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How Does Diabetes Affect The Immune System?

How Diabetes Affects Wound Care?

How Diabetes Affects Wound Care?

There are currently 21 million Americans living with diabetes, and of those, 15% will develop a foot ulcer. Foot ulcers are the most common chronic wound to develop in patients with diabetes due to reduced blood flow and damaged nerves. Diabetic foot ulcers are a major cause of hospitalizations and additional healthcare expenditures within this population. Understanding how to identify and treat chronic wounds is an important step in preventing the development of other complicated health issues in patients with diabetes. The main challenge is the body itself. Slow healing that occurs with patients with diabetes can easily turn chronic wounds into life-threatening situations. Here are several factors that contribute to slow healing: Poor Circulation Diabetes can impair blood circulation and wound healing by narrowing the arteries that carry blood to the legs, inhibiting the ability of red blood cells to deliver nutrients to the tissue. This combination is extremely serious because a non-healing wound on your foot or leg can develop into an ulcer (deep sore) that quickly becomes infected. For many diabetic patients, amputation becomes the only option. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) A high glucose count reduces the levels of the nitric oxide in blood vessels, which increases the risk of high blood pressure and eventually leads to the narrowing of blood vessels. When blood vessels narrow, oxygen delivery is limited (hypoxia) below tissue demand, and healing can become severely impaired. Prolonged hypoxia prompts poor communication between tissue and cells; vastly delaying delay treatment. Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Damage) When blood glucose levels are uncontrolled, nerves in the body are affected and patients can develop a loss of sensation. Depending on the affected n Continue reading >>

10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System

10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System

I honestly thought that with Type 1 diabetes, my immune system was shot to hell. But my husband and oldest daughter always get sick faster and longer than I do. Somehow I seem to fight off "bugs" better than they do. How can this be? Curious as ever, I spent a little time looking into the human immune system and found some pretty intriguing trivia, compiled here for your reading pleasure: 1) Type 1 diabetes doesn't hamper the day-to-day activity of your immune system if you have good blood glucose control. "The autoimmune part of type 1 is very particular, as only the beta cells in the islets are targeted; not the other cells in the islet, and not the other cells in the pancreas. In all of the usual ways, the immune system is just fine," my co-author Dr. Jackson tells me. "There are a few other autoimmune endocrine disorders that are slightly more likely if you have type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common, resulting in either an overactive or underactive thyroid." 2) Autoimmune (AI) disease is primarily a women's issue. This according to Rosalind Joffe in her new book, "Women, Work, and Autoimmune Disease" (due out in May '08). The ratios of AI diseases vary from 2:1 to 50:1 in favor of women, she says. 3) Allergies are also an "immune system mistake." "For some reason, in people with allergies, the immune system strongly reacts to an allergen that should be ignored. The allergen might be a certain food, or a certain type of pollen, or a certain type of animal fur. For example, a person allergic to a certain pollen will get a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, etc." 4) Your immune system is a three-layer deal. Backing up for a moment, did you know that the immune system is composed of these three "layers" or mechanisms? (info from Bio-Medicine) i) Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects Wound Healing

How Diabetes Affects Wound Healing

Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not effectively use sugar. It is estimated that there are nearly 18 million Americans with diabetes, and approximately 15 percent of diabetics will develop a foot ulcer at some point. Foot ulcers are the most common wounds for this patient population. Wound healing can be slowed when the patient is diabetic. An important point to remember about a diabetic patient wound is that it heals slowly and can worsen rapidly, so requires close monitoring. There are several factors that influence wound healing in a diabetic patient, and may include: Blood Glucose Levels It all starts here. An elevated blood sugar level stiffens the arteries and causes narrowing of the blood vessels. The effects of this are far-reaching and include the origin of wounds as well as risk factors to proper wound healing. Poor Circulation Narrowed blood vessels lead to decreased blood flow and oxygen to a wound. An elevated blood sugar level decreases the function of red blood cells that carry nutrients to the tissue. This lowers the efficiency of the white blood cells that fight infection. Without sufficient nutrients and oxygen, a wound heals slowly. Diabetic Neuropathy When blood glucose levels are uncontrolled, nerves in the body are affected and patients can develop a loss of sensation. This is called diabetic neuropathy. When there is a loss of sensation, patients cannot feel a developing blister, infection or surgical wound problem. Because a diabetic patient may not be able to feel a change in the status of a wound or the actual wound, the severity can progress and there may be complications with healing. Immune System Deficiency Diabetes lowers the efficiency of the immune system, the body's defense system against infection. A high glucose level ca Continue reading >>

Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?

Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?

When you have an injury or infection, your body sends white blood cells to heal the damaged tissue. But too much glucose in your blood can slow the work of white blood cells, resulting in cuts and bruises that never seem to heal. Even minor injuries like a cut with a razor will take longer to heal and may become infected. When your blood sugar goes up above 200, your white blood cells can't fight really well. And that weakens your immune system. Continue reading >>

Infections Associated With Diabetes: An Introduction

Infections Associated With Diabetes: An Introduction

SHARE RATE★★★★★ Diabetes can have a profound effect on how the body functions, especially if blood sugar remains uncontrolled. Uncontrolled blood sugar promotes cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, heart disease), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), and peripheral vascular disease, as well as damage to the kidney and damage the nerves. In addition, uncontrolled blood sugar can change immune system function, making the body less able fight infection. All of these negative health effects can work together to interfere with the body’s ability to fight infection effectively and even interfere with our ability to detect the signs of an infection.1 For this reason, people with uncontrolled diabetes tend to develop infections more commonly and these infections tend to be more severe. The main types of infections that occur in people with diabetes include2 : Foot infections Urinary tract infections Fungal infections (affecting the mouth, skin and nails) Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues Influenza and pneumonia How does diabetes affect the immune system and increase risk for infections? Diabetes with uncontrolled blood glucose can interfere with how your immune system works, rendering it less able to protect against infection. Our immune system is made up of many different cells and chemicals whose job it is to fight invasion or infection by foreign substances or organisms, such as viruses and bacteria. The most important cells involved in the immune system are white blood cells. There are several types of white blood cells, each with a specific role to play in fighting infection.. High blood sugar can make white blood cells less able to kill and dispose of organisms that invade the body. Additionally, when the body is trying to fight off an infecti Continue reading >>

An Overview

An Overview

Nearly 400 million people worldwide are living with diabetes, and that number is expected to jump to almost 600 million by 2035, according to the International Diabetes Federation. For many people, diabetes can be controlled with diet, exercise and, often, insulin or other drugs. However, complications from diabetes can be serious and include kidney failure, nerve damage, vision loss, heart disease and a host of other health issues. In this section: What is diabetes? How is diabetes treated? How are we using stem cells to understand diabetes? What is the potential for stem cells to treat diabetes? At its most basic, diabetes is a condition in which the body cannot regulate or properly use sugar (called glucose) in the blood. The pancreas, which helps the small intestine digest food, has hundreds of thousands of cell clusters called islets of Langerhans where beta cells live. Beta cells produce insulin, which is released into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels reach a certain threshold. The insulin signals other cells in the body to take up sugar, the primary energy source for all the body’s cells. Type 1, also known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. When the beta cells are damaged, they don’t produce insulin, or at least not enough insulin. Other cells never get the signal to take up sugar, so they don’t get the energy they need to function properly, and high sugar levels in the blood end up causing damage to the kidneys, eyes, nervous system and other organs. Type 2 diabetes, also called adult-onset diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, cells in the body become resistant to insulin. They don’t respond to the signals insulin sends out, so they don’t take up sugar from the blood. The beta c Continue reading >>

The Role Of The Immune System In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Complications

The Role Of The Immune System In The Pathogenesis Of Diabetic Complications

The main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes are macrovasular and microvascular complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. As the definition of atherosclerosis as a chronic, smoldering, inflammatory disease has gained general acceptance, the attention of researchers has ... The main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes are macrovasular and microvascular complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. As the definition of atherosclerosis as a chronic, smoldering, inflammatory disease has gained general acceptance, the attention of researchers has focused on the triggers of chronic vascular inflammation. The oxidation and other forms of modification of lipids and lipoproteins have emerged as a major pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis, with a significant interaction with the immune system. Modified lipoproteins by themselves are proinflammatory through the activation of the innate immune system as a consequence of the interaction with scavenger receptors and/or toll-like receptors expressed by a variety of cell types, including phagocytic cells and dendritic cells. A variety of modified forms of LDL (mLDL), including oxidized, malondialdehyde-modified, and Advanced Glycation End-product-modified LDL induce autoimmune responses in humans. Those modifications seem enhanced in diabetes, and the progression of atherosclerosis is accelerated in diabetic patients. The immune response to all forms of mLDL results in both activation of T cells in the arterial wall and in an autoimmune response characterized by the formation of IgG antibodies. Both arms of the immune response are believed to play a role in vascular inflammation. While the cell response is likely to activate resident macrophages, the humoral i Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And The Immune System: Scientists Uncover Another Piece Of The Puzzle

