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How Diabetes Affects The Nervous System

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve Damage) - An Update

Nerve damage or diabetic neuropathy resulting from chronically high blood glucose can be one of the most frustrating and debilitating complications of diabetes because of the pain, discomfort and disability it can cause, and because available treatments are not uniformly successful. Some patients find some relief from this nerve damage or neuropathy by keeping blood sugars as closely controlled as possible, getting regular exercise and keeping their weight under control. Using non-narcotic pain relievers consistently throughout the day—rather than waiting until nighttime when symptoms can become more severe—also seems to help if pain is the major symptom. Surprisingly, clinicians have also found that certain antidepressants may be helpful and can take the edge off the pain of neuropathy. Although pain or numbness in the legs or feet may be the most common complaint from people diagnosed with neuropathy, it is not the only symptom of this complication. Neuropathy can cause a host of different types of symptoms, depending on whether nerves in the legs, gastrointestinal tract, or elsewhere in the body are affected. If you have any of these symptoms, neuropathy may be the culprit: inability to adequately empty the bladder of its contents, resulting in frequent infections; nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness or bloating, diarrhea, or constipation; low blood pressure upon standing that causes fainting or dizziness; inability to lift the foot or new deformities of the foot, or foot ulcers; trouble achieving or maintaining an erection. Although physicians have found some medications and other treatments that help ease these symptoms in some people, prevention continues to be the key. "Hemoglobin A1C readings should ideally be at 7.0% or lower. Those that are consistently n Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects The Nervous System

How Diabetes Affects The Nervous System

Transcript of How Diabetes Affects the Nervous System Affects of High Blood Sugars Affect on Peripheral Nerves Affect on the Autonomic Nerves Affect on Cranial Nerves What is Diabetes? How to Prevent Nerve Damage Keep your blood glucose as close to normal as you can. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink. Don't smoke. Take care of your feet and hands Follow the healthy eating plan that you and your doctor or dietitian have worked out. Be active a total of 30 minutes most days. Ask your doctor what activities are best for you. Take your medicines as directed. Check your feet every day for cuts, blisters, sores, swelling, redness, or sore toenails. Brush and floss your teeth every day. Control your blood pressure and cholesterol. These nerves go from your brain to your eyes, mouth, ears, and other parts of the head The nerves connected to the eyes are the most common place for nerve damage with in the cranial region Causes double vision The next most common is damage to the nerves on the side of the face Damage to these nerves cause sagging and happens all of a sudden Autonomic nerves go to the blood vessels, heart, bladder, and the parts of the digestive system. When blood sugars are high it affects these nerves in these ways: Heart: Cause heart to beat to fast or irregularly Bladder: Cause difficulty knowing when to urinate and cause leakage Blood Vessels: Nerves control the blood pressure and when damaged cause large fluctuations between sitting and standing causing dizziness Digestive System: Damage to these nerves can cause food to go through this system to fast or to slow. This causing nausea, feeling sick to your stomach, vomiting, constipation, and/or diarrhea. These nerves also allow the person to feel if their blood sugar is low When damaged, this ability is hin Continue reading >>

Autonomic Neuropathy

Autonomic Neuropathy

Print Overview Autonomic neuropathy occurs when the nerves that control involuntary bodily functions are damaged. This may affect blood pressure, temperature control, digestion, bladder function and even sexual function. The nerve damage interferes with the messages sent between the brain and other organs and areas of the autonomic nervous system, such as the heart, blood vessels and sweat glands. While diabetes is generally the most common cause of autonomic neuropathy, other health conditions — even an infection — may be to blame. Some medications also may cause nerve damage. Symptoms and treatment will vary based on which nerves are damaged. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of autonomic neuropathy vary based on the nerves affected. They may include: Dizziness and fainting when standing caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure. Urinary problems, such as difficulty starting urination, incontinence, difficulty sensing a full bladder and inability to completely empty the bladder, which can lead to urinary tract infections. Sexual difficulties, including problems achieving or maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction) or ejaculation problems in men and vaginal dryness, low libido and difficulty reaching orgasm in women. Difficulty digesting food, such as feeling full after a few bites of food, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal bloating, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing and heartburn, all due to changes in digestive function. Sweating abnormalities, such as sweating too much or too little, which affects the ability to regulate body temperature. Sluggish pupil reaction, making it difficult to adjust from light to dark and seeing well when driving at night. Exercise intolerance, which may occur if your heart rate stays the same instead of adjusti Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy[1]; mononeuropathy; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful polyneuropathy; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. Signs and symptoms[edit] Illustration depicting areas affected by diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, diabetic neuropathy can affect all organs and systems, as all are innervated. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years. Symptoms may include the following: Trouble with balance Numbness and tingling of extremities Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part) Diarrhea Erectile dysfunction Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping Vision changes Dizziness Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Fasciculation (muscle contractions) Anorgasmia Retrograde ejaculation (in males) Burning or electric pain Pathogenesis[edit] The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of dia Continue reading >>

