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How Diabetes Type 2 Is Diagnosed?

Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you may be able to delay or prevent developing it by making some lifestyle changes. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having blurry eyesight Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need to take diabetes medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

The Complexity Of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

The Complexity Of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

The Complexity of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes A type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosis can happen suddenly and unexpectedly. Many times, the disease is identified throughsymptoms that can appear as a cold or flu. While it represents a big life change, people with T1D can live long, full, happy lives. T1D often initially presents itself as the flu or malaise, but physicians must be quick to spot the telltale signs of a possible T1D diagnosis and order additional tests. Doctors will often recommend a fasting blood-glucose test when they suspect T1D may be present. This is a small sample blood test typically conducted in the morning after fasting overnight. The fasting helps give doctors a clear look at how the body manages blood-sugar levels without the impact of food intake. The oral glucose test takes the fasting test one step further. After fasting and having an initial blood test, people drink a sugary drink and then have their blood sugar tested over the course of approximately two hours. This shows the benchmark sugar without outside influences and later measures how the body responds to carbohydrate (sugar) intake. The quickest option for testing for T1D is a random glucose test. This test simply measures a patients current blood sugar regardless of when and what he or she ate most recently. On occasion, this will be the first test, and then doctors will elevate to tests noted above as needed. The most comprehensive test is the hemoglobin A1c test. This blood test shows the average blood-sugar level for the past two or three months. The onset of symptomatic diabetes doesnt always happen all at once. During what is known as the honeymoon phase, people with T1D can experience a period in which they are asymptomatic. The honeymoon phase typically lasts a few months to a year Continue reading >>

Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

What Is Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes can affect all people, regardless of age. Early symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be missed, so those affected may not even know they have the condition. An estimated one out of every three people within the early stages of type 2 diabetes are not aware they have it. Diabetes interferes with the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates for energy, leading to high levels of blood sugar. These chronically high blood sugar levels increase a person's risk of developing serious health problems. Potential Consequences of High Blood Sugar Nerve problems Vision loss Joint deformities Diabetic coma (life-threatening) Other diabetes complications from high blood pressure are listed further along in this slideshow Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Thirst Although people with type 2 diabetes may not have specific symptoms, an increase in thirst is one symptom that is characteristic of the condition. The increased thirst can accompany other symptoms like frequent urination, feelings of unusual hunger, dry mouth, and weight gain or loss. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Headaches Other symptoms that can occur if high blood sugar levels persist are fatigue, blurred vision, and headaches. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Infections Often, type 2 diabetes is only identified after its negative health consequences are apparent. Certain infections and sores that take a long time to heal are a warning sign. Other possible signs include frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections and itchy skin. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Sexual Dysfunction Sexual problems can occur as a result of type 2 diabetes. Since diabetes can damage the blood vessels and nerves in the sex organs, decreased sensation can develop, potentially leading to difficulties with orgasm. Vaginal dryne Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Screening

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Screening

Based on etiology, diabetes is classified as type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, latent autoimmune diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of youth, and miscellaneous causes. The diagnosis is based on measurement of A1C level, fasting or random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define patients who are unlikely to have diabetes. Tests that may help establish the type of diabetes or the continued need for insulin include those reflective of beta cell function, such as C peptide levels, and markers of immune-mediated beta cell destruction (e.g., autoantibodies to islet cells, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase [IA-2α and IA-2β]). Antibody testing is limited by availability, cost, and predictive value. Prevention, timely diagnosis, and treatment are important in patients with diabetes mellitus. Many of the complications associated with diabetes, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death, can be delayed or prevented with appropriate treatment of elevated blood pressure, lipids, and blood glucose.1–4 In 1997, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced an etiologically based classification system and diagnostic criteria for diabetes,5 which were updated in 2010.1 Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90 to 95 percent of all persons with diabetes in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing in adults worldwide.6 With the rise in childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents.6 Clinical recommendati Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Type 2 Diabetes In Children

