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How Does Diabetes Affect A Baby?

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Your Baby? Experts Weigh In

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Your Baby? Experts Weigh In

Ashley Batz/Romper Gestational diabetes [GD] is a very common worry among pregnant ladies. Especially because in addition to all the other stuff you put up with while you're pregnant, who wants to give themselves insulin injections or prick their finger several times a day to check their glucose levels? According to the American Pregnancy Association (APA), 2 to 5 percent of women develop GD. And if you have certain risk factors, that number rises to 7 to 9 percent. But in addition to how gestational diabetes affects you, how does gestational diabetes affect your baby? What is gestational diabetes exactly, and how do you get it? The APA noted that, much like having diabetes when you’re not pregnant, it’s a condition where your body doesn’t produce enough insulin while you’re pregnant, which affects how your body regulates sugar. "It may also be called glucose intolerance or carbohydrate intolerance," the website added. Thankfully, only 5 percent of women develop diabetes during their pregnancy, says Dr. Kurt Martinuzzi, OB-GYN at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, in an email to Romper. So how do some women end up with gestational diabetes and others do not? According to Martinuzzi, unfortunately, women who have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), or are Hispanic, African American, Native American, or Pacific Islander have an increased risk of getting gestational diabetes. He also notes that some women's bodies naturally produce too much blood sugar in their bloodstreams through no fault of their own, because the placenta is producing large amounts of hormones that may cause insulin resistance. "The last third of pregnancy, you want the baby to put on weight, so the body is designed to increase available glucose/sugar in the bloodstream — and in about 5 per Continue reading >>

I Have Gestational Diabetes. How Will It Affect My Baby?

I Have Gestational Diabetes. How Will It Affect My Baby?

Will gestational diabetes hurt my baby? Most women who develop diabetes during pregnancy go on to have a healthy baby. Dietary changes and exercise may be enough to keep blood sugar (glucose) levels under control, though sometimes you may also need to take medication. But untreated gestational diabetes can cause serious problems. If blood sugar levels remain elevated, too much glucose ends up in the baby's blood. When that happens, the baby's pancreas needs to produce more insulin to process the extra sugar. Too much blood sugar and insulin can make a baby put on extra weight, which is stored as fat. This can make the baby grow very large (macrosomia). Also, high blood sugar levels during pregnancy and labor increase the risk of a baby developing low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) after delivery. That's because the baby's body produces extra insulin in response to the mother's excess glucose. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in the blood. The signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia in an infant include: jitteriness weak or high-pitched cry floppiness lethargy or sleepiness breathing problems skin that looks blue trouble feeding eye rolling seizures A baby may also be at higher risk for breathing problems at birth, especially if blood sugar levels aren't well controlled or the baby is delivered early. (If you have gestational diabetes, your baby's lungs tend to mature a bit later). The risk of newborn jaundice is higher too. If your blood sugar control is especially poor, the baby's heart function could be affected as well, which can contribute to breathing problems. Gestational diabetes sometimes thickens a baby's heart muscle (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), causing the baby to breathe rapidly and not be able to get enough oxygen from her blood. It's understandable to feel anxi Continue reading >>

Pregnancy If You Have Diabetes

Pregnancy If You Have Diabetes

If you have diabetes and plan to have a baby, you should try to get your blood glucose levels close to your target range before you get pregnant. Staying in your target range during pregnancy, which may be different than when you aren’t pregnant, is also important. High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can harm your baby during the first weeks of pregnancy, even before you know you are pregnant. If you have diabetes and are already pregnant, see your doctor as soon as possible to make a plan to manage your diabetes. Working with your health care team and following your diabetes management plan can help you have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. If you develop diabetes for the first time while you are pregnant, you have gestational diabetes. How can diabetes affect my baby? A baby’s organs, such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs, start forming during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. High blood glucose levels can be harmful during this early stage and can increase the chance that your baby will have birth defects, such as heart defects or defects of the brain or spine. High blood glucose levels during pregnancy can also increase the chance that your baby will be born too early, weigh too much, or have breathing problems or low blood glucose right after birth. High blood glucose also can increase the chance that you will have a miscarriage or a stillborn baby.1 Stillborn means the baby dies in the womb during the second half of pregnancy. How can my diabetes affect me during pregnancy? Hormonal and other changes in your body during pregnancy affect your blood glucose levels, so you might need to change how you manage your diabetes. Even if you’ve had diabetes for years, you may need to change your meal plan, physical activity routine, and medicines. Continue reading >>

