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How Did Diabetes Get Its Name?

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Diabetes' Civil War

Diabetes' Civil War

As a person living with Type 1 diabetes, Angie Hashemi-Rad must prick her fingers and give herself insulin every day to stay alive. But nothing irritates her more than having people mistakenly assume she has Type 2 diabetes — and then suggest she "cure herself" by eating less sugar and exercising more. "I'm sorry, but I hate Type 2. I call it the wuss version," Hashemi-Rad, 34, wrote on diabetesdaily.com in response to an online article headlined: "Which is worse: Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes?" "NO TYPE 2 COULD EVER DO WHAT I HAVE DONE FOR THE PAST 28 YEARS," she wrote. "IT IS NOT THE SAME. NOT EVEN CLOSE. HOW DARE YOU." As rates of Type 2 diabetes soar, tempers are flaring in the diabetes blogosphere, where many people with Type 1 diabetes are lobbying for a new, distinct name for their condition in hopes of clearing up misconceptions and securing more resources to put toward a cure. With Type 2 diabetes — formerly known as "adult-onset diabetes"— people have trouble putting insulin to use in the body to metabolize dietary sugars. Obesity is a major risk factor, and diet, exercise and medication can help prevent the condition in people at risk or treat the disease once it develops. Type 1, by contrast, used to be called "juvenile diabetes" because it is often present from childhood. People with the condition produce no insulin and will die unless they regularly dose themselves with the hormone. Many people don't understand those differences, and because Type 2 diabetes is far more common it receives most of the attention. Type 1's often hear "You don't look like a diabetic!" or are assumed to have caused their illness by overeating. "Typically, people have no idea what diabetes is or how it works," said Chicago's Laura Fitzgerald, 21, who was diagnosed at age 6. "Th Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

Origin of the term ‘diabetes’ The term diabetes is the shortened version of the full name diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon - to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet. This is because in diabetes excess sugar is found in blood as well as the urine. It was known in the 17th century as the “pissing evil”. The term diabetes was probably coined by Apollonius of Memphis around 250 BC. Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425. It was in 1675 that Thomas Willis added the word “'mellitus'” to the word diabetes. This was because of the sweet taste of the urine. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians as is evident from their literature. History of the treatment of diabetes Sushruta, Arataeus, and Thomas Willis were the early pioneers of the treatment of diabetes. Greek physicians prescribed exercise - preferably on horseback to alleviate excess urination. Some other forms of therapy applied to diabetes include wine, overfeeding to compensate for loss of fluid weight, starvation diet, etc. In 1776, Matthew Dobson confirmed that the sweet taste of urine of diabetics was due to excess of a kind of sugar in the urine and blood of people with diabetes. In ancient times and medieval ages diabetes was usually a death sentence. Aretaeus did attempt to treat it but could not give a good outcome. Sushruta (6th century BCE) an Indian healer identified diabetes and classified it as “Madhumeha”. Here the word “madhu” means honey and combined the term means sweet urine. The ancient Indians tested for diabetes by looking at whether ants were attracted to a person's u Continue reading >>

History Of Diabetes

History Of Diabetes

The beginnings Diabetes has been affecting lives for thousands of years. An ailment suspected to be diabetes was recognized by the Egyptians in manuscripts dating to approximately 1550 B.C. According to one study, ancient Indians (circa 400–500 A.D.) were well aware of the condition, and had even identified two types of the condition. They tested for diabetes — which they called “honey urine” — by determining if ants were attracted to a person’s urine. The term “diabetes” In Greek, “diabetes” means “to go through.” Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis is credited with naming the disorder for its top symptom: the excessive passing of urine through the body’s system. Historical documents show that Greek, Indian, Arab, Egyptian, and Chinese doctors were aware of the condition, but none could determine its cause. In earlier times, a diagnosis of diabetes was likely a death sentence. Insulin deficiency In the early years of the 20th century, medical professionals took the first steps toward discovering a cause and treatment mode for diabetes. In 1926, Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer announced that the pancreas of a patient with diabetes was unable to produce what he termed “insulin,” a chemical the body uses to break down sugar. Thus, excess sugar ended up in the urine. Physicians promoted a fasting diet combined with regular exercise to combat the disorder. Diabetes in dogs Despite attempts to manage the disorder through diet and exercise, people with diabetes inevitably died prematurely. In 1921, scientists experimenting with dogs had a breakthrough in reversing the effects of diabetes. Two Canadian researchers, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Herbert Best, successfully extracted insulin from healthy dogs. They then injected it into dogs th Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes? It's 'walking Deficiency Syndrome' And Not A Real Illness, Says Top Doctor

