Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices
What does this test do? This is a test system for use at home to measure the amount of sugar (glucose) in your blood. What is glucose? Glucose is a sugar that your body uses as a source of energy. Unless you have diabetes, your body regulates the amount of glucose in your blood. People with diabetes may need special diets and medications to control blood glucose. What type of test is this? This is a quantitative test, which means that you will find out the amount of glucose present in your blood sample. Why should you take this test? You should take this test if you have diabetes and you need to monitor your blood sugar (glucose) levels. You and your doctor can use the results to: determine your daily adjustments in treatment know if you have dangerously high or low levels of glucose understand how your diet and exercise change your glucose levels The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (1993) showed that good glucose control using home monitors led to fewer disease complications. How often should you test your glucose? Follow your doctor's recommendations about how often you test your glucose. You may need to test yourself several times each day to determine adjustments in your diet or treatment. What should your glucose levels be? According to the American Diabetes Association (Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2011, Diabetes Care, January 2011, vol.34, Supplement 1, S11-S61) the blood glucose levels for an adult without diabetes are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. You should treat your low or high blood glucose as recommended by your health care provider. How accurate is this test? The ac Continue reading >>
Continuous Blood Glucose Testing: How Do Sensors Work?
Share: Sensors record glucose levels continuously around the clock! They allow you to see how fast and in what direction glucose levels are trending. You can also see what your sugar levels were overnight. Glucose readings are transmitted to a monitor or insulin pump where the values are displayed. Currently there is only one on the market. It’s made by Medtronic. Others may be available in the near future. How do they work? A tiny glucose-sensing device called a "sensor" is inserted just under the skin (subcutaneous tissue). It's very similar to insertion of an insulin pump catheter. Sensors are typically inserted in the abdominal or upper buttock area, and tape is used to hold them in place. The sensor measures the level of glucose in the interstitial fluid (fluid surrounding the cell) every 10 seconds and changes it into an electrical signal. The signal represents the amount of sugar in the blood. A small transmitter attaches to the sensor. It sends a signal to an insulin pump or a pager-sized device called a "monitor" that you attach to a belt or the waistline of your pants. The system automatically records an average glucose value every 5 minutes for up to 72 hours. Results of several finger stick blood glucose readings taken with your glucose meter at different times each day are entered into the monitor for calibration. After 3 days, the sensor is removed and the information stored in the CGM is downloaded into a computer. You and your diabetes educator can then review your glucose levels in relation to the other data collected and make any necessary adjustments in your diabetes management plan. The information will be presented as graphs or charts that can help reveal patterns of glucose fluctuations. When Is It Used? A monitors is used to look for trends in g Continue reading >>
Other Types: Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease effecting millions worldwide. Diabetes is categorized by: Type I (Juvenile Diabetes): Pancreas produces very little or no insulin Type II (Insulin Resistant): Pancreas does not produce enough insulin or does not use produced insulin effectively (insulin resistant) Insulin is a circulating hormone that helps the body use and store glucose. At low levels of insulin, the body stores less nutrients in the formof glucose After eating, blood glucose rises as food is broken down. High blood glucose levels damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart over time. Diabetics aim to keep their blood glucose level within normal range (82 to 110 mg/dL). Insulin therapy is a common method in which exogenous insulin analogs are injected when blood gluose are high Example home glucometer At home glucometers allow diabetic patients to monitor their blood glucose levels with a minimal amount of sample