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How Diabetes Diagnosed

How Diabetes Is Diagnosed

How Diabetes Is Diagnosed

Diabetes Prevention and Control Program 275 East Main Street Frankfort, KY 40621 (502) 564-7996 Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop over a short period of time, although beta cell destruction can begin months, even years, earlier. Symptoms include increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. If not diagnosed and treated with insulin, a person can lapse into a life-threatening coma. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop gradually and are not as noticeable as in type 1 diabetes. In fact, there may be no noticeable symptoms. However, symptoms could include: Feeling tired or ill Frequent urination (especially at night) Unusual thirst Increased hunger Weight loss Blurred vision Frequent infections Slow-healing wounds and sores Tingling/numbness in hands or feet Sexual Dysfunction In 2010, the American Diabetes Association added the recommended use of the A1C test to diagnose diabetes, with a threshold of 6.5 percent or higher. (Test performed in a laboratory using a method that is certified by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program and standardized to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial reference assay.) Criteria for Diagnosis of Pre-Diabetes Fasting* Plasma Glucose 100-125 mg/dl = Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) or 2 hour post 75g oral glucose challenge 140-199 mg/dl = Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) or A1C 5.7 percent - 6.4 percent *Fasting is no intake of calories for at least 8 hours. Criteria for Diagnosis of Diabetes Fasting plasma glucose 126 mg/dl or higher or 2 hour plasma glucose (with a 75 g OGTT) 200 mg/dl or higher or Random* plasma glucose 200 mg/dl or higher *Random is any time of day without regard to time since last meal. For criteria 1-3: Test should be repeated to confir Continue reading >>

The Day I Was Diagnosed With Type One Diabetes Changed My Life Forever

The Day I Was Diagnosed With Type One Diabetes Changed My Life Forever

The day that I was diagnosed with diabetes, was the day that changed my life forever. I was 12 years old at the time, close to my thirteenth birthday. It was Christmas break from school, and A few days had passed where I started feeling very weak, lethargic, thirsty, and the pounds were shedding off. All I wanted to do was sleep, even more than normal. I went to my mother and told her how ill, I was feeling. She didn’t think too much of it at first. Maybe I just had the common cold, nothing worrisome. A few more days had gone on, and my mother finally noticed my symptoms had worsened. I looked as terrible as I felt at the time. My face was as pale as a ghost. My mother took me to the closest hospital to get examined. The doctor’s ran several tests, which took the majority of the day. At this moment in time, I just wanted to feel better. Not knowing that my world was about to change forever. The doctor then came in and gave my mother and I a preliminary diagnosis, that the tests are leading towards “diabetes.” “Diabetes!“ “What’s that?“ Like most people, especially at my age, I wasn’t aware of what diabetes was. I had no idea what was going on. I then had to be transported to an All Children’s Hospital for further evaluation and treatment for a blood sugar above 900! When transported, the doctor’s that began treating me, were frantically surprised that I wasn’t in a diabetic coma for hyperglycemia. It’s shocking that I was still able to “function”. I remember thinking about all the foods I ate days prior - cheesecake was one of them - and not knowing my pancreas had failed me. I was poked and prodded at for an IV insertion. They couldn’t find a vein (of course), and eventually had to use my hand. All during this, I was tired and confused Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Accurate tests are available to doctors to definitively confirm a diagnosis of diabetes. Before tests are conducted, a diagnosis may be suspected when patients report certain symptoms. Doctors will evaluate these symptoms by asking questions about the patient's medical history.1 Doctors may also carry out a physical examination, including checks for complications that could have already developed - examining the feet for changes in sensation, for example.2 Testing can be part of routine screening for people at risk of the disease, who may show up as having prediabetes. The US Department of Health and Human Services recommends diabetes testing for anyone overweight at the age of 45 years and over, alongside anyone under the age of 45 with one or more of the following risk factors:2,3 Hypertension (high blood pressure) High cholesterol History of diabetes in the family African-American, Asian-American, Latino/Hispanic-American, Native American or Pacific Islander background History of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or delivering a baby over 9 lbs. Blood tests for diabetes diagnosis One of three blood tests can be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes:2-5 Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels - a blood test after 8 hours of no eating Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) - to measure a marker of the average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) - a test used less frequently that measures levels before and 2 hours after consuming a sweet drink (concentrated glucose solution). Glycosylated hemoglobin is often abbreviated to A1C, and this blood test is also used in the monitoring of diabetes management.2,5 To make an initial diagnosis, an HbA1c reading must be 6.5% or higher. An A1C result between 5.7% and 6.4% indicate Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease marked by high blood glucose (sugar) levels, called hyperglycemia. It’s considered an autoimmune disease, resulting from an immune system attack on the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin — a hormone that helps certain cells in the body absorb glucose. And without enough insulin, your blood glucose levels can rise to unhealthy levels, causing a range of health problems. Type 1 diabetes makes up only about 5 percent of all diabetes cases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). By comparison, type 2 diabetes — which develops when cells cannot use insulin properly — makes up 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases. However, type 1 and 2 diabetes often share the same symptoms associated with hyperglycemia. Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms Possible symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: Excessive thirst or hunger Increased urination Unexplained weight loss Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, or loss of feeling in the feet Fatigue Dry, itchy skin Vision changes, including blurry eyesight Slow-healing sores and increased rate of infections Nausea, vomiting, and stomach pains (in cases where the disease develops quickly) Without insulin and the ability to use sugar for energy, the body may start breaking down fat as an alternate source of energy, resulting in high levels of ketones (toxic acids) in the blood. This condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, may cause: Dry skin and mouth Inability to keep fluids down Stomach pain Shortness of breath Flushed face "Fruity" smell to breath Diabetes and Hypoglycemia People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin — usually by injection, or by using an insulin pump — to provide their cells with the necessary hormone. However, too much insulin can cause cells t Continue reading >>

