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How Does Diabetes Affect Cholesterol?

How Triglycerides Affect Your Risk Of Diabetes

How Triglycerides Affect Your Risk Of Diabetes

No one wants type 2 diabetes. It’s a condition that affects your whole body and gets progressively worse, possibly leading to loss of vision and feeling (especially in your feet and fingertips), as well as kidney disease and heart disease. Having high triglycerides makes it more likely that you will develop diabetes, though. Luckily, with some effort, you have a good chance of lowering your triglycerides -- which, at the same time, can help you lower your chance of getting diabetes. High triglycerides don't cause diabetes. Instead, their levels indicate that your system for turning food into energy isn't working properly. Normally, your body makes insulin, which “escorts” glucose -- the type of sugar in your blood --inside your cells. There, your body turns glucose into energy. Insulin also allows your body to use triglycerides for energy. A common cause of high triglycerides is excess carbohydrates in your diet. High TG’s signals insulin resistance; that’s when you have excess insulin and blood sugar isn’t responding in normal ways to insulin. This results in higher than normal blood sugar levels. If you have insulin resistance, you’re one step closer to type 2 diabetes. If you also are overweight, eat a lot of sugary and starchy foods, or don’t exercise, your insulin resistance can be worse. You can reverse your tracks by following the exercise and meal plan your doctor recommends to lower your triglycerides and by taking prescribed medicine. Your doctor can check your blood sugar (also called glucose) levels, by taking a sample of your blood after you’ve fasted, which means you haven’t eaten for at least 8 hours. The doctor may also test the level of glucose in your blood with a special blood test called A1c. The result shows the average level of Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Cholesterol 101

Diabetes And High Cholesterol 101

Cholesterol is a type of fat found in the blood. Everyone has it, but people with diabetes are more likely to have unhealthy levels of LDL, which can cause narrowing or blocking of the blood vessels. This blockage, when severe, keeps blood from reaching some areas of the heart, increasing your risk for a heart attack or stroke. There are two types of cholesterol in the blood: HDL and LDL. LDL levels should be kept low to help protect your heart. By contrast, HDL is a healthy fat that helps clear fatty deposits from your blood vessels and protect your heart. Try thinking "L should be low, H is healthy" to help you remember the difference between the two types. Triglycerides are another type of fat in your blood that can add to your risk of a heart attack or stroke at high levels, similar to the effect of high cholesterol. Know the Numbers What are the low and high levels of cholesterol for those with diabetes? According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), most adults with diabetes should aim for an LDL level of less than 100 mg/dl. The ADA-recommended HDL levels are greater than 40 mg/dl for men with diabetes and greater than 50 mg/dl for women with diabetes. The ADA recommends that both men and women with diabetes aim for triglyceride levels less than 150 mg/dl. What's mg/dl? It stands for milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood -- the standard unit of measure for cholesterol and triglycerides. Everyone, including people with diabetes, needs some cholesterol in their blood to help build healthy cells. However, there are no symptoms to alert you if your LDL is too high or your HDL is too low. A blood test at your doctor's office is the only way to know. As a result, it is especially important to have your cholesterol checked regularly (at least yearly) i Continue reading >>

Natural Ways To Lower Your Cholesterol

Natural Ways To Lower Your Cholesterol

High cholesterol has long been known to raise the risk of heart and blood vessel disease in people with diabetes and without. Unfortunately, it’s very common among Americans generally, including those with diabetes. The good news is that there’s a lot you can do to lower your cholesterol and, consequently, lower your risk of heart disease. Making the effort to lower blood cholesterol is especially important for people with diabetes — Type 1 or Type 2 — who have a higher risk of heart disease than the general public. The bad guy: LDL Your LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol is the culprit when it comes to raising the risk of heart disease. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, and if you have too much of it in your blood, it can build up along the insides of your artery walls, leading to the formation of fatty deposits called plaque. Plaque makes it harder for blood to flow through your arteries, which means that less blood can get to vital organs, such as your heart and brain. Sometimes this can lead to a heart attack or a stroke. Plaque can also rupture, triggering the formation of blood clots, which can also block the arteries, leading to a heart attack or stroke. So it makes sense to keep your LDL level low. The American Diabetes Association recommends that most adults with diabetes who are not taking cholesterol-lowering statins have a fasting lipid profile done at diagnosis, first medical evaluation, and thenevery five years after, while those taking statins should have the test done when they start the medication and periodically thereafter. This test measures HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, as well as the level of triglycerides (a type of blood fat) in the blood. HDL cholesterol above 50 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol below 100 mg/dl, and triglycerides below 150 mg Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Affect My Risk For High Cholesterol?