blood. Glucometers utilize disposable electrochemical cells. Type I diabetics check their blood glucose levels about 4 times a day. Type II diabetics check their blood glucose levels about 2 times a day. Components of a typical galvanic electrochemical cell: Working electrode: reaction of interest takes place example: silver electrode Reference electrode: standard hydrogen electrode Current flowing between electrodes can be measured using a voltmeter. Traditional Electrochemical Cell Chemical Reactions Step 1: Oxidation of Glucose by Enzyme Glocuse Oxidase (GOD) is an enzyme that directly oxides glucose Step 2: Reduction of enzyme by Mediator Mediator transports electrons to working electrode. An example of a mediator is ferrocene monocarboxylic acid. When blood added, glucose is oxidized by enzyme coated on the working electrode Voltage applied between Continue reading >>
Glucometers Faq: What They Are And How They Work
Glucometers FAQ: What They Are and How They Work Page 1:Glucometers FAQs - General Questions Dignifyed is an online resource devoted to reviewing technology and services aimed at preserving seniors' independence and quality of life. How many hours of hands-on testing and research did you perform for this review? We spent over 80 hours researching the best glucometers on the market. We started with 30 models and narrowed down our choices to the best 10 glucometers to do our hands-on evaluations and reviews. Because of the level of testing that would have been required and given that glucometers must meet specific FDA regulations for accuracy we did not test the accuracy of the glucometers we reviewed. Instead, we researched glucometers and evaluated them based on their design, features, cost and ease of use. You can read more about our evaluation and research process here . Glucometers provide readings by detecting the level of glucose in a person's blood. To get a reading, a person pricks the skin most commonly, a finger and applies the blood sample gained to a test strip inserted in the meter. The glucose in the blood reacts with the chemicals in the strip. Then, electrical currents pass through, determining the level of glucose in the sample and providing numerical results within seconds. Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Meters: These are the most basic and typical meters that utilize test strips and small blood samples. Meters and test strips are available over the counter in stores and online. Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs): This type of monitoring requires a sensor to be implanted under the skin to take readings every few minutes throughout the day and night. They require approval from and implantation by your medical doctor. Noninvasive Glucometers: These Continue reading >>
Checking Blood Sugar: Blood Glucose Meter Accuracy
If handheld blood glucose meters were always as accurate checking blood sugar levels as the much bigger (25 pounds), much more expensive ($10,000) analyzers that hospitals and labs use, then hospitals and labs would use the small, personal blood sugar meters. Find out more about how meters get to market, what to look for when choosing your next meter, and how to calculate the performance results of the meter you have now. How meters get to market To get clearance to market a new meter, a manufacturer needs to submit data to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that shows the new blood glucose monitoring system (meter plus test strips) is as safe to use and effective as other devices on the market that have FDA clearance. Many meter companies cite criteria published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, based in Switzerland. The standard for blood glucose meters is ISO 15197, published in 2003. It is an FDA-recognized standard. It includes instructions for manufacturers on how tests of accuracy are to be run and what counts as a passing grade. Companies don't have to go by the ISO standard. According to the FDA, "Conformance with recognized consensus standards is strictly voluntary for a medical device manufacturer. A manufacturer may choose to conform to applicable recognized standards or may choose to address relevant issues in another manner." So if a manufacturer isn't using the ISO standard, it still has to make a case to the FDA that the device and strips are as safe to use and effective as others on the market. How is accuracy tested? Accuracy means how close the meter's results are to the results from a big, expensive, carefully calibrated lab analyzer. ISO requires man Continue reading >>
How Do Glucometers Work?