Print Diagnosis If diabetes is suspected, your child's doctor will likely recommend a screening test. A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in children generally requires abnormal results from two tests taken on different days. There are several blood tests for diabetes. Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after your child fasts for at least eight hours, or overnight. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes — which indicates a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test Your doctor might recommend this test if your child's fasting blood sugar test results don't indicate diabetes but the doctor still suspects it. The A1C test indicates your child's average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your child's blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin your child will have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test A blood sample is taken after your child fasts for at least eight hours or overnight. Then your child drinks a sugary solution, and his or her blood sugar levels are measured periodically over the next few hours. In ge Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, and symptoms generally come on gradually, they may go unnoticed for a long time, or they may be attributed to something else. For example, increased thirst may be chalked up to a hot summer, or fatigue may be interpreted as a sign of aging or stress. This is unfortunate, because even short-term high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) diminishes your quality of life. And if high blood sugar persists for a long time, it can eventually cause complications such as diabetic retinopathy or kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) that cannot be completely reversed with improved blood sugar control. Type 2 diabetes can cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, including: Fatigue Dry mouth Thirst Excessive urination Hunger Weight loss Blurry vision Cloudy thinking Irritability Wounds that won't heal Infections associated with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes include gum infections, urinary tract infections (particularly in women), slowly healing wounds with subsequent infections, and infections of the feet. Symptoms in Men Type 2 diabetes symptoms are generally the same for men and women. However, urological problems such as erectile dysfunction (ED) — the inability to achieve or maintain an erection — have been associated with all forms of diabetes, including type 2. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 20 to 75 percent of men with any type of diabetes have ED. Researchers believe diabetes causes sexual function problems in men due to damage to the body's autonomic nervous system, which controls circulation. If you have the symptoms of ED, it may be a sign you have diabetes. Another urological problem associated with diabetes in men is retrograde ejaculation, or the release of semen into the bladder during ejaculation. Sym Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes | Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment - Dlife

Type 2 Diabetes | Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment - Dlife

What Are the Causes and Genetic Components of Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetespreviously referred to as adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetesaccounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases in the United States. Its characterized by the bodys inability to useinsulineffectively. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body turn glucose into energy. Unlike people withtype 1 diabetes, who do not produce insulin at all, people with type 2 diabetes do make insulin. In fact, they even produce more than people without diabetes. However due to problems with insulin resistance, which means the body cant use the insulin anymore to break down all the glucose. Insulin therefore produced by the pancreas is not sufficient to overcome insulin resistance, leading to increased blood sugars. The exact causes oftype 2 diabetesarent completely understood, but its widely accepted that a combination of inherited genetic risk factors and environmental triggers is involved. Risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, smoking, chronic stress, low birth weight, high blood pressure, a history of gestational diabetes, and high fasting blood glucose levels. Individuals with a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes have a higher chance of developing the disease than those with no family history. African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Americans, some Asians, and Pacific Islanders are at greater risk for type 2 diabetes. Risk increases with age, but it is important to note that rates of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents have been on the rise recently. Not everyone with type 2 diabetes has symptoms, particularly in the early stages of the disease. In fact, 8.1 million of the 29.1 million people with diabetes in America are unaware that Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