How Does Diabetes Affect My Risk For High Cholesterol?

Up Next Untreated or poorly controlled diabetes can lead to a number of serious health problems, including heart and blood vessel disease. Even if you have your diabetes under control, you're at greater risk for heart attack and stroke than someone who does not have diabetes. This is because diabetes damages blood vessels and increases triglyceride levels. It also decreases HDL - the good cholesterol. Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure and are overweight. These are two more risk factors for heart disease. How to Reduce Your Risk Take these actions to have a healthier heart. Have regular checkups to make sure you're keeping your blood glucose under control. If you don't know your blood cholesterol level, have it tested. Your goal, according to the newest May 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines is to have an LDL - or bad - cholesterol less than 100 mg/dL. Talk with your doctor about your risk for heart attack. People who have diabetes are more likely to die if they have a heart attack so they need to take intensive steps to prevent that from occurring. Work with your healthcare team to stay on a healthy, low-fat diet. Work with your healthcare team to get and stay on a program of regular physical activity. To learn more about cholesterol and heart health, visit the following links: Continue reading >>

Diseases Linked To High Cholesterol

Diseases Linked To High Cholesterol

High cholesterol is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. That can include coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. High cholesterol has also been linked to diabetes and high blood pressure. To prevent or manage these conditions, work with your doctor to see what steps you need to take to lower your cholesterol. The main risk from high cholesterol is coronary heart disease. If the cholesterol level is too high, cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this build-up -- called plaque -- causes hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis. This causes arteries to become narrowed, which slows the blood flow to the heart muscle. Reduced blood flow can result in angina (chest pain) or in a heart attack if a blood vessel gets blocked completely. Atherosclerosis causes arteries that lead to the brain to become narrowed and even blocked. If a vessel carrying blood to the brain is blocked completely, you could have a stroke High cholesterol also has been linked to peripheral vascular disease. This refers to diseases of blood vessels outside the heart and brain. In this condition, fatty deposits build up along artery walls and affect blood circulation. This occurs mainly in arteries that lead to the legs and feet. Diabetes can upset the balance between HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. People with diabetes tend to have LDL particles that stick to arteries and damage blood vessel walls more easily. Glucose (a type of sugar) attaches to lipoproteins (a cholesterol-protein package that enables cholesterol to travel through blood). Sugarcoated LDL remains in the bloodstream longer and may lead to the formation of plaque. People with diabetes tend to have low HDL and high triglyceride (another kind of blood fat) leve Continue reading >>

Diabetes Contributes To Cholesterol Metabolism Regardless Of Obesity

Diabetes Contributes To Cholesterol Metabolism Regardless Of Obesity

The two groups were of similar age, sex, weight, BMI, apoE phenotype distribution, and dietary intakes, and the study groups were well comparable, with the exception of blood glucose levels. Serum and LDL cholesterol levels in both groups exceeded the recent recommendations,[ 26 ] but none of the subjects received lipid-lowering medication. In addition, all women were postmenopausal without hormone replacement therapy. Despite similar serum cholesterol levels, HDL cholesterol was lower and triglyceride contents in serum and VLDL were higher in the diabetic group than in the control group, revealing the typical lipoprotein lipid profile of diabetes. From among the possible confounding variables affecting the low cholesterol absorption efficiency in the diabetic group, apoE phenotype distribution, dietary cholesterol, and plant sterol intakes were similar, and none of the subjects in the diabetic group had any symptoms of gastroparesis. In addition, antidiabetic drugs had no consistent effect on the cholesterol absorption, and diabetes had been recently diagnosed. According to our results, diabetes seems to either upregulate cholesterol synthesis or downregulate cholesterol absorption efficiency as compared with the respective nondiabetic state, when obesity is not a confounding factor. Our results convincingly show for the first time the additional effects of diabetes on cholesterol absorption and synthesis in obese subjects. The question then arises, what is initially responsible for the altered cholesterol metabolism in diabetes? Because it has been found that efficient weight loss in diabetic individuals improves cholesterol absorption efficiency and markers of insulin resistance,[ 16 ] cholesterol absorption efficiency might be the variable being affected primarily. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cholesterol

