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How Can Diabetes Cause Nerve Damage?

Diabetes And Nerve Damage

Diabetes And Nerve Damage

When you have diabetes, a common side effect is nerve damage. This is called diabetic neuropathy, and it occurs when your blood sugar levels are too high and harm delicate nerve fibers. High blood sugar is an issue because it can interfere with the nerves ability to properly transmit signals throughout the body, and it can also weaken the walls of capillaries supplying nerves with oxygen and nutrients. Causes and Types of Diabetic Neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy can be painful and cause a variety of complications, so it’s important first and foremost that you’re effectively managing your blood sugar levels. Besides having high blood sugar, diabetic nerve pain and damage can be caused by factors due to genetics, inflammation in the nerves due to an autoimmune response, or smoking and alcohol abuse. You’re more susceptible to develop neuropathy if you’ve had diabetes for a long time, if you’re overweight, have kidney disease, and aren’t properly controlling your blood sugar levels. There are four types of diabetic neuropathy, including: Peripheral Neuropathy, which affects the feet and legs, with symptoms like pain, tingling, numbness and burning. Autonomic Neuropathy, which affects the digestive system, blood vessels and urinary system. Proximal Neuropathy, which leads to pain in the hips and thighs or weakness in the legs. Focal Neuropathy, which affects specific nerves usually in the head, torso or legs and causes muscle pain and weakness. Avoiding Complications from Diabetic Nerve Damage According to the American Diabetes Association, about half of all people with diabetes have some form of nerve damage. Diabetic neuropathy can cause a number of serious complications, including losing a limb, Charcot joint (join deterioration due to nerve damage), urinary t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

LYRICA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to pregabalin or any of its other components. Angioedema and hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in patients receiving pregabalin therapy. There have been postmarketing reports of hypersensitivity in patients shortly after initiation of treatment with LYRICA. Adverse reactions included skin redness, blisters, hives, rash, dyspnea, and wheezing. Discontinue LYRICA immediately in patients with these symptoms. There have been postmarketing reports of angioedema in patients during initial and chronic treatment with LYRICA. Specific symptoms included swelling of the face, mouth (tongue, lips, and gums), and neck (throat and larynx). There were reports of life-threatening angioedema with respiratory compromise requiring emergency treatment. Discontinue LYRICA immediately in patients with these symptoms. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) including LYRICA increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking AEDs for any indication. Monitor patients treated with any AED for any indication for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. Pooled analyses showed clinical trial patients taking an AED had approximately twice the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior than placebo-treated patients. The estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one patient for every 530 patients treated with an AED. The most common adverse reactions across all LYRICA clinical trials are dizziness, somnolence, dry mouth, edema, blurred vision, weight gain, constipation, euphoric mood, balance Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Complications of diabetes Diabetes complications are divided into microvascular (due to damage to small blood vessels) and macrovascular (due to damage to larger blood vessels). Microvascular complications include damage to eyes (retinopathy) leading to blindness, to kidneys (nephropathy) leading to renal failure and to nerves (neuropathy) leading to impotence and diabetic foot disorders (which include severe infections leading to amputation). Macrovascular complications include cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes and insufficiency in blood flow to legs. There is evidence from large randomized-controlled trials that good metabolic control in both type 1 and 2 diabetes can delay the onset and progression of these complications. Diabetic retinopathy (eye disease) Etiology Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness and visual disability. It is caused by small blood vessel damage to the back layer of the eye, the retina, leading to progressive loss of vision, even blindness. Symptoms Usually the patient complains of blurred vision, although other visual symptoms may also be present. Diagnosis Diagnosis of early changes in the blood vessels of the retina can be made through regular eye examinations. Treatment Good metabolic control can delay the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy. As well, early detection and treatment of vision-threatening retinopathy can prevent or delay blindness. This involves regular eye examinations and timely intervention Nephropathy (kidney disease) Etiology Diabetic kidney disease is also caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys. This can cause kidney failure, and eventually lead to death. In developed countries, this is a leading cause of dialysis and kidney transplant. Symptoms Patients usually Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy—DPN for short—is diabetes-related damage to nerves that sit near the surface of your skin. DPN usually affects the feet and the hands, but can also harm nerves in arms and legs. Approximately 50 percent of people with type 2 diabetes and 20% of those with type 1 diabetes develop this kind of nerve damage.1 DPN can be extremely painful—or cause numbness so that you have little feeling, especially in your feet. DPN damages two different types of nerves close to the surface of your skin. DPN can affect small nerves that protect your body by sending signals about pain and temperature changes to your brain. This condition can also attack large nerves that detect touch, pressure and help you keep your balance. 2 Symptoms are different for each type. Most people with DPN have damage to both types of nerves. DPN usually affects extremities—feet, hands, legs and arms—where nerve fibers are the longest and most numerous. 3 Causes Experts are still investigating exactly how diabetes harms and kills these nerve cells. “The causes remain unknown,” the American Diabetes Association noted in a definitive 2017 review. One thing is certain: The conventional wisdom—that high blood sugar is the cause—is just part of the story. New research is revealing a bigger cast of culprits. These include high cholesterol, high triglycerides (another blood fat), high blood pressure, obesity and smoking, according to a British research report in a widely-cited 2005 study that tracked 1,172 people with diabetes for seven years. 4 The threats are major: Obesity and high triglycerides each doubled risk in people with diabetes in a 2013 University of Utah study of 218 people with type 2 diabetes. 5 Smoking increased risk by as much as 42% in a 2015 Harvard M Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Nerve Damage Caused By Diabetes (the Basics)