Type 2 Diabetes? It's 'walking Deficiency Syndrome' And Not A Real Illness, Says Top Doctor

Type 2 diabetes should be renamed 'walking deficiency syndrome' because it is not a 'real disease', according to one of Britain's leading medical practitioners. Sir Muir Gray has done extensive research on how modern lifestyles such as sitting at a desk or in a car are contributing to the risk of disease. He claims that type 2 diabetes, which is largely preventable but costs the NHS billions of pounds a year to treat, should be renamed because it is caused by the 'modern environment'. Speaking at the Oxford Literary Festival, Sir Muir said: 'Type two diabetes or walking deficiency syndrome, I'm trying to get the name changed. 'I wrote about this and somebody wrote back and said it was called a metabolic syndrome. I said I don't believe in metabolic syndromes. 'The problem with calling it type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome makes you think it's like rheumatoid arthritis or a real disease. These are conditions caused by the modern environment.' Nearly 4 million people in the UK suffer from diabetes and approximately 90 per cent of these are type 2 diabetes sufferers. By contrast, type 1 diabetes – whose sufferers include Theresa May – is an autoimmune condition and often emerges in childhood. The chances of developing type 2 diabetes are greatly exacerbated by being overweight and many sufferers are able to reverse the condition by dieting alone. The NHS now spends more on medication for diabetes than any other condition. Diabetes is thought to cost the NHS about £10billion, once the cost of treatment, including amputation and hospitalisations for life-threatening hypoglycaemic attacks, is included. Sir Muir pioneered breast and cervical screening and was knighted for his work in the development of foetal, maternal and child screening programmes. More recently he h Continue reading >>

How To Control Diabetes

How To Control Diabetes

Expert Reviewed Five Parts:Making a Diabetes Treatment Plan (Type 1 Diabetes)Making a Diabetes Treatment Plan (Type 2 Diabetes)Receiving Diabetes TestsManaging Your DietUsing MedicationCommunity Q&A For many, a diabetes diagnosis is a wake-up call. You can get a diagnosis at any age, and it's important to know what you can do to help yourself live a normal life with diabetes. Controlling a case of diabetes is usually a question of managing your blood sugar levels and living an active, health-conscious life. Medications (insulin for type 1 when the body can not make enough insulin, but often other medications for type 2, for when the body does not use its available insulin correctly) are also used to keep your blood sugar under control and to manage your symptoms. Getting your diabetes under control so you can live a happy and healthy life is the goal. The content in this article refers only to general cases and is not intended to replace the opinion of a doctor or following your medical team's advice. 1 Consult with a doctor to start or adjust your treatment plan. Type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes, is a chronic disease, which, despite its name, can begin and affect people at any age. This type of diabetes is an autoimmune disease. While it can occur suddenly due to infection, symptoms will usually appear after an illness.[1] Symptoms in type 1 are usually quite noticeable, more severe and quicker to cause illness. Symptoms for type 1 or advanced type 2 often include:[2] Increased thirst and frequent urination Dehydration Possibly extreme hunger with confused appetite (nothing satisfies you) Unexplained blurred vision Unexplained weight loss Unusual weakness/fatigue Irritability Slow-healing sores Frequent infections (such as gums or skin infections and vagi Continue reading >>

The Word “diabetic”…does It Offend You?

The Word “diabetic”…does It Offend You?

A few years ago I was having a discussion with a parent of a type 1, Cynthia Rissler, about her son, Shane, and I asked her how long he has been a diabetic? Upset by the question, she quickly told me that her son has diabetes, but he is not a diabetic. Shane also shares a bit of his diagnosis story in this short video. Here, Cynthia explains the difference of calling someone a “diabetic” or a “person with diabetes.” Shane with MLB pro, Matt Kemp, from the Dodgers. Cynthia: When you are a person who has been diagnosed with diabetes you’re still the same person. Just because you have diabetes it does not mean that the disease is allowed to name you. It can never change who you really are. How do you respond when someone refers to Shane as a Diabetic? Cynthia: He is a child who has diabetes by no fault of his own. He did not choose this. It was an attack on his immune system. When was the first time that Shane was referred to as a “Diabetic”? Cynthia: The weeks that followed after Shane was diagnosed (age 5) were very hard. We were still learning so much ourselves but now we also had to teach Shane’s school about his needs. Unfortunately, the front office staff kept referring to Shane as “The Diabetic” as if he did not have a name anymore. He was “The Diabetic Child.” The office would call him into the health office and say, “Could you send in the diabetic for his shot?” How did Shane feel when he was called “the Diabetic?” Cynthia: Can you imagine how a five year old felt being “labeled?” It took away from who he was. The awesome little baseball player who proudly wore the “9” on his shirt like his favorite Dodger. The little boy who had dreams of becoming a Dodger, was now a “diabetic.” How did you improve the situation? Cynthi Continue reading >>

