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How Can The Mother's Diabetes Affect The Fetus?

Infant Of A Mother With Diabetes

Infant Of A Mother With Diabetes

What is an infant of a mother with diabetes? An infant of a mother with diabetes is a baby who is born to a mother with diabetes. Because the mother has diabetes, the baby is at risk for problems. People with diabetes have high levels of sugar in their blood (hyperglycemia). Over time, this can lead to serious health problems. Keeping your blood sugar under control lowers your risk for complications. You can manage diabetes by eating a nutritious diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medicine. Two types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy. These are: Gestational diabetes. In this condition, you don’t have diabetes before pregnancy. You develop it during pregnancy. This type of diabetes goes away after your baby is born. Pre-gestational diabetes. In this condition, you have diabetes before getting pregnant. You may have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes don’t make insulin. Your body needs insulin to use blood sugar. You’ll need to take insulin shots. People with type 2 diabetes can’t use the insulin they make. Or their bodies don’t make enough insulin. You’ll need blood sugar-lowering medicine and possibly insulin. It’s important to manage your blood sugar during pregnancy. This can lower your baby’s risk for problems. What causes problems for an infant of a woman with diabetes? In pregnancy, the placenta gives a growing baby nutrients and water. It also makes hormones you need for healthy pregnancy. Some of these hormones can block insulin. This often starts at 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. As the placenta grows, it makes more of these hormones. This means that the pancreas must make more insulin. Normally, the pancreas is able to make enough insulin. If it doesn’t, gestational diabetes occurs. Pregnancy may also change the ins Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes (gd)

Gestational Diabetes (gd)

What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes (GD) happens when you have too much sugar (glucose) in your blood during pregnancy. Your blood sugar levels can go up when your body isn’t producing enough of a hormone called insulin. Insulin helps: the cells in your body to get energy from blood sugar your body to store any blood sugar that isn’t needed During pregnancy, hormones make it harder for your body to use insulin efficiently. So your body has to make extra insulin, especially from mid-pregnancy onwards. If your body can't make enough extra insulin, your blood sugar levels will rise and you may develop GD. Having too much sugar in your blood can cause problems for you and your baby, so you’ll have extra care during your pregnancy. On average, GD affects one mum-to-be in 20. GD goes away after your baby is born, because it's a condition that's only caused by pregnancy. The other types of diabetes, which are not caused by pregnancy, are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Some women have diabetes, without realising it, before they become pregnant. If this happens to you, it will be diagnosed as GD during your pregnancy. What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes? You probably won't notice any symptoms if you have GD. That's why you'll be monitored by your midwife, and offered a test if she thinks you're at risk. GD symptoms are like normal pregnancy symptoms, and easy to miss. By the time you have clear symptoms, your blood sugar levels may be worryingly high (hyperglycaemia) . Symptoms of hyperglycaemia include: feeling more thirsty needing to wee more often than usual having a dry mouth feeling more tired getting recurring infections, such as thrush, and UTIs having blurred vision If you have any of these symptoms, tell your midwife or doctor straig Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes definition and facts Risk factors for gestational diabetes include a history of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, There are typically no noticeable signs or symptoms associated with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause the fetus to be larger than normal. Delivery of the baby may be more complicated as a result. The baby is also at risk for developing low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) immediately after birth. Following a nutrition plan is the typical treatment for gestational diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight and following a healthy eating plan may be able to help prevent or minimize the risks of gestational diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after the pregnancy What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is diabetes, or high blood sugar levels, that develops during pregnancy. It occurs in about 4% of all pregnancies. It is usually diagnosed in the later stages of pregnancy and often occurs in women who have no prior history of diabetes. What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is thought to arise because the many changes, hormonal and otherwise, that occur in the body during pregnancy predispose some women to become resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by specialized cells in the pancreas that allows the body to effectively metabolize glucose for later usage as fuel (energy). When levels of insulin are low, or the body cannot effectively use insulin (i.e., insulin resistance), blood glucose levels rise. What are the screening guidelines for gestational diabetes? All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes during their pregnancy. Most pregnant women are tested between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy (see Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Overview Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant women can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you and your baby healthy. In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood sugar. Symptoms For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms. When to see a doctor If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can evaluate your risk of gestational diabetes as part of your overall childbearing wellness plan. Once you're pregnant, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need more-frequent checkups. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health. Your doctor may refer you to additional health professionals who specialize in diabetes, such as an endocrinologist, a registered dietitian or a diabetes educator. They can help you learn to manage your blood sugar level during your pregnancy. To make sure your blood sugar level has returned to normal after your baby is born, your health care team wil Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes and your unborn baby Diabetes is a condition in which the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too high. Glucose comes from the digestion of starchy foods, such as bread and rice. Insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas, helps your body to use glucose for energy. Three types of diabetes can affect you when you're pregnant: type 2 diabetes – long-term conditions that women may have before they get pregnant (pre-existing diabetes) gestational diabetes – develops only in pregnancy and goes away after the baby is born The information on this page is for women who have pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy. Most women with diabetes have a healthy baby, but diabetes does give you a higher risk of some complications. If you already have diabetes If you already have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you may be at a higher risk of: having a large baby – which increases the risk of a difficult birth, having your labour induced, or a caesarean section People with type 1 diabetes may develop problems with their eyes (diabetic retinopathy) and their kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), or existing problems may get worse. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your baby may be at risk of: not developing normally and having congenital abnormalities, particularly heart and nervous system abnormalities being stillborn or dying soon after birth having health problems shortly after birth, such as heart and breathing problems, and needing hospital care developing obesity or diabetes later in life Reducing the risks if you have pre-existing diabetes The best way to reduce the risk to your own and your baby's health is to ensure your diabetes is controlled before you become pregnant. Ask your GP or diabetes specialist (diabetologist) for advice. You should be referred to a diabetic Continue reading >>