Type 1 Diabetes And The Immune System: Scientists Uncover Another Piece Of The Puzzle

Germs could play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes by triggering the body’s immune system to destroy the cells that produce insulin, new research suggests. Scientists have previously shown that killer T-cells, a type of white blood cell that normally protects us from germs, play a major part in type 1 diabetes by destroying insulin producing cells, known as beta cells. Now, using Diamond, a team from Cardiff University’s Systems Immunity Research Institute found the same killer T-cells that cause type 1 diabetes are strongly activated by some bacteria. The team hope this research will lead to new ways to diagnose, prevent or even halt type 1 diabetes. Cardiff University’s Professor Andy Sewell, lead author of the study, said: “Killer T-cells are extremely effective at killing off germs, but when they mistakenly attack our own tissues, the effects can be devastating.” “During type 1 diabetes, killer T-cells are thought to attack pancreatic beta cells. These cells make the insulin that is essential for control of blood sugar levels. “When beta cells are destroyed, patients have to inject insulin every day to remain healthy.” Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes is prevalent in children and young adults, and is not connected with diet. There is little understanding of what triggers type 1 diabetes and currently no cure with patients requiring life-long treatment. In previous studies the Cardiff team isolated a killer T-cell from a patient with type 1 diabetes to view the unique interaction which kills the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. They found these killer T-cells were highly ‘cross-reactive’, meaning that they can react to lots of different triggers raising the possibility that a pathogen might stimulate the T-cells that Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 diabetes is in the process of being redefined as an autoimmune disease rather than just a metabolic disorder, said an author of a new study published in Nature Medicine this week, the findings of which may lead to new diabetes treatments that target the immune system instead of trying to control blood sugar. As part of the study the researchers showed that an antibody called anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells in the immune system, stopped diabetes type 2 developing in lab mice prone to develop the disease, and restored their blood sugar level to normal. Anti-CD20, available in the US under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is already approved as a treatment for some autoimmune diseases and blood cancers in humans, but more research is needed to see if it will work against diabetes in humans. The researchers believe that insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (unlike type 1 diabetes where it is the insulin-producing cells that are destroyed), is the result of B cells and other immune cells attacking the body's own tissues. Co-first author Daniel Winer, now an endocrine pathologist at the University Health Network of the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, started working on the study as a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, USA. He told the press that: "We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease." "This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes," he added. The discovery brings type 2 diabetes, until now considered to be more of a Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects The Digestive System

How Diabetes Affects The Digestive System

With an increase of glucose in the blood, our digestive systems can experience problems with absorbing necessary nutrients. Diabetes is currently one of the most common health conditions. This illness arises when the body is not capable of producing insulin, something that usually helps regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. Diabetes varies in type and severity, but regardless of these details they all pose health risks. While it continues to be incurable, it is treatable. For this reason, we are about to explain in detail how diabetes affects the digestive system. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com The functions of the digestive system One of the most important systems in a human being is the digestive system. It is a network of organs including the mouth, the pharynx, and the stomach, which must transform food into something that can be absorbed by parts of the body, mainly cells, so that it can function. The complete digestive cycle is comprised of transportation, secretion, absorption, and excretion in order for the body to function properly. It supplies all of the nutrients our bodies need through this process. It also allows us to clean or dispose of those elements that our bodies no longer need. How diabetes affects the digestive system As we already know, digestion is an automatic process. This means that our body does not require a conscious stimulus to work and digest food. The opposite is actually true, the digestive system operates on its own thanks to the nervous system. Diabetes creates issues with this system that prevent proper functioning of the digestive system. When the blood has an increased amount of glucose, our digestive system can Continue reading >>

Insulin Treatment Modulates The Host Immune System To Enhance Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Wound Biofilms

Insulin Treatment Modulates The Host Immune System To Enhance Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Wound Biofilms