Diabetes And Cholesterol

Tweet High cholesterol levels may be a sign that you are at higher risk of heart disease and stroke. However, it is the balance of cholesterol levels that is a better indicator heart health and it is the balance of cholesterol that your doctors should take into account before advising treatment. Lifestyle modifications and statins are commonly used to reduce high cholesterol levels. Whilst cholesterol levels may rise for a number of reasons, high cholesterol levels over a period of years is often associated with a greater risk of health problems. Too low cholesterol can be more dangerous than too high cholesterol. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a type of blood fat (blood lipid) that forms the membrane of each cell of the body. Cholesterol is carried in the blood by proteins called lipoproteins and it is these that are measured when you have a cholesterol test. These are: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) LDL is often referred to as ‘bad cholesterol’, because it is this form of cholesterol that can build up in blood vessels. HDL is often referred to as ‘good cholesterol’, because it helps to clear excess LDL out of the blood. Whilst LDL may be called bad cholesterol, it is needed for the body and is usually healthy as long as it is kept in balance by a sufficient level of HDL. Triglycerides are another form of blood lipid (blood fat) and are also measured when a cholesterol test is taken. Total cholesterol is the figure of all the different blood fats added together. Ratio of total cholesterol-to-HDL is taken by dividing the total cholesterol figure by the HDL figure. This provides a more reliable indicator of heart health than looking at the total cholesterol or LDL figures. Read more: Cholesterol targets for people with diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cholesterol: What Is The Relationship?

Diabetes And Cholesterol: What Is The Relationship?

What is the relationship between cholesterol and diabetes? How does cholesterol affect my diabetes, and how do I manage it? Judy contacted TheDiabetesCouncil When Judy contacted TheDiabetesCouncil, she had questions about her cholesterol. Though her overall number was at 180 mg/dl, and in a normal range, her LDL-C was higher than normal, although mildly elevated, and her HDL-C was low. Her doctor had explained very little about this to Judy, and she was confused. How can her overall cholesterol number be acceptable, but her other cholesterol numbers were out of range. What did this mean for Judy’s health? Was she more prone to heart disease and stroke due to these cholesterol numbers? Her triglycerides were a little elevated, too. We decided to give Judy a guide that would help her to fully understand her cholesterol numbers, and how they affect her cardiovascular health. We also wanted to make sure that Judy and others like her understand how their cholesterol numbers relate to their diabetes. So let’s get started… What is cholesterol Cholesterol is mainly comprised of fat and lipoproteins. A lipoprotein is comprised of cholesterol, protein, and fat (triglycerides). Cholesterol comes from two sources. Our body manufactures some cholesterol on its own. In addition, cholesterol comes from animal products, such as milk, eggs, cheese, and meats. Cholesterol has the consistency similar to gum or wax. Small amounts of cholesterol are important for a healthy cell membrane (good cholesterol), and some cholesterol has been deemed, “the bad cholesterol,” due to these cholesterol particles tends to cause atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Some cholesterol is “good,” cholesterol, that tends to carry the bad cholesterol away and out the body. That is why y Continue reading >>

Cholesterol Metabolism In Type 1 Diabetes

Cholesterol Metabolism In Type 1 Diabetes

Little information is available on cholesterol absorption and synthesis in human type 1 diabetes. We studied these variables using serum cholesterol precursor sterol ratios to cholesterol as surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis and those of cholestanol and plant sterols to reflect cholesterol absorption in seven type 1 diabetic subjects and in five age- and body weight–matched control subjects. Total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar, but triglycerides in intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and LDL were higher in type 1 diabetic than in control subjects. Most of the marker sterols were transported by LDL and HDL in both groups. The percentage of esterified cholesterol was lower in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in diabetic patients than in control subjects. The ratios of the absorption marker sterols in serum were higher, and those of the synthesis markers were lower in type 1 diabetic than in control subjects. The increased cholestanol ratios were seen in all lipoproteins, and those of free and total plant sterols were mainly in LDL, whereas the decreased free and total synthesis markers were mainly in all lipoproteins. In conclusion, high absorption and low synthesis marker sterols seem to characterize human type 1 diabetes. These findings could be related to low expression of ABC G/5 G/8 genes, resulting in high absorption of cholesterol and sterols in general and low synthesis of cholesterol compared with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes frequently have dyslipidemia and altered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition, cholesterol metabolism is changed, such that cholesterol absorption efficiency and serum plant sterols, reflecting cholesterol absorption (1), are low (2,3) and serum cholesterol precursor sterol Continue reading >>

