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How Do Adults Get Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Although onset frequently occurs in childhood, the disease can also develop in adults. [1] See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM. Signs and symptoms The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are as follows: Other symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, and blurred vision. The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 diabetes to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [2] : Lab studies A fingerstick glucose test is appropriate for virtually all patients with diabetes. All fingerstick capillary glucose levels must be confirmed in serum or plasma to make the diagnosis. All other laboratory studies should be selected or omitted on the basis of the individual clinical situation. An international expert committee appointed by the ADA, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the International Diabetes Association recommended the HbA1c assay for diagnosing type 1 diabetes only when the condition is suspected but the classic symptoms are absent. [3] Screening Screening for type 1 diabetes in asymptomatic low-risk individuals is not recommended. [2] However, in patients at high risk (eg, those who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes), it may be appropriate to perform annual screening for anti-islet antibodies before the age of 10 years, along with 1 additional Continue reading >>

1 In 5 Cases Of Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed In The Over-40s

1 In 5 Cases Of Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed In The Over-40s

Save for later More than one in five cases of Type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in people aged over 40, according to new figures announced today at Diabetes UK’s annual Diabetes Professional Conference. The figures, which are based on analysis from the National Diabetes Audit data, shows that in the year 2011–12, 8,952 people were diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. This included 2,035 people who were aged over 40 at the time of their diagnosis, of who more than 500 were aged over 69. The research confirms what Diabetes UK has always said that, though most cases are commonly diagnosed between the ages of 10–14, Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. The charity pointed to Home Secretary Theresa May’s Type 1 diagnosis last year as a high profile example of this. The charity’s announcement comes as new research from the Royal Gwent Hospital in Wales suggests that lack of awareness about late onset Type 1 diabetes is leading to some people not being diagnosed early enough and in some cases people can become seriously ill before the condition is identified. Signs and symptoms This research highlights the need for healthcare professionals not to rule out Type 1 diabetes just because a patient is older. It is also important for the public to be aware of the main signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes, which include being tired, thirsty, losing weight and going to the toilet a lot, especially at night. People also need to understand that they should contact their GP if they have any of these symptoms. Simon O’Neill, Director for Health Intelligence and Professional Liaison for Diabetes UK, said, "This study highlights that Type 1 diabetes is not just a condition that strikes the young. We hear of reports where people who develop the condition later in life are only diagnosed Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

The Facts Diabetes is a condition of elevated blood sugars in which the body does not make enough insulin and/or the insulin being made cannot be used properly by the body. The body's main fuel is a form of sugar called glucose, which comes from food (after it's been broken down). Glucose enters the blood and is used by cells for energy. To use glucose, the body needs a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. Insulin is important because it allows glucose to leave the blood and enter the body's cells. Diabetes develops when your body can't make any or enough insulin, or when it can't properly use the insulin it makes. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes develops when your body makes little or no insulin. When this happens, glucose can't get into the cells for energy and remains in the blood, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. Most people develop type 1 diabetes before the age of 30, but it can also occur in older adults. In North America, 5% to 10% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It occurs equally among women and men. Causes There is a genetic predisposition for type 1 diabetes, but the exact science behind the condition is not yet fully understood. There is also the need for certain environmental factors or "triggers" to be involved that lead to the condition. While the exact cause of type 1 diabetes isn't known, researchers believe the disease develops when a virus or environmental toxin damages the pancreas or causes the body's immune system to attack the beta cells of the pancreas (called an autoimmune reaction). As a result, the beta cells of the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin. Without insulin, glucose in the blood can't enter the cell Continue reading >>

Ask An Expert: Can A Young, Healthy, Active Adult Get Diabetes?

Ask An Expert: Can A Young, Healthy, Active Adult Get Diabetes?