ABSTRACT Diabetes affects 25.8 million people in the United States, or 8.3% of the population, and these numbers are even higher in developing countries. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to the development of chronic wounds with debilitating bacterial infections than nondiabetics. Previously, we compared the ability of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause biofilm-associated infections in chronic wounds of diabetic and nondiabetic mice (C. Watters, K. DeLeon, U. Trivedi, J. A. Griswold, M. Lyte, K. J. Hampel, M. J. Wargo, and K. P. Rumbaugh, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 202:131–141, 2013). Unexpectedly, we observed that insulin-treated diabetic mice had significantly more biofilm in their wounds, which correlated with higher antibiotic tolerance. Here, we investigated whether insulin treatment modulates the diabetic immune system to favor P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Utilizing a murine chronic wound model, we found that DNA protected P. aeruginosa in the wounds of insulin-treated diabetic mice from antibiotic treatment. We also observed increased numbers of neutrophils, reduced numbers of macrophages, and increased cell death in the wounds of diabetic mice on insulin therapy. Taken together, these data suggest that high levels of lysed neutrophils in the wounds of diabetic mice on insulin, combined with fewer macrophages to remove the cellular debris, contribute to increased DNA levels, which enhance P. aeruginosa biofilms. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Profile Of The Immune And Inflammatory Response In Individuals With Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes

Profile Of The Immune And Inflammatory Response In Individuals With Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE The inflammatory and immune systems are altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the aim was to profile the immune and inflammatory response in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes in a large population-representative sample. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In total, 15,010 individuals were analyzed from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Glucose status was classified according to HbA1c concentration and history of diagnosis. All samples were analyzed for white blood cells (WBCs), granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, fibrinogen, and hematocrit. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and neopterin concentrations were determined in a subcohort. RESULTS In total, 7,584 men and 7,426 women were analyzed (range 35–74 years), with 1,425 and 1,299 having prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. Biomarkers showed varying dynamics from normoglycemic via subjects with prediabetes to subjects with diabetes: 1) gradual increase (WBCs, granulocytes, monocytes, IL-1RA, IL-18, and fibrinogen), 2) increase with subclinical disease only (lymphocytes and CRP), 3) increase from prediabetes to diabetes only (neopterin), and 4) no variation with glucose status (hematocrit). The strongest relative differences were found for CRP, IL-1RA, and fibrinogen concentrations. Several inflammatory and immune markers were associated with the glucose status independent from cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities, varied with disease severity and the presence of disease-specific complications in the diabetes subcohort. CONCLUSIONS The inflammatory and immune biomarker profile varies with the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Markers of inflammation and immunity enable differentiation between the early prec Continue reading >>

Impairment Of Immune Systems In Diabetes

Impairment Of Immune Systems In Diabetes

Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that involves the progressive destruction of the insulin-producing β cells in the islets of langerhans. It is a complex process that results from the loss of tolerance to insulin and other β-cell-specific antigens. Various genetic and environmental factors have been studied so far, but precise causation has yet to be established. Numerous studies in rodents and human subjects have been performed in order to elucidate the role of B and T cells, which determine the risk of development and progression of diabetes. These studies have demonstrated that while T1DM is fundamentally a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response, the development of this disease results from complex interactions between the adaptive and innate immune systems, with numerous cell types thought to contribute to pathogenesis. Like any complex disease, the variation in severity and incidence of T1DM can be attributed to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Continue reading >>

What Is The Immune System?

What Is The Immune System?

Your immune system protects you from some things and tolerates others. To maintain health, the balance between a destructive response and a tolerant one has to be just right. To understand the autoimmune attack of beta cells in type 1 diabetes, it helps to understand how the immune system normally functions. In humans, the immune system protects the person from outside invaders (also known as pathogens), such as bacteria or viruses, and abnormal or diseased cells, such as cancer cells. Additionally, the immune response allows some foreign material and normal cells for each individual (or “self”) to be tolerated. The balance between a destructive response and a tolerant response has to be just right; otherwise, people get autoimmune medical problems. On this page you will learn about: Lymphocytes & Immune Organs The immune cells are called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Important immune organs or sites in the body are the thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes. Lymphocytes include: T cells that can attack or kill infected or defective cells, and also regulate the immune response. The T cell receptors (TCRs) on their cell surface recognize and respond to foreign or abnormal tissue. This process is called cell-mediated immunity. See the glossary below for more about the different types of T cells B cells that make antibodies. B cells are involved in humoral – related to the blood – immunity. NK (natural killer) cells that cause cell death. Immune organs include: The thymus – a gland in the chest that programs the immune system. An important function is to choose and develop T cells that will protect the body and to eliminate T cells that could attack the body. Bone marrow – the source of precursor, or stem cells that can turn into new blood cells. Lymph Continue reading >>

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