Cholesterol: High Cholesterol Diseases

Cholesterol: High Cholesterol Diseases

High cholesterol increases the risk of other conditions, depending on which blood vessels are narrowed or blocked. Some of these diseases include: Coronary heart disease The main risk associated with high cholesterol is coronary heart disease (CHD). Your blood cholesterol level has a lot to do with your chances of getting heart disease. If your cholesterol is too high, it builds up on the walls of your arteries. Over time, this buildup is known as atherosclerosis. This condition causes arteries to become narrowed, and the narrowed blood vessels reduce blood flow to the heart. This can result in angina (chest pain) from not enough blood flow getting to the heart, or a heart attack in cases when a blood vessel is blocked completely and the heart muscle begins to die. Stroke A stroke occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain becomes blocked or bursts. A stroke can result if the blood supply to the brain is reduced. When stroke occurs, part of the brain cannot get the blood and oxygen it needs, so it starts to die. Peripheral arterial disease High cholesterol also has been linked to peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which refers to diseases of blood vessels that are outside the heart and brain. In PAD, fatty deposits build up along artery walls and affect blood circulation, mainly in arteries leading to the legs and feet. The arteries of the kidney can also be affected. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is another disease linked to high cholesterol because diabetes can affect the different cholesterol levels. Even if blood sugar control is good, people with diabetes tend to have increased triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and sometimes increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This increases the likelihood of developing a Continue reading >>

A Guide To Living With Diabetes And High Cholesterol

A Guide To Living With Diabetes And High Cholesterol

If you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, you know that controlling your blood sugar levels is important. The more you can keep these levels down, the lower your risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other health problems. Having diabetes puts you at a higher risk for developing high cholesterol. As you watch your blood sugar numbers, watch your cholesterol numbers too. Here, we explain why these two conditions often show up together, and how you can manage both with practical lifestyle approaches. Diabetes and high cholesterol often occur together If you have both diabetes and high cholesterol, you’re not alone. The American Heart Association (AHA) states that diabetes often lowers HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels and raises triglycerides and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels. Both of these increase the risk for heart disease and stroke. The National Diabetes Statistics Report of 2014 shared similar findings. Between 2009 and 2012, about 65 percent of adults with diabetes had LDL cholesterol levels higher than ideal, or used cholesterol-lowering medications. As a reminder: An LDL cholesterol level under 100 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL) is considered ideal. 100–129 mg/dL is close to ideal. 130–159 mg/dL is borderline elevated. High cholesterol levels can be dangerous. Cholesterol is a type of fat that can build up inside the arteries. Over time, it can harden to form a stiff plaque. That damages arteries, making them stiff and narrow and inhibiting blood flow. The heart has to work harder to pump blood, and risk for heart attack and stroke go up. Why diabetes increases risk of high cholesterol Scientists aren’t sure yet exactly how diabetes affects cholesterol, but they’re working on it. Some research has pointed to a connection between insulin and Continue reading >>

Direct Effect Of Cholesterol On Insulin Secretion

Direct Effect Of Cholesterol On Insulin Secretion

Abstract OBJECTIVE—Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by abnormal blood lipid and lipoprotein levels, but most studies on the link between hyperlipidemia and diabetes have focused on free fatty acids (FFAs). In this study, we examined the relationship between cholesterol and insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells that is independent of the effects of FFAs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Several methods were used to modulate cholesterol levels in intact islets and cultured β-cells, including a recently developed mouse model that exhibits elevated cholesterol but normal FFA levels. Acute and metabolic alteration of cholesterol was done using pharmacological reagents. RESULTS—We found a direct link between elevated serum cholesterol and reduced insulin secretion, with normal secretion restored by cholesterol depletion. We further demonstrate that excess cholesterol inhibits secretion by downregulation of metabolism through increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase dimerization. CONCLUSIONS—This direct effect of cholesterol on β-cell metabolism opens a novel set of mechanisms that may contribute to β-cell dysfunction and the onset of diabetes in obese patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice, cells, and islets. C57BL/6J mice (Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) were used, unless otherwise noted. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice (ApoE−/−) (B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc/J), matching control mice (C57BL/6J), and nNOS knockout mice (B6.129S4-Nos1tm1Plh/J) were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). ob/ob;apoE−/− mice (on C57BL/6J background) were produced by intercrossing ob/+ and apoE−/− mice (16). All mice were kept on a rodent chow (LabDiet 5001, 12% of calories from fat) and cared for according to the guidelines of the Vanderbilt I Continue reading >>