Through a pinprick several times a day — but what if diabetics could tell their blood-sugar levels anytime, by glancing at a tattoo?… Monitoring blood sugar levels is a pain for the diabetic — both figuratively and literally. Several times a day, they prick a finger to obtain a blood droplet and apply it to a plastic strip that’s inserted in a glucometer — a hand-held device that tells them if their glucose level is high, low, or right on target. It’s usually the job of the pancreas to keep track of sugar levels and to secrete glucagon and insulin to keep them at 100 or so milligrams per deciliter of blood. But for diabetics — either because their pancreas doesn’t function properly or because their body can’t process the hormones it secretes — glucose testing is a do-it-yourself proposition. And a crucial one. Blood-sugar checks show if it’s time to inject a few units of insulin — or grab a lifesaving snack. That’s where the glucometer comes in. “Current glucometers use test strips containing glucose oxidase, an enzyme that reacts to glucose in the blood droplet, and an interface to an electrode inside the meter,” explains Michael Strano, the Charles and Hilda Roddey Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at MIT. “When the strip is inserted into the meter, the flux of the glucose reaction generates an electrical signal,” he says. “The glucometer is calibrated so the number appearing in its digital readout corresponds to the strength of the electrical current: The more glucose in the sample, the higher the number.” Periodic tests via glucometer play an important part in the diabetic’s treatment plan, but current models fall short in giving a true picture of glucose fluctuations in real time. “The complications of diabetes st Continue reading >>
Blood Glucose Monitoring
Testing your blood sugar level is one of the best ways to understand your diabetes and how different foods, medications, and activities affect your diabetes. Keeping track of your blood glucose can help you and your doctor make a plan to manage this condition. People use portable blood glucose meters, called glucometers, to check their blood sugar levels. These work by analyzing a small amount of blood, usually from a fingertip. The glucometer lightly pricks your skin to obtain the blood. Meters tell you your current blood sugar, but since blood sugar levels change, you need to test levels often and record them. You can get blood glucose monitoring kits and supplies from: your doctor’s office a diabetes educator’s office a pharmacy online stores You can discuss the price with your doctor or pharmacist. Glucose meters come with testing strips, small needles, or lancets, to prick your finger, and a device to hold the needle. The kit may include a logbook or you might be able to download the readings onto your computer. Meters vary in cost and size. Some have added features to suit different needs and preferences. These may include: audio capabilities for people with vision impairment backlit screens to help you see them in low light additional memory or data storage preloaded test strips for people who have difficulty using their hands USB ports to load information directly to a computer Regular glucose monitoring is one of the ways people with diabetes can learn more about their condition. When it’s time to make important decisions about medication dosage, exercise, and diet, knowing your blood glucose levels will be a major help for you, your doctor, and the rest of your healthcare team. By checking your blood glucose levels routinely, you’ll also know when your Continue reading >>
How Blood Glucose Meters Work
Source: Web exclusive: May 2011 Using a blood glucose meter If you have diabetes, a blood glucose meter could well be your new best friend, and critical to successfully managing your disease. “A glucose meter is a tool to help know where your blood sugar is at, and what affects it,” says Karen McDermaid, a diabetes educator in Moosomin, Sask. There are lots of different models of meters’also called blood glucose monitors or glucometers’but they all work the same way: They detect the level of sugar in your blood, and give you the results almost instantly. It all comes down to chemistry Wondering how a glucose meter works? Remember high-school science class? First, you use a lancet to pierce your skin and apply a drop of blood to the meter’s test strip. Next, a series of chemical reactions takes place between the sugar in your blood and substances on the test strip, creating ferrocyanide. An electrical current flows from the ferrocyanide to the glucose meter, which uses the strength of this current to measure the amount of glucose in your blood. The meter converts it to the digital number that you record in your logbook. How not to slip up It’s possible to get an inaccurate reading if you don’t use your meter properly. But there are steps you can take to reduce that risk. Start by washing your hands and the test area of your skin with soap and water. Dirt and residue on your skin can skew the results. Pay attention to your test strips. If they’ve been exposed to extreme temperatures or they’re out of date, they may not be up to the job. If your meter requires the code number from your test strip container, make sure you’ve entered this properly. And be sure to test a big enough drop of blood’but don’t apply more blood after you’ve already done it Continue reading >>
Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. 1993–2005. Sample sizes vary from 30 to 0.3 μl. Test times vary from 5 seconds to 2 minutes (modern meters typically provide results in 5 seconds). A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It can also be a strip of glucose paper dipped into a substance and measured to the glucose chart. It is a key element of home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) by people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia. A small drop of blood, obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet, is placed on a disposable test strip that the meter reads and uses to calculate the blood glucose level. The meter then displays the level in units of mg/dl or mmol/l. Since approximately 1980, a primary goal of the management of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been achieving closer-to-normal levels of glucose in the blood for as much of the time as possible, guided by HBGM several times a day. The benefits include a reduction in the occurrence rate and severity of long-term complications from hyperglycemia as well as a reduction in the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia. History Leland Clark presented his first paper about the oxygen electrode, later named the Clark electrode, on 15 April 1956, at a meeting of the American Society for Artificial Organs during the annual meetings of the Federated Societies for Experimental Biology. In 1962, Clark and Ann Lyons from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital developed the first glucose enzyme electrode. This biosensor was based on a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an oxygen electrode. Thus, the readout was the amount of oxygen consumed by GOx during the enzymatic reaction with the substra Continue reading >>
How Does Glucometer Or Glucose Monitoring Device Work?
