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How Do You Develop Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

What is type 1 diabetes? Diabetes occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the glucose in your blood get into your cells to be used for energy. Another hormone, glucagon, works with insulin to control blood glucose levels. In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system, which normally fights infection, attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. As a result, your pancreas stops making insulin. Without insulin, glucose can’t get into your cells and your blood glucose rises above normal. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Who is more likely to develop type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. Having a parent or sibling with the disease may increase your chance of developing type 1 diabetes. In the United States, about 5 percent of people with diabetes have type 1.1 What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are serious and usually happen quickly, over a few days to weeks. Symptoms can include increased thirst and urination increased hunger blurred vision fatigue unexplained weight loss Sometimes the first symptoms of type 1 diabetes are signs of a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) . Some symptoms of DKA include DKA is serious and dangerous. If you or your child have symptoms of DKA, contact your health care professional right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room. What causes type 1 diabetes? Experts think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and factors in the environment, such as viruses, that migh Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use a natural sugar called glucose for energy. Your body obtains glucose from the food you eat. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body’s cells. Your liver and muscle tissues store extra glucose, also called blood sugar. It’s released when you need extra energy, such as between meals, when you exercise, or when you sleep. In diabetes mellitus type 1 the body is unable to process glucose due to a lack of insulin. This causes elevated blood sugar levels and can cause both short-term and long-term problems. Learn more: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 diabetes » The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. It’s also unknown why the immune system attacks beta cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Family history Family history may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing increases. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. Many believe there must be some type of trigger that causes type 1 diabetes to develop. These could include: Race Race may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. It is more common in white individuals than in people of other races. The following are symptoms of type 1 diabetes: excessive hunger excessiv Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear following birth. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. You should therefore visit your GP if you have symptoms, which include feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual and feeling tired all the time (see the list below for more diabetes symptoms). Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes. This is why it's sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce any insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. This is why it's also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs. In type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop l Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

In type 1 diabetes, your body does not produce insulin, which is the hormone necessary for processing glucose. Glucose is used by cells in your body as an energy source, and without insulin, glucose can’t get into those cells. It stays in the blood, and when you have too much glucose in your blood, it can damage your organs and other parts of your body. Therefore, people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin in order to manage their blood glucose levels and make sure their bodies get the energy they need. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, and you may still hear those names used. Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the immune system turns against your body. Instead of protecting the body, the immune system in people with type 1 diabetes starts to destroy beta cells—and those are the cells that are in charge of making insulin. The medical community isn’t sure what causes the immune system to start destroying the beta cells. Some thoughts are: a genetic susceptibility to developing type 1 diabetes certain viruses (for example, German measles or mumps) environmental factors Regardless of what triggers the immune system to turn against the beta cells, the end result is the same in type 1 diabetes: gradually, all beta cells are destroyed and the body is no longer able to produce insulin. Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms Type 1 diabetes develops gradually, but the symptoms come on suddenly. As soon as the body is no longer making insulin, blood glucose levels rise quickly, so the following type 1 diabetes warning signs can develop: extreme weakness extreme tiredness rapid weight loss increased appetite extreme thirst increased urination nausea and/or vomiting fruity breath wounds tha Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Overview Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin These pages are about type 1 diabetes. Other types of diabetes are covered separately (read about type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, which affects some women during pregnancy). Symptoms of diabetes Typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk The symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop very quickly in young people (over a few days or weeks). In adults, the symptoms often take longer to develop (a few months). Read more about the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. These symptoms occur because the lack of insulin means that glucose stays in the blood and isn’t used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Find your local GP service Read about how type 1 diabetes is diagnosed. Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means your immune system attacks healthy body tissue by mistake. In this case, it attacks the cells in your pancreas. Your damaged pancreas is then unable to produce insulin. So, glucose cannot be moved out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Type 1 diabetes is o Continue reading >>