Q: Can an active, 32-year-old Caucasian female who eats well and who does not suffer from obesity, high blood pressure or high cholesterol be diagnosed with diabetes or pre-diabetes? If so, how common is this? Answer from Susanna Reiner, R.N., B.S.N., diabetes nurse educator, Providence Diabetes Education: Yes — even though a healthy diet, weight and lifestyle greatly reduce the chances of developing diabetes, there is still a small chance that the woman you described could be diagnosed with pre-diabetes or diabetes due to risk factors beyond her control. It’s relatively uncommon, but it does happen. Fortunately, her healthy lifestyle will be an asset to her. If the woman in question is diagnosed with pre-diabetes, then staying physically active, maintaining a low-stress lifestyle and following a well-balanced diet will help her prevent or delay the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, according to the Diabetes Prevention Program. If she is diagnosed with diabetes, she’ll have a much better chance of preventing complications related to uncontrolled diabetes if she continues to follow her healthy habits. What could cause diabetes in such a young, otherwise healthy adult? Let’s first consider type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases of diabetes in the United States according to the National Diabetes Fact Sheet. Some of the most common risk factors for type 2 diabetes don’t appear to apply to the woman you’ve described. These include the following: Obesity, particularly around the waistline (associated with 90 percent of people who have type 2 diabetes, according to the World Health Organization) Certain non-Caucasian ethnic backgrounds (African-Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are a Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Abstract In Brief Older adults with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for severe hypoglycemia and may have serious comorbid conditions. Problems with cognition, mobility, dexterity, vision, hearing, depression, and chronic pain interfere with the ability to follow complex insulin regimens. With the development of geriatric syndromes, unpredictable eating, and frailty, treatment regimens must be modified with the goal of minimizing hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia and maximizing quality of life. Challenges in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Older Adults There is a paucity of data related to glycemic management and control of type 1 diabetes later in life. The Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Exchange clinic registry reported characteristics of older adults with type 1 diabetes who are followed in diabetes centers across the United States.17 Of those ages 50 to < 65 years (n = 2,066), mean A1C was 7.7% (27% had an A1C < 7.0%, 46% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 11% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%), and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.5 times daily. Of those ≥ 65 years of age (n = 683), mean A1C was 7.4% (34% had an A1C < 7.0%, 52% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 8% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%) and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.6 times daily. Greater frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was associated with lower A1C levels in both those who used an insulin pump and those who administered insulin via injections.18 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was lower with increasing age and was not associated with duration of diabetes.19 DKA was more likely in those with higher A1C levels and lower socioeconomic status. No relationship was found between DKA and pump versus injection use. Longstanding diabetes in older adults has been associated with increased risks of severe hypo Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes Type 1 In Adults

Symptoms Of Diabetes Type 1 In Adults

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in adults may occur suddenly It’s important to realize that early signs of type 1 diabetes in adults often develop quickly and may sometimes be brushed off—or mistaken for illness. Here’s what you should look out for: Frequent Urination: If you’re constantly running to the bathroom, your kidneys may be trying to rid your blood of excess sugar, resulting in an increased need to urinate. Extreme thirst: Increased urination can then result in dehydration, which will leave you feeling more thirsty than normal. Increased appetite: If you’re suddenly hungry all the time it may be because your body isn’t able to get proper energy from the food you eat. Unexpected weight loss: Along the same lines, if your body is losing sugar in your urine instead of absorbing it, you may lose weight without trying. Other symptoms of type 1 diabetes in adults Other diabetic symptoms in adults include feeling drowsy or lethargic; sudden vision changes; fruity or sweet-smelling breath; heavy or labored breathing; and stupor or unconsciousness. If you do have high blood sugar and it goes untreated, it could develop into diabetic ketoacidosis—a life-threatening condition. So please see your doctor immediately if you are exhibiting these warning signs. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… The reality is that signs of type 1 diabetes usually develop suddenly. And, that’s why it can be… Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Misdiagnosed In Many Adults