Patient Education: Nerve Damage Caused By Diabetes (the Basics)

The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. Can diabetes cause nerve damage? — Yes. People with diabetes (sometimes called "diabetes mellitus") can get nerve damage if they have high blood sugar levels for a long time. Another word for nerve damage is "neuropathy." People with diabetes can get different types of nerve damage. This article covers the most common type of nerve damage caused by diabetes. What are the symptoms of nerve damage caused by diabetes? — Nerve damage usually affects the toes and feet first. Some people do not feel any symptoms, but other people can have symptoms that include: Numbness or loss of feeling Burning or pain, which is often worse at rest or at night Feeling light touches as bothersome or painful As nerve damage gets worse, symptoms can move from the feet up the legs. Some people might also start to feel symptoms in their hands. Is there a test for nerve damage caused by diabetes? — Yes. Your doctor can usually tell if you have nerve damage by talking with you and doing an exam. Sometimes, a doctor will do a test to check how well a person's nerves are working. This test is called "electromyography." How does nerve damage lead to problems? — Nerve damage can lead to problems because it can make people unable to feel pain in their feet. Normally, people feel pain when they get a cut on their foot. The pain tells them that they need Continue reading >>

Tips For Treating Diabetic Nerve Pain

Tips For Treating Diabetic Nerve Pain

Diabetes can cause long-term problems throughout your body, especially if you don’t control your blood sugar effectively, and sugar levels remain high for many years. High blood sugar can cause diabetic neuropathy, which damages the nerves that send signals from your hands and feet. Diabetic neuropathy can cause numbness or tingling in your fingers, toes, hands, and feet. Another symptom is a burning, sharp, or aching pain (diabetic nerve pain). The pain may be mild at first, but it can get worse over time and spread up your legs or arms. Walking can be painful, and even the softest touch can feel unbearable. Up to 50 percent of people with diabetes may experience nerve pain. Nerve damage can affect your ability to sleep, decrease your quality of life, and can also cause depression. Damaged nerves can’t be replaced. However, there are ways that you can prevent further damage and relieve your pain. First, control your blood sugar so the damage doesn’t progress. Talk to your doctor about setting your blood sugar goal, and learn to monitor it. You may be asked to lower your blood sugar before meals to 70 to 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) and your blood sugar after meals to less than 180 mg/dL. Use diets, exercise, and medications to decrease your blood sugar to a healthier range. Monitor other health risks that can worsen your diabetes, such as your weight and smoking. Ask your doctor about effective ways to lose weight or quit smoking, if necessary. Your doctor might suggest trying an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), aspirin (Bufferin), or ibuprofen (Motrin IB, Advil), which are available without a prescription but can cause side effects. Use a low dose for a short time to control your symptoms. Other options exist for stronger Continue reading >>