The 3 Stages Of Type 1 Diabetes Development

The 3 Stages Of Type 1 Diabetes Development

Home / The 3 Stages of Type 1 Diabetes Development The 3 Stages of Type 1 Diabetes Development Type 1 diabetes is a medical disorder characterized by the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet cells, eventually leading to the absence of the production of insulin and other important hormones. The lack of insulin results in a decreased ability of glucose to enter the cells, leading to hyperglycemia , or high blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes is believed to be caused by the combination of a genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger. Formerly known as juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed in childhood, as well as in adulthood. In fact, between 25% and 50% of type 1 diabetes diagnoses today occur in individuals over 18 years old. The main symptoms of untreated type 1 diabetes include: Frequent infections and slow wound healing Individuals with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose levels and administer exogenous insulin via injections or an insulin pump to allow for glucose metabolism. Left untreated, the condition is deadly and suboptimal management can result in numerous complications, including micro- and macrovascular problems in numerous organ systems as well as nerve damage. However, with optimal blood glucose control, the likelihood of complications can be minimized. There are several main steps in the typical pattern of developing of type 1 diabetes: Islet cell autoimmunity, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, A decrease in beta cell mass that reduces insulin production and results in slightly elevated blood glucose levels, and Overt hyperglycemia accompanied by the clinical symptoms of diabetes. A diabetes diagnosis is typically made based on blood glucose levels and the hemoglobin A1c test. In general, tw Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

How Does Type 1 Diabetes Develop?

How Does Type 1 Diabetes Develop?

WHAT DID BOTTAZZO PORTEND? The Bottazzo article (3) was unique in its form of presentation, in that the prose represented the equivalent workings of a legal stenographer recording the debate between two counsels: one for the prosecution (i.e., β-cell homicide) the other representing the defense (i.e., β-cell suicide). More important than the means for its presentation was the evidence noted for each case. Arguments for homicide included, but were not limited to, a theoretic scenario wherein type 1 diabetes was posed to be initiated by an ill-defined environmental attack resulting in the release of β-cell autoantigens (Fig. 1). Subsequently, those self-antigens were thought to be scavenged by macrophages, presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules (i.e., HLA-DR), leading to the activation of helper T-cells, which would in turn activate B-cells to produce antibodies (e.g., islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies and complement-fixing autoantibodies) as well as activate killer cells and cytotoxic T-cells. Interestingly, Bottazzo did note the potential role for “suppressor T-lymphocytes” (i.e., a forerunner of today’s regulatory T-cell), but left them out of the equation because of their ill-defined nature at the time of his writing. Other prosecutorial arguments included seasonality for the disease onset, typical age of onset, and questions related to genetic susceptibility to this disease. FIG. 1. Bottazzo’s “Exhibit 5.” Diagram shows the hypothetical steps leading to activation of the immune system against the β-cell. A: The triggering events: 1) Environmental attack. 2) Release of autoantigens from the β-cell. 3) The macrophage processes them on its surface membrane. D/DR molecules present islet autoantigens to the helper T-cel Continue reading >>

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

When then 34-year-old Rebecca Gill was pregnant with her second child in 2004, high blood sugar levels led to a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, an often-temporary form of diabetes that can occur in pregnant women. After Gill’s son was born, her blood sugar levels returned to normal, and her doctors assumed that the diabetes was gone. But another blood test given several weeks after she gave birth showed that her diabetes problems had returned. She was referred to an endocrinologist who ran tests and eventually diagnosed her with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA. “Thankfully, I was one of the lucky ones whose endocrinologist had experience with LADA,” says Gill, an internet marketing consultant in Commerce, Mich. LADA, also known as type 1.5 diabetes or double diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which an adult’s immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, cells that produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that converts the body’s blood sugar to energy. Without enough insulin, blood sugar levels can become too high, resulting in nerve damage, blindness, and other problems if untreated. LADA is similar to type 1 diabetes in that both forms are caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking beta cells. However, most diabetics with LADA are diagnosed after age 30, while the most common form of type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or adolescents. LADA: A Different Diabetes Because LADA appears in adulthood, it may be initially mistaken for type 2 diabetes, but it is different. People who have LADA are often initially misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes, says Priscilla Hollander, MD, PhD, an endocrinologist at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. “Many people with LADA present symptoms a little like type 2s,” Dr. Hollander expla Continue reading >>

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