Cholesterol Linked With Type 2 Diabetes

Cholesterol Linked With Type 2 Diabetes

An international team of scientists have discovered a possible link between accumulation of cholesterol and type 2 diabetes. The study was based at Canada's Vancouver Child and Family Research Institute at the University of British Columbia, and is published online in Nature Medicine. Type 2 diabetes is defined by two things. One is insulin resistance, and the other is reduced insulin production. The second is caused by reduction in insulin release by "beta cells" in the pancreas. Why this happens is poorly understood; however, it has been suggested that the build up of toxic lipids in the cells could be a reason. Using mice, scientists showed that pancreatic beta cells, responsible for insulin release, begin to malfunction when their cholesterol levels build up. They examined the role of a molecular transporter called "ATP-binding cassette transporter A1" (ABCA1). ABCA1 is important for "cholesterol homeostasis" which regulates cholesterol levels in cells. It also affects insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. The scientists used genetically engineered mice and switched off their ABCA1 genes. They found that these mice had normal insulin sensitivity, but lower levels of insulin secretion and significantly impaired glucose tolerance, displaying one of the classic symptoms of type 2 diabetes. They effectively became diabetic. When they examined the pancreas of the mice, isolated and tested the cells "in vitro", they found the cholesterol homeostasis was different to normal as was the secretion of insulin. They also found a significant accumulation of cholesterol in the beta cells. Cholesterol plays a number of roles in the human body, and one of these is to keep cell membranes healthy so they allow the right chemicals to pass in and out of the cells. However, the le Continue reading >>

Cholesterol

Cholesterol

People with diabetes generally have similar total cholesterol levels and similar rates of the 'good' (HDL) cholesterol as the general population. However, people with diabetes, on average, have higher levels of 'bad' (LDL) cholesterol and higher levels of triglycerides than people without diabetes. This is because diabetes can upset the balance between 'good' (HDL) and 'bad' (LDL) cholesterol levels in a number of ways. People with diabetes tend to have 'bad' cholesterol particles that stick to arteries and damage their walls more easily. High levels of glucose in the blood can result in 'bad' cholesterol staying in the blood stream for longer People with diabetes tend to have low HDL and high triglyceride (another blood fat) levels, both of which boost the risk of heart and artery disease. This means that people with diabetes are at a higher risk of: Heart disease, including heart attack and stroke Circulation problems which can lead to damage to hands, feet and legs Improving Blood Cholesterol There is strong evidence to suggest that lifestyle changes, like eating a healthy diet and doing regular physical activity, can significantly improve the blood cholesterol levels of people with diabetes. In Australia, eating less saturated fat is one of the most practical ways to lower cholesterol. Low cholesterol or cholesterol free foods may be useful for some people, but check that they also low in saturated fat. You should focus on eating less saturated fat rather than eating less cholesterol, because saturated fats more often effect on blood cholesterol levels and many of the foods that are high in saturated fat are also high in cholesterol anyway. If a food does make a low cholesterol claim, check the amount of saturated fat in the nutrition panel. For oils, margarines and Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Cholesterol Risks

Diabetes And Cholesterol Risks

Reviewed by Louise Chang on January 03, 2012 Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein, Medical Officer, Clinilabs Served as advisor to FDA Cardiovascular and Renal Drug Advisory Committee Author: Before It Happens to You: A Breakthrough Program for Reversing or Preventing Heart Disease Jonathan Sackner Bernstein, MD: Your risk of a heart attack and stroke are higher to a level, to a degree that you really need to be much more aggressive about controlling blood pressure, controlling cholesterol and in fact, I would argue probably need to be even more aggressive controlling your average sugar level than even the guidelines suggest. So, diabetes is a problem because it makes you a person who is a much, much higher risk of developing a life threatening or life altering cardiovascular problem. Narrator: What is it about high blood sugars that is so devastating to the organs in our systems.. Jonathan Sackner Bernstein, MD: Well when we think about diabetes and why it would cause a problem, the most obvious reason would be relating to the sugars. It's much more complicated than that, and there are many people who are trying to figure out exactly what the seminal, what the key point is that can be used for a target for a therapy. We know that controlling sugars does a terrific job of reducing risks and that has a lot to do with the fact that when there is more sugar in your system, those sugars can attach to proteins that then don't function normally. So that's part of it. But I think what most people who have diabetes don't appreciate is that diabetes should be considered a vascular disease as much as it is a disease of sugar metabolism. And when I say that it's a vascular disease, what I mean is that the diabetic person ends up with very, very abnormal control and metabolism and structure Continue reading >>

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