Glucose testing is an important part of a diabetic’s daily health care. Without testing, a diabetic can easily become ill, because his glucose levels are not where they need to be. To do glucose testing, a diabetic uses a glucose testing meter, which uses a glucose testing strip. A glucose meter or glucometer, is a medical device used for measuring the approximate level of glucose in the blood. The glucose meter, determines the concentration of glucose in the solution. Most glucose meters, are based on electrochemical technology, they use electrochemical test strips to perform the measurement. A small drop of the solution to be tested, is placed on a disposable test strip, that the glucose meter uses for the glucose measurement. Glucose meter test strips Glucose strips, that are used for glucose monitoring from blood. In each test strip, there is an enzyme called glucose oxidase. This enzyme reacts with the glucose, in the blood sample and creates an acid called gluconic acid. The gluconic acid then reacts, with another chemical in the testing strip called ferricyanide. The ferricyanide and the gluconic acid, then combine to create ferrocyanide. Once ferrocyanide has been created, the device runs an electronic current through the blood sample on the strip. This current is then able to read, the ferrocyanide and determine how much glucose is in the sample of blood, on the testing strip. That number is then displayed on the screen of the glucose testing meter. The two most common methods, used in electrochemical measurement of glucose are: Colorimetric method and Amperometric method. Colorimetric method In this method, the typical sensors such as LEDs or photo sensors form the analog interface. These sensors are followed by a Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) for the gluco Continue reading >>
How Does The Freestyle Libre System Measure My Glucose?
People with diabetes have traditionally measured their glucose levels using blood glucose meters. This tried and tested technology has been around since the 1960’s with many developments that have improved accuracy, reduced test times and reduced the required blood volumes. With the introduction of continuous glucose monitors at the turn of the century, a new sample medium for glucose testing was introduced in the form of interstitial fluid - commonly referred to by the abbreviation ISF. Continuously measuring glucose in whole blood is not practical for the home user, whereas a range of glucose monitoring systems have been developed to conveniently and continuously measure glucose in the ISF due to the ease of use and safe accessibility. Interstitial fluid, or ISF, is simply the intracellular fluid that surrounds the cells and feeds them nutrients including glucose (Figure 1). Glucose sensor systems measure glucose in the ISF by inserting a glucose sensing filament into the subcutaneous tissue which sits just below the dermis (top layer) of the skin. This subcutaneous tissue comprises of ISF which contains glucose transported from blood capillaries. The glucose levels in the ISF closely follow blood glucose, albeit with a slight time delay. The delay has been estimated at between 5 and 10 minutes in various studies, and is therefore unlikely to impact routine day-to-day treatment decisions. The delay can be more noticeable when a person’s glucose is changing rapidly, for example after a high glycaemic index meal or during exercise. To compensate for this, devices which measure glucose in the ISF employ complex algorithms which can compensate for rapidly changing glucose levels, resulting in accurate glucose measurements for the end user. Trend arrows als Continue reading >>
Glucose Testing Glucose Testing is a important and vital part of a diabetics daily health care. Without testing, a diabetic can become sick because their glucose levels are not where they need to be. Glucose testing is done by using a glucose testing meter, which uses a glucose testing strip. Glucose Testing Meter Steps for Testing Glucose To test for glucose one must drop a sample of blood by placing on the strip. This is done by poking the skin with a needle called a lancet. The lancet pricks the finger which allows the sample of blood to flow right onto the glucose strip. Once the blood sample has made it on to the glucose strip, a device called a glucose meter is used to measure the glucose in the blood. In each test strip, there is a chemical called glucose oxidase. This glucose oxidase reacts with the glucose in the blood sample and is created into a acid called gluconic acid. This current is then able to read and determine how much glucose is in the sample of blood on the testing strip. The number is then relayed on the screen of the glucose testing meter. Blood Glucose Meters A glucose meter is used to determine the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. The glucose meter is a key element in monitoring diabetes can help test if the blood sugar is too high or low. Glucose meters are small and are handheld, they can fit in the palm of a hand. Glucose meters cost anywhere from $20 to the most advanced meters costing $500. Examples One Touch Verio Glucose Meter System The One Touch Verio glucose meter is practical, reliable, and affordable. This glucose meter provides instant notifications of high and low blood sugar trends, unsurpassed accuracy, and requires a very small blood sample size. The Verio glucose meter is one of the more recent and efficient Continue reading >>
What Is (cgm) Continuous Glucose Monitoring?