Type 1 Diabetes Misdiagnosed In Many Adults

Many might think type 1 diabetes is a "disease of childhood", but research, published in the Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, has found it has similar prevalence in adults. More than 40% of Britons diagnosed with the condition are over 30. Many of these are initially diagnosed with type 2, and receiving the wrong treatment can be life-threatening. Charity Diabetes UK is calling for doctors not to rule out the possibility a patient over 30 might have type 1. 'Banging my head against a wall' Helen Philibin, a mother of two from Torquay, who was 40, slim and active when she was diagnosed. She said: "Having the wrong diagnosis was extremely frustrating. I just knew it wasn't right. "I'm always running around with my two young kids and I walk the dog every day." She visited her GP complaining of extreme thirst. A blood test strongly indicated she had diabetes. Her doctor diagnosed her with type 2 and prescribed metformin, the most commonly-used drug for the condition. She was also sent on a course to learn about lifestyle factors including a low-sugar diet. "All the other people on the course were in their mid-60s and overweight. I was 5ft 10in and nine-and-a-half stone. I stood out like a sore thumb," said Helen. "When I raised it with nurses or my GP, I was told that type 1 diabetes is always diagnosed in childhood, so I had to be type 2. I felt like I was banging my head against a wall." Helen changed her diet to get better blood sugar control - but she began vomiting up to four times a week. "It was horrible," she said. "Even a single piece of toast would send my blood sugar levels through the roof and I was losing even more weight." Helen's story isn't unique. According to the new report, misdiagnosis may be a surprisingly common occurrence in the UK. The team analysed Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Adults Can Get It, Too

Type 1 Diabetes: Adults Can Get It, Too

When we think about type 1 diabetes, we tend to think of it as a disease that certain babies are born with. In most of these cases, it’s caught early, and kids grow up knowing how to monitor and control their own blood sugar levels. But new data from the UK shows that adults may be just as likely to develop Type 1 diabetes, long after childhood and adolescence. Poring over tens of thousands of cases, researchers found that 42 percent of type 1 diabetes cases arose when people were 31 to 60 years old, while 58 percent were diagnosed at 30 or younger. Type 1 was equally likely to appear across the first six decades of life – surprising for a disease that was commonly known as “juvenile diabetes” until 1997. Diagnosing this complex disease, whether at age 5 or 50, begins with understanding its nuances and risk factors – something Florida Hospital’s diabetes experts know a thing or two about. This world-class facility is one of the largest and most comprehensive diabetes and endocrine centers in the country. Francisco Correa, MD, endocrinologist with Florida Hospital Medical Group’s Florida Diabetes & Endocrine Center, adds, “Florida Hospital Diabetes Institute has 25 years of experience in the diagnosis and treatment of Diabetes type 1 and strives to offer its patients the most up-to-date therapies for the management of this condition.” So what’s the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, exactly? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that destroys the body’s insulin-making cells, allowing glucose to build up dangerously in the bloodstream. It tends to run in families, is not preventable, and accounts for a very small number of total diabetes cases – only about five to 10 percent. “Diabetes type 1 is caused by a combination of immunolo Continue reading >>

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Type 1 diabetes used to be called "juvenile diabetes," because it's usually diagnosed in children and teens. But don't let that old-school name fool you. It can start when you're a grownup, too. Many of the symptoms are similar to type 2 diabetes, so it's sometimes tricky to know which kind you've got. But it's important to learn the differences and figure out what's going on so you can get the treatment that's right for you. Causes Doctors aren't sure exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. They believe your genes may play a role. Researchers are also checking to see if there are things that trigger the disease, like your diet or a virus that you caught. What experts do know is that when you have type 1 diabetes, something goes wrong with your immune system -- the body's defense against germs. It destroys beta cells in your pancreas that are responsible for making a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose -- or sugar -- to get into your cells, where it's turned into energy. But if you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't make insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream and, over time, can cause serious health problems. Symptoms If you have type 1 diabetes, you may get similar symptoms as your friends who have type 2. You may notice that you: Get extremely thirsty or hungry Need to pee often Feel unusually tired or weak Lose weight suddenly Get blurred vision or other changes in the way you see Get vaginal yeast infections Have breath that smells fruity Can't breathe well Sometimes, type 1 diabetes could even make you lose consciousness. Who's Most Likely to Get It as an Adult? People of all races and ethnic groups can get type 1 diabetes, but it's most common among those of northern European descent. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, Continue reading >>