Mother Diabetes Effect Newborn Baby

Mother Diabetes Effect Newborn Baby

Study Finds Moms Diabetes Can Affect Babys Development Written by Ginger Vieira on August 1, 2018 New study finds infants blood cells can be affected by moms diabetes. The mainstream understanding of diabetes developing in a pregnant woman known as gestational diabetes is that the largest problem it can lead to is simply a large, unusually fat baby. But any type of diabetes in a pregnant woman poses a variety of much more complex threats to a growing fetus. How diabetes can hurt a babys development A recent study published in the American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology reports a significantly higher risk of heart disease in babies born to women with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes in that it is not an autoimmune condition like type 1 diabetes, but instead a metabolic disorder. Previous research has found that levels of a protein called transgelin are higher in offspring of women with gestational diabetes, explained the recent report . Transgelin is found in the endothelial colony of forming cells (ECFCs) that line the walls of blood vessels. When researchers from the Indiana University School of Medicine compared blood samples taken from the umbilical cords of babies born to women with gestational diabetes versus babies born to nondiabetic women, the higher levels of transgelin and protein levels demonstrated a very clear dysfunction in the development of healthy blood cells. These cells are critical for both wound healing and for building blood vessel networks, a crucial part of a humans overall cardiovascular system. Without healthy and adequate ECFCs, the long-term development of that childs blood vessel health can be significantly impaired and lead to a diagnosis of heart disease later in life. Its not surprising, exp Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

KEY POINTS Most pregnant women get a test for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. If untreated, gestational diabetes can cause problems for your baby, like premature birth and stillbirth. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after you have your baby; but if you have it, you’re more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Talk to your health care provider about what you can do to reduce your risk for gestational diabetes and help prevent diabetes in the future. What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes (also called gestational diabetes mellitus or GDM) is a kind of diabetes that can happen during pregnancy. Seven out of every 100 pregnant women (7 percent) develop gestational diabetes. It’s a condition in which your body has too much sugar (called glucose) in the blood. When you eat, your body breaks down sugar and starches from food into glucose to use for energy. Your pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) makes a hormone called insulin that helps your body keep the right amount of glucose in your blood. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use insulin well, so you end up with too much sugar in your blood. This can cause serious health problems, like heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. It’s really important to get treatment for diabetes to help prevent problems like these. Can gestational diabetes cause problems during pregnancy? Most of the time gestational diabetes can be controlled and treated during pregnancy to protect both you and your baby. But if not treated, it can cause problems during pregnancy, including: Preeclampsia. This is when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Signs of pre Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: What It Means For You And Your Baby

Gestational Diabetes: What It Means For You And Your Baby

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website. What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a kind of diabetes that starts during pregnancy. (The word gestational means “during pregnancy.”) If you have gestational diabetes, your body isn't able to use the sugar (glucose) in your blood as well as it should, so the level of sugar in your blood gets too high. Gestational diabetes affects about 3% of all pregnant women. It usually starts in the fifth or sixth month of pregnancy (between the 24th and 28th weeks). This kind of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. How can gestational diabetes affect me and my baby? Your baby may grow somewhat larger than a typical baby. This can happen because the extra sugar in your blood “feeds” your baby more. If your baby is very large, you may have a more difficult delivery or need a cesarean section. Gestational diabetes can also cause some problems for your baby at birth, such as a low blood sugar level or jaundice (yellowish skin color). Neither of these problems is very serious. If your baby's blood sugar level is low, he or she will be given extra glucose (sugar water) to bring it back to normal. Jaundice is treated by putting the baby under special lights. Jaundice is common in many newborns and not just those born to mothers with gestational diabetes. What can I do if I have gestational diabetes? Your doctor will probably suggest a special diet for you and may want you to have your blood tested to monitor (check) the sugar level. He or she may also want you to ge Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Getting Pregnant

Diabetes And Getting Pregnant

Having a chronic condition such as diabetes (diabetes mellitus) takes careful monitoring of your health at the best of times, and this becomes even more crucial during pregnancy, a time when your body changes dramatically. Most women who have pre-existing diabetes who become pregnant have type 1 diabetes (once called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes), although some may have type 2 (once called non-insulin dependent or maturity-onset) diabetes. Another type of diabetes called gestational diabetes is a temporary type of diabetes that occurs in pregnant women who have never had diabetes before and it usually goes away after the baby is born. This article deals only with pre-existing diabetes — also known as 'pre-gestational diabetes'. If you have diabetes, there’s no reason that you can’t have a healthy and successful pregnancy and deliver a healthy baby. What it does mean is that you will probably have to work closely with your doctor and other healthcare professionals to ensure you manage your diabetes well during your pregnancy. I have diabetes and want to become pregnant: what should I do? Seeing your doctor for pre-pregnancy planning is an important step in ensuring the best outcome for you and your baby. You have a pre-existing condition, so you can plan ahead and discuss with your doctor what you need to do before you become pregnant, and what you can do to manage your diabetes during pregnancy. For example, if you have diabetes, you have a slightly higher risk than other women of your baby: having a birth defect; being born prematurely; weighing too much or too little; having jaundice; or having dangerously low blood sugar levels after birth. You yourself have an increased risk of having a miscarriage or of developing high blood pressure during the preg Continue reading >>

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect The Baby?