A CGM is an FDA-approved device that provides continuous insight into glucose levels throughout the day and night. The device displays information about glucose direction and speed providing users additional information to help with their diabetes management. Studies have shown that CGM systems may help reduce your A1C and reduce your risk for hypoglycemia, whether you are on insulin injections or pump therapy.2 The Dexcom G5 Mobile Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) System is FDA-approved to help minimize the guesswork that comes from making decisions based solely on a number from a blood glucose meter reading, for better diabetes management.* Continue reading >>
How Do Blood Glucose Meters Work?
How does my blood glucose meter measure how much sugar is in my blood? Blood glucose test strips contain a capillary that sucks the blood up into the test strip. The glucose in the blood reacts with chemicals on the strip. The meter runs an electrical current through the test strip. The total charge passing through is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood. Why batteries and control solution are important When you understand the process you can see why batteries and control solution are important. Batteries generate the current. Control solution assists you in making sure that the chemicals on the test strips haven’t been damaged by heat, water, cold or anything else. Important things to remember Most blood glucose meters were originally designed to be used with blood taken from a finger prick. Some, including all of the meters we carry, have been approved for alternate site testing. Read your personal meter’s directions to make sure you are following them, especially with regard to where you’re getting the blood you’re using to perform a test. What exactly are you measuring? It’s important to remember that when you test your blood sugar using any glucometer the result shows you an estimate of the amount of glucose in your blood. How accurate are they? The accuracy standard for all meters says that glucose meters must show results that are within 20% of a laboratory standard 95% of the time. If you think about it, that’s actually not very accurate! Don’t be fooled into thinking that you can rely solely on your glucometer to know your blood sugar levels. You should also visit your doctor regularly and he should order laboratory tests to assist you both in managing your blood sugar. What factors affect accuracy? Many, many factors can affect the Continue reading >>
When To Get A New Blood Glucose Meter?
I have had my current glucose meter for over 10 years. When should one consider getting a new meter? As long as the manufacturer still makes the strips, does it matter? Can meters become unreliable? Karen Adsit, Chattanooga, Tennessee Belinda Childs, ARNP, MN, BC-ADM, CDE, responds: When I am asked this question in the office, I usually answer that the glucose meter you are using is acceptable as long as it is giving you accurate readings. The best way to know if your meter is accurate is to use the "glucose control" solution for your brand of glucose meter and strips. The meter companies recommend that you do this with each new bottle of test strips and any time you suspect that you may not be getting accurate readings. However, the glucose control solution is generally only good for 30 days after you open the bottle. Some health care providers correlate meters with lab readings, but you must remember that there can be as much as a 10 to 15 percent variation between the readings you get with your meter from one test to the next, as well as between a home test and a lab result. The key to your question, though, is that you have not had a new meter in more than 10 years. Technology has improved significantly over the past decade. Meters now require much less blood, and thus a smaller needle stick. This means less pain on the fingers. With many meters, you can also use alternate site testing and give your fingertips a break. Test strip technology is better, too. Some strips allow reapplying blood on the same strip if there's not enough there to get a reading, so you do not use as many strips (and save on cost). Most manufacturers have removed the need to enter a code or change a code strip with each new bottle of strips. Many meters now have data management programs to h Continue reading >>