The History Of Diabetes

The History Of Diabetes

Scientists and physicians have been documenting the condition now known as diabetes for thousands of years. From the origins of its discovery to the dramatic breakthroughs in its treatment, many brilliant minds have played a part in the fascinating history of diabetes. Diabetes: Its Beginnings The first known mention of diabetes symptoms was in 1552 B.C., when Hesy-Ra, an Egyptian physician, documented frequent urination as a symptom of a mysterious disease that also caused emaciation. Also around this time, ancient healers noted that ants seemed to be attracted to the urine of people who had this disease. In 150 AD, the Greek physician Arateus described what we now call diabetes as "the melting down of flesh and limbs into urine." From then on, physicians began to gain a better understanding about diabetes. Centuries later, people known as "water tasters" diagnosed diabetes by tasting the urine of people suspected to have it. If urine tasted sweet, diabetes was diagnosed. To acknowledge this feature, in 1675 the word "mellitus," meaning honey, was added to the name "diabetes," meaning siphon. It wasn't until the 1800s that scientists developed chemical tests to detect the presence of sugar in the urine. Diabetes: Early Treatments As physicians learned more about diabetes, they began to understand how it could be managed. The first diabetes treatment involved prescribed exercise, often horseback riding, which was thought to relieve excessive urination. In the 1700s and 1800s, physicians began to realize that dietary changes could help manage diabetes, and they advised their patients to do things like eat only the fat and meat of animals or consume large amounts of sugar. During the Franco-Prussian War of the early 1870s, the French physician Apollinaire Bouchardat noted Continue reading >>

Insulin And Diabetes Management

Insulin And Diabetes Management

Diabetes results when the body cannot make or adequately use insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin is critical for the body to metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) and obtain the energy essential to maintain life. The disease's classic symptoms – frequent urination and excessive thirst – along with the telltale presence of sugar in the urine, gave rise to its name, Diabetes (siphon) mellitus (honey-sweet). In the early 1920s, the discovery of insulin transformed the treatment of diabetes and the lives of those afflicted with the disease. In 1923, Smithsonian’s associate curator of medicine, Charles Whitebread, sought the cooperation of the Eli Lilly Company to help produce an exhibit about the new drug. The resulting display included photographs and specimens illustrating the steps in the manufacture of insulin from pig pancreas to ampules of purified insulin ready for injection. From this modest beginning the Smithsonian’s collection of diabetes related artifacts has grown. The focus is on the tools and technology associated with diabetes treatment and the daily management of the disease. Take a look to see how insulin, insulin injection devices, and glucose (sugar) monitoring techniques have changed over time in the United States. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way. Type 2 diabetes can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in older adults. Family history and genes play a role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your chance of getting the disease. Continue reading >>

World Diabetes Day: How To Spot The Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

World Diabetes Day: How To Spot The Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

14 November is World Diabetes Day. Comprising hundreds of campaigns, activities, screenings, lectures and meetings, the aim of World Diabetes Day is to spread information about diabetes and raise awareness of the condition. The date also marks the birthday of the man who co-discovered insulin in 1922, Frederick Banting, who . While the 10% of those with Type 1 diabetes are usually diagnosed from an early age, the 90% of sufferers with Type 2 can develop the disease at any age. Shadow Home secretary Diane Abbott, Oscar winning actor Tom Hanks and tennis great Billie Jean-King all suffer from Type 2, while Prime Minister Theresa May is a Type 1 diabetic. May has been a vocal supporter of World Diabetes Day tweeting: “When I was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes, it came as a shock. But to all of you with diabetes, on World Diabetes Day, I want to say this: Type 1 Diabetes should not stop you from fulfilling your ambitions.” Here’s what you need to know about Type 2 and how to spot the symptoms: What is Type 2 diabetes? Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin to control the amount of glucose, or sugar, in the blood. Patients with Type 1 diabetes, which accounts for ten per cent of cases, cannot produce any insulin, while the 90 per cent with Type 2 either don't produce enough or their cells do not react to it. Yes and growing. Diabetes UK says the disease is "the fastest growing health threat of our times and an urgent public health issue". One person every two minutes is diagnosed with diabetes and almost 3.5 million people in the UK have the disease - more than double the level 20 years ago. In addition, there are an estimated 1.1 million Britons who have not yet been diagnosed. How do you develop diabetes? Type 2 diabetes usually develop Continue reading >>

