major role in initiating the chain of events that will lead to local inflammation, islet destruction, and autoimmune diabetes. Main Text Type 1 diabetes in humans is an autoimmune disease in which T cells target pancreatic islets of Langerhans, leading to the progressive destruction of the insulin-producing β cells. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops an autoimmune diabetic disorder resembling human type 1 diabetes (reviewed in Anderson and Bluestone, 2005). Although both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of autoimmune diabetes, the precise etiology and the initiating factors that trigger the autoimm Continue reading >>
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
- Are Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Autoimmune Diseases?
- NZ case study; A citizen scientist controls autoimmune diabetes without insulin, with a low carb diet, a glucose meter, and metformin.
Tweet The nervous system is the system of nerves which travel throughout the body passages messages via electrical impulses. The brain is key to the nervous system and provides the processing power to make sense of information provided by the nerves and gives instruction back through the nerves to guide our physical responses. Role of the nervous system The nervous system allows the body to take in and process information on what is happening around and inside us and take appropriate action. Some of these actions will be automatic or reflex responses, whereas other actions will come directly from our own choice. What are the components of the nervous system? The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system encompasses the brain and the spine. The brain is the processing centre of the nervous system. The spinal cord is like the trunk of a tree, extends from the brain down our back and branching off into the many different nerves which make up the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as our heart rate and perspiration, and also includes the enteric nervous system which governs our gastrointestinal response. The brain The brain is a key organ enabling us to understand and interact with our surroundings. The brain communicates with the rest of our body via the nerves. The skull keeps the brain intact from the outside and the blood-brain barrier helps to allow certain nutrients into the brain whilst keeping any harmful substances in the blood away from the brain. Diabetes and the brain Spine The spine acts as Continue reading >>
Diabetes Mellitus And The Nervous System
Classification The division of diabetes into two major types has long been known. The current classification1 (table 1) distinguishes type 1 (otherwise known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM). This classification is important because the two types are distinct both in causation and management and is thus of direct clinical relevance. In Western Europe, type 1 diabetes accounts for perhaps 10%-20% of all patients, although in the world at large there seems to be an extraordinary increase in type 2 diabetes from an estimated 124 million at present to a predicted 221 million by the year 2010 with only 3% of all patients with type 1 diabetes. The many other types of diabetes, either secondary to other causes or specific genetic syndromes, account for only a small proportion of patients (table 1). MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERS Mitochondria possess their own DNA (mtDNA), which is arranged as a discrete circular molecule encoding for a proportion of the peptides required for the components of the respiratory chain. MtDNA is passed exclusively down the maternal line of inheritance. There are several reported mutations in the tRNA Leu(UUR) gene, the one most often found occurring at position 3243.2 3 These mutations are associated with maternally inherited diabetes combined with sensorineural deafness (MIDD) and accounts for around two type 2 diabetic patients in every 1000 and less than half that number among type 1 patients. Diabetes has also been reported in patients with the same mutation causing the MELAS syndrome—that is, patients with associated myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes, and in the Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Mitochondrial related diabetes usually presents at between Continue reading >>
- Women in India with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Strategy (WINGS): Methodology and development of model of care for gestational diabetes mellitus (WINGS 4)
- FDA Approves MiniMed 670G System – World’s First Hybrid Closed Loop System
- Olive oil in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and intervention trials
Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy. Half of all people with diabetes will develop neuropathy. The nerves of the feet are most commonly affected by diabetic neuropathy. The feet are usually numb, although many people also experience significant discomfort and pain. Most people with diabetic neuropathy are unaware that they have nerve damage, until it is picked up on routine screening by their doctor or when they develop complications. Although there is no cure, early diagnosis and treatment can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of further complications. On this page: Neuropathy means damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy. It most commonly affects the nerves to the feet and hands, but any nerves can be involved, including those that control internal organs (autonomic nerves). Up to half of all people with diabetes develop neuropathy during the course of their disease. There is no cure. Management aims to ease symptoms and reduce the risk of further complications. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy Most people with diabetic neuropathy are unaware that they have nerve damage, until it is picked up on routine screening by their doctor. Typical symptoms vary from person to person, but may include one or more of numbness, pins and needles, tingling, discomfort, or weakness, which usually begin in both feet and spread symmetrically up the legs (like stockings). About half of those people with diabetic neuropathy experience significant pain in their feet and increased sensitivity to painful stimuli (known as neuropathic pain or painful neuropathy).Neuropathic pain is often worse at night, and can seriously disrupt sleep patterns. These symptoms can have a major effect on health and wellbeing bec Continue reading >>
Diabetes And The Nervous System.
Abstract Hyperglycemia and its vascular complications affect the entire nervous system, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic hyperglycemia is not only a known and major risk factor for cerebral vascular diseases but also the presence of hyperglycemia at the time of a cerebrovascular event may adversely influence the outcome. It also affects the treatment of some neurodegenerative disorders, and there are suggestions that diabetes may in fact suffer from a "chronic diabetic encephalopathy." Its varied effects on the peripheral nervous system result in several forms of diabetic neuropathies, the exact pathogenesis of which is still obscure. There is, however, some new information that may link metabolic and vascular hypotheses. Continue reading >>