Should I Leave My Boyfriend If He Is Diagnosed With Diabetes?

Should I Leave My Boyfriend If He Is Diagnosed With Diabetes?

TLDR: losing you AND his health will probably gut him, emotionally. But there is no shame in admitting you aren't capable of supporting him. if that is the case, then please let him go so he can find other support. I was diagnosed at 22. Diabetes sucks, but it's definitely not the end of the world. It will be very hard the first year, as your boyfriend figures out his limitations or lack of limitations. Some people have mentioned personality changes or decreased libido - those are side effects that occur when you don't take care of yourself and you let your glucose run too high. If you maintain a healthy blood glucose level, than you won't have those problems. Your boyfriend will come to realize that his condition, if properly maintained, will not limit his life much… Within reason. He can eat cake again… but he will need to bolus insulin for it first. He can exercise or play sports again… but he will need to pack extra carbs snacks in his bag and check his blood sugar regularly to ensure he doesn't have a bad low. He will never be able to walk around or run an errand with only a wallet and his keys. He will also need to carry his pens or his pump PDM, emergency sugar, and a card or bracelet that indicates his condition. These things will all become routine. You will barely think about them. Regarding your relationship, and speaking as a Diabetic, I urge you: if you consider diabetes to be a legitimate impediment to your love, then please break up with him. Diabetes isn't cancer. There is no cure. There is only management. It will never go away. Even at the height of your boyfriend’s capability, he will have moments where he remembers that he will never be healthy again and he will desperately need someone to tell him that they love him and will support him. If Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, and symptoms generally come on gradually, they may go unnoticed for a long time, or they may be attributed to something else. For example, increased thirst may be chalked up to a hot summer, or fatigue may be interpreted as a sign of aging or stress. This is unfortunate, because even short-term high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) diminishes your quality of life. And if high blood sugar persists for a long time, it can eventually cause complications such as diabetic retinopathy or kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) that cannot be completely reversed with improved blood sugar control. Type 2 diabetes can cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, including: Fatigue Dry mouth Thirst Excessive urination Hunger Weight loss Blurry vision Cloudy thinking Irritability Wounds that won't heal Infections associated with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes include gum infections, urinary tract infections (particularly in women), slowly healing wounds with subsequent infections, and infections of the feet. Symptoms in Men Type 2 diabetes symptoms are generally the same for men and women. However, urological problems such as erectile dysfunction (ED) — the inability to achieve or maintain an erection — have been associated with all forms of diabetes, including type 2. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, 20 to 75 percent of men with any type of diabetes have ED. Researchers believe diabetes causes sexual function problems in men due to damage to the body's autonomic nervous system, which controls circulation. If you have the symptoms of ED, it may be a sign you have diabetes. Another urological problem associated with diabetes in men is retrograde ejaculation, or the release of semen into the bladder during ejaculation. Sym Continue reading >>

Could Your Child Have Diabetes?

Could Your Child Have Diabetes?

More than 15,000 children are diagnosed with type 1 every year. Make sure you know the telltale signs -- they're all too easy to dismiss. When Chloe Powell started begging for one more drink of water every night, her father, Charles, thought his then 7-year-old was using a common bedtime stall tactic. "I was irritated that she wouldn't go to sleep," admits Dr. Powell, who's a family physician in Dallas. With all she was drinking, he wasn't surprised when she began wetting the bed. But when Chloe couldn't make it through a conversation without having to use the bathroom, he became concerned. "I figured she had a urinary-tract infection, and she'd take some antibiotics and feel better," says Dr. Powell. He wasn't at all prepared for what his daughter's urine test showed: a dangerously high level of sugar that was a clear indicator of type 1 diabetes. In an instant, Chloe, now 10, went from being a kid who never thought twice about the foods she ate or the energy she burned to one who'd face a lifetime of carbohydrate counting, finger pricks, and insulin injections. A Disease on the Rise Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body's immune system to mistakenly destroy healthy cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin. (Type 2, on the other hand, occurs when the body doesn't respond to the insulin that's being made.) Insulin ensures that sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream gets into the body's cells where it's needed for energy; without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood, which can be deadly. It's important to begin insulin therapy as soon as possible because high blood-sugar levels can cause permanent vision and nerve problems as well as damage to blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Since the 198 Continue reading >>