I Have Gestational Diabetes. How Will It Affect My Baby?

I Have Gestational Diabetes. How Will It Affect My Baby?

Will gestational diabetes hurt my baby? Most women who develop diabetes during pregnancy go on to have a healthy baby. Dietary changes and exercise may be enough to keep blood sugar (glucose) levels under control, though sometimes you may also need to take medication. But untreated gestational diabetes can cause serious problems. If blood sugar levels remain elevated, too much glucose ends up in the baby's blood. When that happens, the baby's pancreas needs to produce more insulin to process the extra sugar. Too much blood sugar and insulin can make a baby put on extra weight, which is stored as fat. This can make the baby grow very large (macrosomia). Also, high blood sugar levels during pregnancy and labor increase the risk of a baby developing low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) after delivery. That's because the baby's body produces extra insulin in response to the mother's excess glucose. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in the blood. The signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia in an infant include: jitteriness weak or high-pitched cry floppiness lethargy or sleepiness breathing problems skin that looks blue trouble feeding eye rolling seizures A baby may also be at higher risk for breathing problems at birth, especially if blood sugar levels aren't well controlled or the baby is delivered early. (If you have gestational diabetes, your baby's lungs tend to mature a bit later). The risk of newborn jaundice is higher too. If your blood sugar control is especially poor, the baby's heart function could be affected as well, which can contribute to breathing problems. Gestational diabetes sometimes thickens a baby's heart muscle (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), causing the baby to breathe rapidly and not be able to get enough oxygen from her blood. It's understandable to feel anxi Continue reading >>