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect The Baby?

Gestational diabetes is a health condition that involves high levels of glucose in the blood while a woman in pregnant. While most women with gestational diabetes have normal pregnancies and give birth to healthy babies, there are a number of complications that are more likely to occur in mothers with uncontrolled gestational diabetes. Large Birth Weight It is common for infant to be larger than normal for their gestational age, also known as macrosomia. This increases the risk of problems at birth and the likelihood of induced labor or a cesarean birth. For example, large birth weight increases the risk of shoulder dystocia, which is a condition involving difficulty giving birth due to the large size of the infant’s torso that become lodged behind the pelvic bone. This can be dangerous as the head may be obstructed, blocking the breathing of the infant when the body is stuck. Premature Birth Mother’s with gestational diabetes are more likely to have a premature birth, before week 37 of the pregnancy, which carries a greater risk of complication for the baby, such as jaundice or respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory distress syndrome is a health condition that involved difficulty of breathing for the infant, often leading to the reliance on breathing assistance mechanisms in the early stages of life. With time, as the lungs mature and gain strength, the ability of the infant to breathe independently is almost always obtained. Rebound Hypoglycemia Shortly following the birth, it is common for infants born to a mother with gestational diabetes to experience health problems as a result of higher production of insulin that normal. Low blood sugar levels, known as hypoglycemia, are often observed and may result in symptoms such as irritability and excessive fatigue. Continue reading >>

Mom’s Diabetes May Affect Child’s Brain

Mom’s Diabetes May Affect Child’s Brain

Blood sugar may influence a critical period in the development of the hippocampus The many pregnant women who have diabetes or develop it during pregnancy have another reason control their blood sugar: Abnormal glucose levels could affect their child’s memory, and damage might not be reversible. A continuing study based at the University of Minnesota has tested children of diabetic mothers from day one through age 8 (and counting) and found consistent problems with their memory; specifically, their ability to recognize their mother’s voice (at birth), face (at 6 months), and sequences of actions (ages 3 and up). Researchers suspect that the impairment is caused by damage to the hippocampus, which rapidly develops during the third trimester of pregnancy. “If the glucose levels in the mother fluctuate greatly … the fetus will also have high fluctuations in their glucose levels, which then leads to iron deficiency and oxygen deficiency” to the brain, says Tracy DeBoer of the University of California at Davis, one of the researchers. These deficiencies have been shown in animals to be especially damaging to hippocampus development, she says. Much of our ability to remember the events we experience (called episodic memory) depends on the hippocampus, a small, metabolically active structure tucked deep into each hemisphere of the brain. “Other research has shown that infants of diabetic mothers, when they do reach school age, have ‘poor cognitive outcomes,’ and that’s a very global term,” DeBoer says. “We’re really trying to be more neurally specific,” to pinpoint which aspects of memory might be affected. A Battery of Tests The study is part of a 20-year collaboration. Neonatologist Michael Georgieff at the University of Minnesota noticed that infan Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Overview Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant women can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you and your baby healthy. In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood sugar. Symptoms For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms. When to see a doctor If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can evaluate your risk of gestational diabetes as part of your overall childbearing wellness plan. Once you're pregnant, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need more-frequent checkups. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health. Your doctor may refer you to additional health professionals who specialize in diabetes, such as an endocrinologist, a registered dietitian or a diabetes educator. They can help you learn to manage your blood sugar level during your pregnancy. To make sure your blood sugar level has returned to normal after your baby is born, your health care team wil Continue reading >>