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

For diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Is Diagnosed

How Diabetes Is Diagnosed

Fasting Blood Glucose Test What it is: After you fast for at least 8 hours, you'll undergo a simple blood test that measures the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. Pro: It's widely available (it'll probably be included in your standard physical) and not too expensive. The results are also pretty reliable, assuming you complete the required fast. Con: If you eat when you're supposed to be fasting, the test could give false positives or negatives. For example, coffee is often allowed during the fast, but just adding a dash of cream to your cup can throw off test results. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test What it is: After fasting for at least 8 hours, you drink a sugary solution akin to super-concentrated soda (without the fizz). Frequent blood tests measure your glucose levels over the next 2 or more hours. Pro: It's the most accurate diagnostic test. Con: Frankly, who wants to sit in the doctor's office all day? Random (Non-Fasting) Blood Glucose Test What it is: Similar to the fasting glucose test, but, of course, without the fasting. Pro: It's convenient. Con: It's not actually sanctioned as a diagnostic test for diabetes, so it's likely that you'll be asked to make a return visit for a second test to validate the results. A1C Test What it is: A blood test that measures blood glucose levels in your red blood cells, which live in your bloodstream for about 3 months. Pro: It's the most comprehensive test to diagnose diabetes. Each red blood cell can reveal how much blood glucose was attached to it over its 3-month lifespan, serving as a calendar of your average blood glucose levels. Con: It's not technically considered a diagnostic test—yet. But in April 2009, an expert panel comprised of representatives from the American Diabetes Association, the International Diabetes F Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Insulin injections are the preferred method of managing diabetes in cats. Figure 1: To administer an injection, pull the loose skin between the shoulder blades with one hand. With the other hand, insert the needle directly into the indentation made by holding up the skin, draw back on the plunger slightly, and if no blood appears in the syringe, inject gently. Tips for Treatment 1. You can do it! Treating your cat may sound difficult, but for most owners it soon becomes routine. 2. Work very closely with your veterinarian to get the best results for your cat. 3. Once your cat has been diagnosed, it's best to start insulin therapy as soon as possible. 4. Home glucose monitoring can be very helpful. 5. Tracking your cat's water intake, activity level, appetite, and weight can be beneficial. 6. A low carbohydrate diet helps diabetic cats maintain proper glucose levels. 7. With careful treatment, your cat's diabetes may well go into remission. 8. If your cat shows signs of hypoglycemia (lethargy, weakness, tremors, seizures, vomiting) apply honey, a glucose solution, or dextrose gel to the gums and immediately contact a veterinarian. Possible Complications Insulin therapy lowers blood glucose, possibly to dangerously low levels. Signs of hypoglycemia include weakness, lethargy, vomiting, lack of coordination, seizures, and coma. Hypoglycemia can be fatal if left untreated, so any diabetic cat that shows any of these signs should be offered its regular food immediately. If the cat does not eat voluntarily, it should be given oral glucose in the form of honey, corn syrup, or proprietary dextrose gels (available at most pharmacies) and brought to a veterinarian immediately. It is important, however, that owners not attempt to force fingers, food, or fluids into the mouth of a Continue reading >>

How To Deal With The Diagnosis Of Diabetes

How To Deal With The Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Common Emotional Reactions Ann Bloise was so ashamed to learn she had type 2 diabetes that she didn't tell her family for three weeks. "I thought I got diabetes because I'm so overweight," the Dallas resident says. "I really felt that it was my fault." On top of her shame, she was terrified about how diabetes would affect her vision, her feet, and her heart. She also became depressed. "I was staring mortality in the face," she says. "Here I was, 44 years old, and I hadn't done half of the things I wanted to do in life." Being diagnosed with diabetes is an emotional experience that can arouse difficult feelings. Some people deny their illness or feel outrage. Others become depressed, feel tremendous guilt and shame, or are stricken with fear about the future. "All of these are common emotional reactions," says John Zrebiec, M.S.W., CDE, associate director of mental health services at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston and a member of the Diabetic Living editorial advisory board. "Diabetes can often bring with it a normal grief reaction. But the stages and intensity will differ from person to person, depending on life experiences," he says. Healthy Ways to Deal with a New Diagnosis Zrebiec says it may take as long as a year to come to terms with diabetes. If you're in the doldrums, try not to let negative feelings interfere with taking care of your health. Here are some strategies to keep them in check: Educate Yourself: "The more you learn, the more empowered you'll feel," says Paula Wilkerson of Albany, New York, who was initially terrified by her diagnosis. "Now I know the diagnosis doesn't mean life is over. You can begin an even better life that includes taking better care of yourself and understanding your body," she says. Open Up to Family and Friends: Rather tha Continue reading >>

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>

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