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Diabetes in pregnancy There are two types of diabetes that occur in pregnancy: Gestational diabetes. This term refers to a mother who does not have diabetes before becoming pregnant but develops a resistance to insulin because of the hormones of pregnancy. Pregestational diabetes. This term describes women who already have insulin-dependent diabetes and become pregnant. With both types of diabetes, there can be complications for the baby. It is very important to keep tight control of blood sugar during pregnancy. What causes diabetes in pregnancy? The placenta supplies a growing fetus with nutrients and water. It also produces a variety of hormones to maintain the pregnancy. Some of these hormones (estrogen, cortisol, and human placental lactogen) can block insulin. This usually begins about 20 to 24 weeks into the pregnancy. As the placenta grows, more of these hormones are produced, and insulin resistance becomes greater. Normally, the pancreas is able to make additional insulin to overcome insulin resistance, but when the production of insulin is not enough to overcome the effect of the placental hormones, gestational diabetes results. Pregnancy also may change the insulin needs of a woman with preexisting diabetes. Insulin-dependent mothers may require more insulin as pregnancy progresses. Who is affected by diabetes in pregnancy? About 5 percent of all pregnant women in the U.S. are diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetics make up the vast majority of pregnancies with diabetes. Some pregnant women require insulin to treat their diabetes. Why is diabetes in pregnancy a concern? The mother's excess amounts of blood glucose are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. This causes the baby's body to secrete increased amounts of insulin, which result Continue reading >>

A Healthy Pregnancy For Women With Diabetes

A Healthy Pregnancy For Women With Diabetes

PDF Format A Healthy Pregnancy for Women with Diabetes What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus (also called "diabetes") is caused by a problem with insulin. Insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into the body’s cells where it can be turned into energy (see the FAQ Diabetes and Women). Pregnancy health care providers often call diabetes that is present before pregnancy "pregestational diabetes." When the body does not make enough insulin or does not respond to it, glucose cannot get into cells and instead stays in the blood. As a result, the level of glucose in the blood increases. Over time, high blood glucose levels can damage the body and cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision problems, and kidney disease. How can pregestational diabetes affect my pregnancy? If your diabetes is not managed well, you are at increased risk of several of the complications associated with diabetes. The following problems can occur in women with diabetes: Birth defects High blood pressure Hydramnios—In this condition, there is an increased amount of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac that surrounds the baby. It can lead to preterm labor and delivery. Macrosomia (very large baby)—The baby receives too much glucose from the mother and can grow too large. A large baby can make delivery more difficult. A large baby also increases the risk of having a cesarean delivery. How can pregestational diabetes affect my baby? Babies born to mothers with pregestational diabetes may have problems with breathing, low glucose levels, and jaundice. Most babies do well after birth, although some may need to spend time in a special care nursery. The good news is that with proper planning and control of your diabetes, you can decrease the risk of these problems. If I have d Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't produce enough insulin, or it can't use it properly. Insulin is the hormone that allows glucose (sugar) to enter the cells to be used as fuel. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia or high blood sugar. Damage from diabetes comes from the effects of hyperglycemia on other organ systems including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and nerves. In early pregnancy, hyperglycemia can result in birth defects. What are the different types of diabetes? There are three basic types of diabetes including: Type 1 diabetes. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can start at any age. Type 2 diabetes. A metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to make enough, or properly use, insulin. It used to be called noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Gestational diabetes. A condition in which the blood glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy in a woman who has not previously been diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes is a serious disease, which, if not controlled, can be life-threatening. It is often associated with long-term complications that can affect every system and part of the body. Diabetes can contribute to eye disorders and blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputation, and nerve damage. What happens with diabetes and pregnancy? During pregnancy, the placenta supplies a growing fetus with nutrients and water. The placenta also makes a variety of horm Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