Progesterone Modulates Diabetes/hyperglycemia-induced Changes In The Central Nervous System And Sciatic Nerve

Progesterone Modulates Diabetes/hyperglycemia-induced Changes In The Central Nervous System And Sciatic Nerve

We investigated the effect of progesterone (P4) treatment on diabetes/hyperglycemia-induced pathological changes in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissue in male rats. Animals were rendered hyperglycemic by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ). P4 treatment was started after hyperglycemia was confirmed and body weight and blood glucose levels were monitored once/week for 5 weeks. Rats underwent behavioral testing at week 5 and were then euthanized for histology. We assessed the expression of markers of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and tissue injury (CD11b, NG2, COX2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)) in the brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve. We also examined the regenerative effect of P4 on pathological changes in intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENF) of the footpads. Diabetes/hyperglycemia led to body weight loss over 5 weeks and P4 treatment reduced this loss. At week 5, blood-glucose levels were significantly lower in the P4-treated diabetic group compared to vehicle. Compared to sham or P4-treated groups, the diabetic vehicle group showed hyperactivity on the spontaneous locomotor activity test. Western blot data revealed upregulation of VEGF, IL-6, CD11b, NG2, COX2 and MMP-2 levels in the vehicle group and P4 treatment normalized these expression levels. IENF densities were reduced in the vehicle group and normalized after P4 treatment. We conclude that P4 can reduce some of the chronic pathological responses to STZ-induced diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy. Half of all people with diabetes will develop neuropathy. The nerves of the feet are most commonly affected by diabetic neuropathy. The feet are usually numb, although many people also experience significant discomfort and pain. Most people with diabetic neuropathy are unaware that they have nerve damage, until it is picked up on routine screening by their doctor or when they develop complications. Although there is no cure, early diagnosis and treatment can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of further complications. On this page: Neuropathy means damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy. It most commonly affects the nerves to the feet and hands, but any nerves can be involved, including those that control internal organs (autonomic nerves). Up to half of all people with diabetes develop neuropathy during the course of their disease. There is no cure. Management aims to ease symptoms and reduce the risk of further complications. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy Most people with diabetic neuropathy are unaware that they have nerve damage, until it is picked up on routine screening by their doctor. Typical symptoms vary from person to person, but may include one or more of numbness, pins and needles, tingling, discomfort, or weakness, which usually begin in both feet and spread symmetrically up the legs (like stockings). About half of those people with diabetic neuropathy experience significant pain in their feet and increased sensitivity to painful stimuli (known as neuropathic pain or painful neuropathy).Neuropathic pain is often worse at night, and can seriously disrupt sleep patterns. These symptoms can have a major effect on health and wellbeing bec Continue reading >>

Which Systems Of The Body Are Affected By Diabetes?