Diabetes Discovery – Via The Eyes

Diabetes Discovery – Via The Eyes

Did you know that an eye exam can be the first clue to detecting diabetes and other hidden health concerns? Finding health issues early can give patients a better chance at preventing damage through early treatment and management. A routine eye exam can show so many things. Some can be downright life changing – and life-saving – for that matter. One doctor found out first-hand when she did the same thing she does every day – she looked into a patient's eyes. But this was no ordinary exam. When Kathleen Clary, OD, peered into her 48-year-old patient’s eyes, she saw blood and other fluids seeping out of fragile and miniscule vessels in her retinas. The retina is the light and sight-sensing back part of the eye – and without it, you don't see. “As soon as I noticed the leaking fluids and the hemorrhaging, I suspected that they might be symptoms of diabetes,” recalls Dr. Clary, who practices in the Washington, D.C., suburb of Ashburn, Virginia. “In my 12 years of experience as an eye doctor, that kind of bleeding usually signals that a buildup of sugar in the patient’s bloodstream has begun to break down the capillaries that feed the retina. The result is often what we call diabetic retinopathy – a condition in which continuing damage to retinal tissue from diabetes can lead to impaired vision or even blindness, if left untreated.” The eye exam was the very first clue the patient had that she might have diabetes. Dr. Clary talked with her patient about what she saw and explained what it could mean. “I want you to have your blood sugar level checked right away by your family doctor,” she told her patient. “Tell the doctor you need to be evaluated for diabetes with a fasting blood sugar test, because your optometrist noticed some retinal bleeding. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Alternative names for diabetes mellitus Diabetes; type 2 diabetes; type 1 diabetes; sugar diabetes; T2DM, T1DM; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; IDDM; juvenile-onset diabetes What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, resulting in high levels of sugar in the bloodstream. There are many different types of diabetes; the most common are type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which are covered in this article. Gestational diabetes occurs during the second half of pregnancy and is covered in a separate article. Diabetes mellitus is linked with an increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, poor blood circulation to the legs and damage to the eyes, feet and kidneys. Early diagnosis and strict control of blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels can help to prevent or delay these complications associated with diabetes. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (regular exercise, not smoking and eating healthily) is important in reducing the risk of developing diabetes. What causes diabetes mellitus? Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells within the pancreas in response to the intake of food. The role of insulin is to lower blood sugar (glucose) levels by allowing cells in the muscle, liver and fat to take up sugar from the bloodstream that has been absorbed from food, and store it away as energy. In type 1 diabetes (or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), the insulin-producing cells are destroyed and the body is not able to produce insulin naturally. This means that sugar is not stored away but is constantly released from energy stores giving rise to high sugar levels in the blood. This in turn causes dehydration and thirst (because the high glucose ‘spills over’ into the urine and pulls wat Continue reading >>

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

Treating Diabetes: 1921 To The Present Day

The lives of people with diabetes has changed considerably in 50 years. They now have specific tools and easier access to information than ever before. The healthcare professionals who treat them also know more about the complexity of the disease, and which treatments work best. Pending the next medical revolution, Diabetes Québec is demanding the implementation of a national strategy to fight diabetes – a strategy founded on education, prevention, support and treatment. The last 60 years have clearly demonstrated that people with diabetes who are well informed, properly supported and treated appropriately live longer lives in better health. The discovery of insulin and glycemic control Insulin, discovered in 1921 by the legendary Banting, Best and MacLeod collaboration, is nothing short of a miracle. Worldwide, it has saved thousands of patients from certain death. Before the discovery of insulin, diabetics were doomed. Even on a strict diet, they could last no more than three or four years. However, despite the many types of insulin and the first oral hypoglycemic agents that came to market around 1957 in Canada, glycemia control – the control of blood glucose (sugar) levels – still remains an imprecise science. In the 1950s, the method a person used to control his blood glucose levels was to drop a reagent tablet into a small test tube containing a few drops of urine mixed with water. The resulting colour – from dark blue to orange – indicated the amount of sugar in the urine. Even when they monitored their patients closely, doctors realized that blood glucose levels had to be much better controlled in order to delay the major complications significantly affecting their patients’ lives: blindness, kidney disease, gangrene, heart attack and stroke. A disc Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

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