KEY POINTS Most pregnant women get a test for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. If untreated, gestational diabetes can cause problems for your baby, like premature birth and stillbirth. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after you have your baby; but if you have it, you’re more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Talk to your health care provider about what you can do to reduce your risk for gestational diabetes and help prevent diabetes in the future. What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes (also called gestational diabetes mellitus or GDM) is a kind of diabetes that can happen during pregnancy. Seven out of every 100 pregnant women (7 percent) develop gestational diabetes. It’s a condition in which your body has too much sugar (called glucose) in the blood. When you eat, your body breaks down sugar and starches from food into glucose to use for energy. Your pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) makes a hormone called insulin that helps your body keep the right amount of glucose in your blood. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use insulin well, so you end up with too much sugar in your blood. This can cause serious health problems, like heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. It’s really important to get treatment for diabetes to help prevent problems like these. Can gestational diabetes cause problems during pregnancy? Most of the time gestational diabetes can be controlled and treated during pregnancy to protect both you and your baby. But if not treated, it can cause problems during pregnancy, including: Preeclampsia. This is when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Signs of pre Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes And Your Baby's Health

Gestational Diabetes And Your Baby's Health

Insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas, is necessary to move glucose (or sugar) into your cells after your body breaks down food for energy. During pregnancy, your body becomes less sensitive to the effects of insulin, which can lead to what’s known as gestational diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes, your blood sugar can become too high, creating a number of health risks for your baby. Gestational Diabetes and Your Baby's Health If your blood sugar remains consistently elevated during pregnancy, the excess sugar can pass through your womb to your unborn baby. This can increase your child’s future risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Other health risks associated with gestational diabetes include: Macrosomia. This term simply means "big baby" and applies to any baby whose birth weight is above 8 pounds, 13 ounces. A baby with macrosomia can experience difficulties during the childbirth process. The most common problem that big babies encounter is damage to the nerves and muscles in their shoulders during vaginal delivery. Your doctor will monitor the size of your baby by performing ultrasound exams throughout your pregnancy. If your doctor is concerned about the size of your baby, a Caesarean section may be recommended. Hypoglycemia. If your unborn baby is exposed to high blood sugar levels while in the womb, the baby will eventually make extra insulin on its own to deal with the excess sugar. This surge in insulin can cause the baby's glucose to drop sharply right after birth, a condition called "hypoglycemia." Low blood sugar is dangerous because your baby depends almost exclusively on glucose for energy at the time of birth. Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include seizures, sluggishness, and difficulty breathing. For this reason, doctors will check Continue reading >>

What Are The Risks Of Gestational Diabetes?

What Are The Risks Of Gestational Diabetes?

A risk means there is a chance that something might happen. With every pregnancy there are some risks, but if you have gestational diabetes your risks of some things will be increased. Managing your blood sugar level brings these risks right down again though and most women with gestational diabetes have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. These things are very unlikely to happen to you, but understanding the risks may help you see why it is important that you follow your healthcare team’s advice. The risks linked to gestational diabetes are caused by blood glucose levels being too high. If you can keep your blood glucose as close as possible to the ideal level, your risks will be reduced. Risk of having a large baby (macrosomia) If your blood glucose level is high, it can cause high blood glucose levels in your baby. Your baby will produce more insulin in response, just like you do. This can make your baby grow larger than normal. This is called macrosomia. Babies weighing more than 4kg (8lb 8oz) at birth are called macrosomic. Macrosomia increases the risk of: Birth trauma - either the mother or baby can be affected when it is difficult for the baby to be born. Trauma may include physical symptoms, such as bone fractures or nerve damage for the baby, or tearing and severe bleeding for the mother as well as psychological distress. Shoulder dystocia - where the baby’s shoulder is stuck in your pelvis once the head has been born. This can squash the umbilical cord, so the team need to use additional interventions to deliver the baby quickly and safely. It means you may have labour induced early or to have a caesarean section so that your baby is born safely. Your baby's weight will be monitored carefully in pregnancy to see whether these interventions are needed. Continue reading >>