Which Systems Of The Body Are Affected By Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which inadequate production of the hormone insulin or a resistance to its actions in the body can lead to high blood sugar levels. Insulin is needed to get sugar into cells of the body, where it is used for energy. When sugar cannot get into cells, it remains in the blood at high levels. Complications of diabetes arise from long-term exposure to high blood sugar. The cardiovascular, nervous, visual and urinary systems are most commonly affected by chronically high blood sugars. Video of the Day The cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels. High blood sugar and increased blood fat levels commonly found in people with diabetes contribute to fatty deposits called plaques on the inner walls of blood vessels, causing inflammation. This leads to decreased blood flow and hardening of the blood vessels called atherosclerosis. High blood sugar also results in glycation, where sugars attach to proteins, making them sticky. This occurs on proteins found in blood vessels, also resulting in inflammation. When this occurs in the heart, it can lead to cardiovascular disease. According to a 2016 report from the American Heart Association, 68 percent of people with diabetes older than 65 die of heart disease. Nerve damage called diabetic neuropathy is common in people with diabetes. Symptoms typically appear after several years but may be present when diabetes is diagnosed, as the disease may have gone undetected for many years. Diabetic nerve damage known as peripheral neuropathy is most common in the legs and feet. According to a 2005 statement by the American Diabetes Association, up to 50 percent of people with diabetes have peripheral neuropathy. This typically starts as numbness or tingling that progresses to loss of p Continue reading >>

How Does Long Term Antidepressant Use Affect The Nervous System?

How Does Long Term Antidepressant Use Affect The Nervous System?

Insofar as I am aware, there is not a lot of evidence for any damaging long-term effects of common antidepressants (SSRIs) on the adult nervous system (NB this does not hold true for the developing nervous system, e.g. in utero - I have seen some evidence for this, albeit in rodents). It is important to remember that the effects of stress and depression on the nervous system are numerous (some would say damaging) - but it is currently not accepted that antidepressants also “damage” the nervous system (they do alter it, though). A well-controlled study measuring this is very difficult to do, though, and so things may change. Having said that, it is accepted that antidepressant drugs do cause changes in the brain (hippocampal neurogenesis, or birth of new neurons) that counteract the brain changes associated with depression (these usually cease when antidepressant drugs are stopped). (see Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants). More generally, antidepressant drugs work by increasing levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain (usually serotonin and sometimes noradrenaline/norepinephrine — only rarely does an antidepressant directly target dopamine, in fact). In many people, this chemical change causes them to perceive the world in a slightly less negative light - ambiguous feedback is received more positively, someone forgetting to reply to their email is interpreted less personally. (see Why do antidepressants take so long to work? A cognitive neuropsychological model of antidepressant drug action) *However* - and this is a CRUCIAL point - antidepressant drugs are powerful pharmaceuticals and can cause serious side effects in some people, like all drugs. For some people, they are life-savers; for others, extremel Continue reading >>

Nerve Complications

Nerve Complications

Elevated blood sugars can damage the peripheral nerves. muscle weakness such as trouble climbing stairs nausea and vomiting Elevated levels of blood sugar can injure the blood vessels supplying the peripheral nerves, irritating and damaging them in the process. Such accumulated nerve damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Better blood glucose control can help restore healthy nerve function. Nerve Disease The nervous system includes our brain (central nervous system) and all of the nerves going from the brain to the rest of the body (peripheral nervous system). The nervous system is always at work. Sometimes – when we move or feel something – we are aware of it. But much happens automatically, including the control of our heart rate, the movement of food through the stomach and intestines and regulation of our blood pressure. Your health care provider can determine that your symptoms are related to diabetes and not to some other condition. The best way to improve all forms of diabetic neuropathy is to control your blood sugar levels. There are two categories of diabetic neuropathy: Sensory and motor neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy Symptoms of neuropathy include: Muscle weakness such as foot drop, double vision, trouble climbing stairs and getting out of a chair Stomach symptoms including bloating, nausea, vomiting of undigested food many hours after a meal, feeling full without eating much food. This is also referred to as gastroparesis. Bowel trouble such as episodes of diarrhea especially at night Difficulty with bladder emptying Sexual dysfunction Dizziness and lightheadedness from a very fast heart rate and trouble keeping the blood pressure high enough when sitting or standing up. What is the treatment? Before any treatment can be decided upon, you need to report Continue reading >>

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

What are diabetic neuropathies? Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness—loss of feeling—in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight. What causes diabetic neuropathies? The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors: metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies? Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which Continue reading >>