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Women may have diabetes during pregnancy in 2 ways: Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. If the diabetes is not well controlled during pregnancy, the baby is exposed to high blood sugar levels. This can affect the baby and mom during the pregnancy, at the time of birth, and after birth. Infants who are born to mothers with diabetes are often larger than other babies. Larger infants make vaginal birth harder. This can increase the risk for nerve injuries and other trauma during birth. Also, C-sections are more likely. The infant is more likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth, and during first few days of life. Mothers with poorly controlled diabetes are also more likely to have a miscarriage or stillborn child. If the mother had diabetes before her pregnancy, her infant has an increased risk of birth defects if the disease was not well controlled. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't produce enough insulin, or it can't use it properly.Insulin is the hormone that allows glucose (sugar)to enter the cells to be used as fuel. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. Damage from diabetes comes from the effects of hyperglycemia on other organ systems including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and nerves. In early pregnancy, hyperglycemia can result in birth defects. What are the different types of diabetes? There are three basic types of diabetes including: Type 1 diabetes. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can start at any age. Type 2 diabetes. A metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to make enough, orproperly use, insulin. It used to be called noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Gestational diabetes. A condition in which the blood glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy in a woman who has not previously been diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes is a serious disease, which, if not controlled, can be life-threatening. It is often associated with long-term complications that can affect every system and part of the body. Diabetes can contribute to eye disorders and blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputation, and nerve damage. What happens with diabetes and pregnancy? During pregnancy, the placenta supplies a growing fetus with nutrients and water. The placenta also makes a variety of hormones to maintain the Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Women who have diabetes before they get pregnant have special health concerns. In addition to the new demands that a pregnancy will put on your body, it will also affect your blood sugar levels and diabetes medications. If you're thinking about having a baby, take steps to lessen the risks for both you and your child. A pre-conception counseling appointment will help you be physically and emotionally prepared for pregnancy. Meet with your doctor to find out if your diabetes is controlled well enough for you to stop your birth control method. A blood test called the glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c, or just A1c) can show how well it's been going over the past 8 to 12 weeks. Other medical tests can help prevent complications during pregnancy: Eye exam to see if you have glaucoma, cataracts, or retinopathy Blood work to make sure your kidneys and liver are working Foot exam High blood sugar levels early in the pregnancy (before 13 weeks) can cause birth defects. They also can increase the risks of miscarriage and diabetes-related complications. But many women don't know they're pregnant until the baby has been growing for 2 to 4 weeks. That's why you should have good control of your blood sugar before you start trying to conceive. Keep blood glucose levels within the ideal range: 70 to 100 mg/dL before meals Less than 120 mg/dL 2 hours after eating 100-140 mg/dL before your bedtime snack Use your meals, exercise, and diabetes medications to keep a healthy balance. Continue reading >>

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect A Developing Baby?

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect A Developing Baby?

Q: How does gestational diabetes affect a developing baby? A: You can help minimize your baby's chances of developing complications by carefully managing your gestational diabetes. The condition can cause a newborn to grow very big in utero (over 9 pounds), which may result in a traumatic delivery in which your baby could be injured. Having a very large baby also dramatically increases your chances of needing a cesarean section. Other potential problems for the baby include hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar), jaundice, electrolyte abnormalities, seizures, and breathing problems due to immature lungs (called respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, a new study published by the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine found that children born to mothers who had gestational diabetes are twice as likely to meet the criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by age 6 as those whose mothers did not develop the condition. They may also be at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes And Pregnancy

Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes And Pregnancy

Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well controlled in a pregnant woman with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes could lead to problems for the woman and the baby: Birth Defects The organs of the baby form during the first two months of pregnancy, often before a woman knows that she is pregnant. Blood sugar that is not in control can affect those organs while they are being formed and cause serious birth defects in the developing baby, such as those of the brain, spine, and heart. Download Chart[PDF – 167KB] An Extra Large Baby Diabetes that is not well controlled causes the baby’s blood sugar to be high. The baby is “overfed” and grows extra large. Besides causing discomfort to the woman during the last few months of pregnancy, an extra large baby can lead to problems during delivery for both the mother and the baby. The mother might need a C-Section to deliver the baby. The baby can be born with nerve damage due to pressure on the shoulder during delivery. C- Section (Cesarean Section) A C-section is a surgery to deliver the baby through the mother’s belly. A woman who has diabetes that is not well controlled has a higher chance of needing a C-section to deliver the baby. When the baby is delivered by a C-section, it takes longer for the woman to recover from childbirth. High Blood Pressure (Preeclampsia) When a pregnant woman has high blood pressure, protein in her urine, and often swelling in fingers and toes that doesn’t go away, she might have preeclampsia. It is a serious problem that needs to be watched closely and managed by her doctor. High blood pressure can cause harm to both the woman and her unborn baby. It might lead to the baby being born early and also could cause seizures or a stroke (a blood clot or a bleed in the brain that ca Continue reading >>

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