Weight And High Blood Sugar During Pregnancy May Cause Risks For Baby

Weight And High Blood Sugar During Pregnancy May Cause Risks For Baby

Pregnant women who are even marginally overweight or with high blood sugar levels could face risks not only for themselves, but for their unborn babies. Northwestern University’s Dr. Boyd Metzger talks about the effect of a mother’s blood sugar levels on pregnancy and what women can do to help prevent problems. Metzger’s research has showed that women with slightly high levels of blood sugar could raise blood sugar levels in unborn babies. And the latest review of the data suggests that elevated blood sugar levels, as well as too much weight gain, can lead to riskier pregnancies. Obstetricians routinely monitor a mother-to-be’s weight and blood sugar during pregnancy. Women may develop gestational diabetes, which is any form of glucose intolerance or high blood sugar that begins during pregnancy. The American Diabetes Association estimates that 18 percent of pregnant women develop this condition. Metzger is a professor of metabolism and nutrition in the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Molecular Medicine at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. He was the lead researcher of a large-scale international study focusing on weight gain and blood sugar levels during pregnancy. What are your areas of interest and expertise?I am interested in gestational diabetes. I also study the impact of a mother’s nutrition on the development of the fetus. As the lead investigator in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study, can you explain a little bit about what you researched and how you did it?There has been a debate about how much high blood sugar contributes to an increased risk in adverse pregnancy situations. The purpose of the study was to determine where and how blood sugar levels, regardless of other factors, can affect a fetus. So Continue reading >>

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect My Baby?

How Does Gestational Diabetes Affect My Baby?

If you have gestational diabetes (GDM) during your pregnancy, it puts the fetus at risk for a variety of conditions, including excessive weight (macrosomia or large for gestational age), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), hyperbilirubinemia (high bilirubin, which can lead to brain damage if not controlled), the need for an operative delivery or primary Caesarean section and shoulder dystocia (when the fetus's shoulder is trapped in the pelvis at the time of delivery -- a very serious complication that can result in lifelong injury). The main concern with gestational diabetes is that the baby may develop a fetal macrosomia, a condition in which it grows more than nine pounds, four ounces before birth, regardless of gestational age. This occurs because the baby is getting large amounts of glucose from the mother, which triggers the baby's pancreas to produce more insulin. The extra glucose, then, is converted to fat. In some cases, the baby becomes too large to be delivered through the birth canal, requiring a cesarean delivery. Gestational diabetes also increases the risk of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, in the baby right after delivery. This medical problem typically occurs if the mother's blood sugar levels have been consistently high, leading to high blood levels of insulin in the baby. After birth, the baby continues to have a high insulin level but no longer has the high levels of glucose from the mother. So the newborn's blood sugar levels drop sharply and suddenly. Your baby's blood sugar levels will be checked in the newborn nursery, and if they're too low, the baby may receive oral or intravenous glucose. Babies whose mothers have gestational diabetes or whose mothers had insulin-dependent diabetes before they became pregnant are also at higher risk for respira Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

One in twenty pregnant women in Australia is affected by diabetes. Although the disease can cause serious complications for mothers and babies, good planning and comprehensive antenatal care can keep you and your baby healthy. By Joanna Egan. Diabetes is a chronic condition characterised by the body's inability to control glucose levels in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar found in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit, starchy vegetables, legumes, dairy products and sweets. A hormone produced by the pancreas, called insulin, converts this glucose into energy that is used to fuel the body. When a person has diabetes, they either don't produce enough insulin or are unable to use insulin effectively. This causes glucose to build up in their bloodstream. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1: People with type 1 diabetes don't produce insulin. As a result, they need to monitor their blood glucose levels carefully and require regular insulin injections (up to four times a day). Generally, type 1 diabetes arises in children and young adults, but it can occur at any age. Type 2: This is the most common form of diabetes. Some people have a genetic predisposition to developing the disease but often, it is caused by lifestyle factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, insufficient exercise and poor diet. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either don't produce enough or are unable to use it effectively. Generally, it is initially managed with healthy eating and regular physical activity, but as the condition progresses, glucose-lowering tablets and/or insulin injections may be prescribed. Gestational diabetes: This form of diabetes develops, or is first diagnosed, during pregnancy. It usually appears late in the second trimester and resolves after childbir Continue reading >>

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