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

When then 34-year-old Rebecca Gill was pregnant with her second child in 2004, high blood sugar levels led to a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, an often-temporary form of diabetes that can occur in pregnant women. After Gill’s son was born, her blood sugar levels returned to normal, and her doctors assumed that the diabetes was gone. But another blood test given several weeks after she gave birth showed that her diabetes problems had returned. She was referred to an endocrinologist who ran tests and eventually diagnosed her with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA. “Thankfully, I was one of the lucky ones whose endocrinologist had experience with LADA,” says Gill, an internet marketing consultant in Commerce, Mich. LADA, also known as type 1.5 diabetes or double diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which an adult’s immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, cells that produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that converts the body’s blood sugar to energy. Without enough insulin, blood sugar levels can become too high, resulting in nerve damage, blindness, and other problems if untreated. LADA is similar to type 1 diabetes in that both forms are caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking beta cells. However, most diabetics with LADA are diagnosed after age 30, while the most common form of type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or adolescents. LADA: A Different Diabetes Because LADA appears in adulthood, it may be initially mistaken for type 2 diabetes, but it is different. People who have LADA are often initially misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes, says Priscilla Hollander, MD, PhD, an endocrinologist at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. “Many people with LADA present symptoms a little like type 2s,” Dr. Hollander expla Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

About Type 1 Diabetes

About Type 1 Diabetes

About type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes isn’t caused by poor diet or an unhealthy lifestyle. In fact, it isn’t caused by anything that you did or didn’t do, and there was nothing you could have done to prevent it. What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. For reasons we don’t yet fully understand, your immune system – which is meant to protect you from viruses and bacteria – attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, called beta cells. Insulin is crucial to life. When you eat, insulin moves the energy from your food, called glucose, from your blood into the cells of your body. When the beta cells in your pancreas fail to produce insulin, glucose levels in your blood start to rise and your body can’t function properly. Over time this high level of glucose in the blood may damage nerves and blood vessels and the organs they supply. This condition affects 400,000 people in the UK, with over 29,000 of them children. Incidence is increasing by about four per cent each year and particularly in children under five, with a five per cent increase each year in this age group over the last 20 years. What causes type 1 diabetes? More than 50 genes have been identified that can increase a person’s risk of developing type 1 diabetes, but genes are only part of the cause. Scientists are also currently investigating what environmental factors play a role. What is known is that: Destruction of insulin-producing beta cells is due to damage inflicted by your immune system Something triggered your immune system to attack your beta cells Certain genes put people at a greater risk of developing type 1 diabetes, but are not the only factors involved While there are no proven environmental triggers, researchers are looking for po Continue reading >>

Adults Just As Likely To Get Type 1 Diabetes As Children

Adults Just As Likely To Get Type 1 Diabetes As Children

Adults are just as likely as children to get type 1 diabetes but are often wrongly told they have the type linked to obesity, a study has concluded. More than four in ten cases of type 1 diabetes were diagnosed in people over the age of 40, scientists found. Patients risk being given the wrong treatment and deteriorating rapidly because doctors wrongly believe that type 1 diabetes is a disease of childhood, they said. These include Theresa May, who was initially told she had type 2 diabetes and put on ineffective tablets instead of the insulin she needed. Doctors should be alert that patients thought to have type 2 who respond badly to treatment could actually have type 1, the study concludes. There are about… Continue reading >>

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