2. Classification And Diagnosis Of Diabetes

2. Classification And Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Classification Diabetes can be classified into the following general categories: Type 1 diabetes (due to β-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency) Type 2 diabetes (due to a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance) Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes) Specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., monogenic diabetes syndromes (such as neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young [MODY]), diseases of the exocrine pancreas (such as cystic fibrosis), and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes (such as in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation) This section reviews most common forms of diabetes but is not comprehensive. For additional information, see the American Diabetes Association (ADA) position statement “Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus” (1). Assigning a type of diabetes to an individual often depends on the circumstances present at the time of diagnosis, with individuals not necessarily fitting clearly into a single category. For example, some patients cannot be clearly classified as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Clinical presentation and disease progression may vary considerably in both types of diabetes. The traditional paradigms of type 2 diabetes occurring only in adults and type 1 diabetes only in children are no longer accurate, as both diseases occur in both cohorts. Occasionally, patients with type 2 diabetes may present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Children with type 1 diabetes typically present with the hallmark symptoms of polyuria/polydipsia and occasionally with DKA. The onset of type 1 diabetes may be variable in adults and may Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis And Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis And Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes Symptoms, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes About 8 million American adults have Type 2 diabetes and many dont know it. And Type 1 diabetes often remains undiagnosed until symptoms become so severe that hospitalization is required. Both of these facts speak to a larger truth: Left untreated, diabetes can cause numerous health complications . Thats why its crucial to know the warning signs and to see a healthcare provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Similarly, those with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms or such mild symptoms that they go unnoticed for quite some time. Still, since some people experience warning signs, its worth familiarizing yourself with the symptoms below: If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: Overweight , younger than 45 and have one or more additional risk factors, such as: African-American, Asian-American, Latino/Hispanic-American, Native American or of Pacific Islander descent A history of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or delivering a baby more than 9 pounds If your blood glucose levels are normal, you should be tested about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after that diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes Three types of tests can help healthcare providers make a diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes: HbA1C (A1C or glycosylated hemoglobin test) The A1C test can diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. It measures your average bl Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis & Tests

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis & Tests

XIAFLEX® is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with Dupuytren's contracture when a "cord" can be felt. It is not known if XIAFLEX® is safe and effective in children under the age of 18. Do not receive XIAFLEX® if you have had an allergic reaction to collagenase clostridium histolyticum or any of the ingredients in XIAFLEX®, or to any other collagenase product. See the end of the Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in XIAFLEX®. XIAFLEX® can cause serious side effects, including: Tendon rupture or ligament damage. Receiving an injection of XIAFLEX® may cause damage to a tendon or ligament in your hand and cause it to break or weaken. This could require surgery to fix the damaged tendon or ligament. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have trouble bending your injected finger (towards the wrist) after the swelling goes down or you have problems using your treated hand after your follow-up visit Nerve injury or other serious injury of the hand. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get numbness, tingling, increased pain, or tears in the skin (laceration) in your treated finger or hand after your injection or after your follow-up visit Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX® because it contains foreign proteins. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms of an allergic reaction after an injection of XIAFLEX®: hives swollen face breathing trouble chest pain low blood pressure dizziness or fainting Increased chance of bleeding. Bleeding or bruising at the injection site can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have a problem with your blood clotting. XIAFLEX® may not b Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes - Getting Diagnosed - Nhs.uk

Type 2 Diabetes - Getting Diagnosed - Nhs.uk

Type 2 diabetes is often diagnosed following blood or urine tests for something else. However, you should see your GP straight away if you have any symptoms of diabetes . To find out if you have type 2 diabetes, you usually have to go through the following steps: Your GP will check your urine and arrange a blood test to check your blood sugar levels. It usually takes about 1 to 2 days for the results to come back. If you have diabetes, your GP will ask you to come in again so they can explain the test results and what will happen next. What your GP will discuss with you during your appointment depends on the diagnosis and the treatment they recommend. what high blood sugar means for your health your lifestyle for example, alcohol and smoking Your GP will do their best to discuss the diagnosis with you, but this first appointment might only be 10 to 15 minutes. If you have questions about your diagnosis It's usually difficult to take in everything the GP tells you during the appointment. Talk to family and friends about what the GP told you, and write down any questions you have. Then make another GP appointment and take your list of questions with you. There's also a lot of information on diabetes available. Usually, the following things happen after your diagnosis: Your GP will prescribe medication . It might take time for you to get used to the medication and to find the right doses for you. Continue reading >>

Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes

Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. Most people with the condition have type 2. There are about 27 million people in the U.S. with it. Another 86 million have prediabetes: Their blood glucose is not normal, but not high enough to be diabetes yet. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It's what lets your cells turn glucose from the food you eat into energy. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should. Doctors call this insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells. But eventually it can't keep up, and the sugar builds up in your blood instead. Usually a combination of things cause type 2 diabetes, including: Genes. Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin. Extra weight. Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. Now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly because of childhood obesity. Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Too much glucose from your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reac Continue reading >>

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