Complications Of Diabetes On Your Nervous System

Complications Of Diabetes On Your Nervous System

When you have diabetes, you must watch your condition carefully to avoid complications of the disease. Diabetes not only affects your blood sugar, but also affects other bodily functions. One serious possible complication is diabetic neuropathy. This complication happens when blood sugar remains high for prolonged periods and causes damage to the nerves. There are several types of diabetic neuropathy and all of them can significantly impact your life. Here is more information on the condition and how to manage it so that it doesn't become disabling. Types of Diabetic Neuropathy Because there are several types of nerve fibers in the body, there are different types of diabetic neuropathy. Four types have been identified and they each affect different functions of the body. Knowing which kind you have is helpful for effective treatment. Peripheral Neuropathy This common type of neuropathy affects the areas the furthest from the brain and spinal cord, namely the long nerves hands and the feet. This means you may experience pain while walking, numbness or sores and infections that heal slowly or not at all. You could even get sores and injuries without realizing it which makes infections much more likely to happen. Autonomic Neuropathy This type of neuropathy affects your internal autonomic functions such as your digestion, your heart beating and your lungs ability to breathe properly. Symptoms of this condition include incontinence, problems with sweating too little or too much and difficulties with your heart rate. This condition may make it difficult to enjoy your favorite meal or do your favorite exercise. Proximal Neuropathy While peripheral neuropathy affects the nerves furthest from the brain and spinal column, proximal neuropathy affects nerves closer to the end of t Continue reading >>

Association Of Diabetes Mellitus And Structural Changes In The Central Nervous System In Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Association Of Diabetes Mellitus And Structural Changes In The Central Nervous System In Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Abstract The relationship between diabetes and academic performance have been of great interest to researchers during the year to date. Many studies have been conducted to discover this relationship during three recent decades. But, evaluation of the structural changes of brain in the context of diabetes is of paramount importance especially in children and adolescents. This study is a systematic review conducted to investigate the structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents living with diabetes. Among about 500 papers published in this area in Pubmed and SCOPUS, 13 articles in the field of assessing structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus were entered into the evaluation process. As can be seen in these studies, a huge proportion of structures of the central nervous system have been affected by diabetes that include different areas of gray and white matters. In the majority of these studies, it has become clear that high glycemic changes, especially recurrent hyperglycemic attacks are very seriously associated with structural changes in the brain. It seems the findings of this review can positively aid other researchers to develop medical guidelines to prevent or resolve the brain changes in central nervous structure and consequently cognitive impairments in children and adolescents. Background The relationship between diabetes and academic performance have been of great interest to researchers during the year to date. Many studies have been conducted to discover this relationship during three recent decades [1]. Also, other cognitive functions have been explored besides this relationship in the coming years including memory, attention and executive functions [2] which are some Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>

Insulin In Central Nervous System: More Than Just A Peripheral Hormone

Insulin In Central Nervous System: More Than Just A Peripheral Hormone

Journal of Aging Research Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 384017, 21 pages 1CNC, Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal 2Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra, Portugal 3Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra, Portugal Academic Editor: Barbara Shukitt-Hale Copyright © 2012 Ana I. Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetes On The Body And Organs

Effects Of Diabetes On The Body And Organs

Over time, the raised blood sugar levels that result from diabetes can cause a wide range of serious health issues. But what do these health issues involve, and how are the organs of the body affected? Can these effects be minimized? When people have diabetes, the body either does not make enough insulin or cannot use what it has effectively. As a result, the amount of sugar in the blood becomes higher than it should be. Glucose, or blood sugar, is the main power source for the human body. It comes from the food people eat. The hormone insulin helps the cells of the body convert glucose into fuel. Fortunately, taking a proactive approach to this chronic disease through medical care, lifestyle changes, and medication can help limit its effects. Effect on systems and organs The effects of diabetes can be seen on systems throughout the body, including: The circulatory system Diabetes can damage large blood vessels, causing macrovascular disease. It can also damage small blood vessels, causing what is called microvascular disease. Complications from macrovascular disease include heart attack and stroke. However, macrovascular disease can be prevented by: Microvascular disease can cause eye, kidney, and nerve problems, but good control of diabetes can help prevent these complications. The cardiovascular system Excess blood sugar decreases the elasticity of blood vessels and causes them to narrow, impeding blood flow. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute say diabetes is as big a risk factor for heart disease as smoking or high cholesterol. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the risk of stroke or dying of heart disease increases by 200-400 percent for adults with diabetes. The nervous system When people have diabetes, they can develop n Continue reading >>

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