When Diabetes Leads To Nerve Damage

When Diabetes Leads To Nerve Damage

Tingling, numbness, pain in the arms, legs, hands, or feet — these are all common signs of diabetic neuropathy, or nerve damage. Up to 70 percent of people with diabetes will develop some type of neuropathy, making it one of the most common side effects of this disease. Diabetes: Understanding Neuropathy Although tingling, numbness, or pain in the extremities are common signs of neuropathy, others may experience no symptoms at all. Nerve damage can also occur in internal organs, such as the heart or digestive tract. Diabetes-related neuropathy can affect muscle strength, sensation in various parts of the body, and even sexual function. People who develop diabetic neuropathy are typically those who have trouble controlling their blood glucose levels, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body weight. Although researchers haven't quite figured out exactly why this happens, they know that neuropathy can occur due to: Alcohol use and smoking Genetic predisposition Injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome Nerves that become inflamed related to autoimmune conditions Neurovascular issues that damage the blood vessels responsible for bringing nutrients and oxygen to your nerves Your risk also increases the older you get and the longer you have diabetes, with the highest rates of neuropathy occuring in people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetes: Where Neuropathy May Strike Here are some of the specific types of neuropathy that occur in people with diabetes: Autonomic neuropathy impairs the functioning of the digestive system, resulting in diarrhea or constipation as well as impaired bladder function. This type of neuropathy also affects how you perspire and even your sexual response — men may have trouble getting an erection and women may experience vaginal dryne Continue reading >>

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

What are diabetic neuropathies? Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness—loss of feeling—in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight. What causes diabetic neuropathies? The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors: metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies? Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy definition and facts Diabetes is thought to damage nerves as a result of prolonged elevated levels of blood glucose. Peripheral neuropathy most commonly causes: Autonomic neuropathy causes symptoms related to dysfunction of an organ system, such as: Diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy is usually done by a clinical exam. There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but treatments are available to manage the symptoms. Diabetic nerve pain may be controlled by medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, duloxetine (Cymbalta), or certain antiseizure medications. Keeping tight control of blood sugar levels is the best way to prevent diabetic neuropathy and other complications of diabetes. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy? The symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy depend upon the type of neuropathy that is present. Signs and symptoms can also vary in severity among affected people. Signs and symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy include: Numbness or tingling of the feet and lower legs Pain or burning sensations Loss of sensation in the feet or lower legs Sometimes, but less commonly, these symptoms can occur in the hands or arms Signs and symptoms of diabetic proximal neuropathy include: Pain, usually on one side, in the hips, buttocks, or thighs Signs and symptoms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy depend upon the organ system that is involved and can include: Feeling full after eating a small amount Inability to empty the bladder completely Decrease in vaginal lubrication in women Rapid resting heartbeat Signs and symptoms of diabetic focal neuropathy also depend upon the location of the affected nerve. The symptoms can appear suddenly. It usually does not cause a long t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy[1]; mononeuropathy; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful polyneuropathy; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. Signs and symptoms[edit] Illustration depicting areas affected by diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, diabetic neuropathy can affect all organs and systems, as all are innervated. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years. Symptoms may include the following: Trouble with balance Numbness and tingling of extremities Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part) Diarrhea Erectile dysfunction Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping Vision changes Dizziness Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Fasciculation (muscle contractions) Anorgasmia Retrograde ejaculation (in males) Burning or electric pain Pathogenesis[edit] The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of dia Continue reading >>

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy means damage to one or more of your peripheral nerves. The damage means that the messages that travel between your central and peripheral nervous system are disrupted. There are many different conditions that can lead to peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes is the most common cause of persistent (chronic) peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy depend on which type of peripheral nerves are damaged (sensory, motor or autonomic nerves). Neuropathy can affect any one type, or a combination of all three types, of nerves. The aims of treatment for peripheral neuropathy are to treat any underlying cause, to control your symptoms and to help you to achieve maximum independence. Some anatomy of the nervous system Your nervous system is divided into your central nervous system and your peripheral nervous system. Your central nervous system includes your brain and spinal cord. Your peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves, called peripheral nerves, that transmit information from your brain and spinal cord to all the other parts of your body, including your arms, legs and organs. Your peripheral nerves also act as 'messengers' to transmit information back to your spinal cord and brain. For example, say you pick up something too hot, or your feet or fingers are too cold. If your peripheral nerves are damaged in some way, the information that passes along them becomes mixed up or doesn't get through at all to your central nervous system. Your peripheral nerves can be divided into 'sensory' nerves, 'motor' nerves and 'autonomic' nerves. Sensory nerves. Electrical impulses transmitted along your sensory nerves allow you to touch and feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. Motor nerves link up with your muscles. Electrical impulses t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy, or nerve damage caused by diabetes, is one of the most common known causes of neuropathy. It is one of many complications associated with diabetes, with nearly 60 percent of diabetics having some form of nerve damage. It is a progressive disease that can involve loss of sensation, as well as pain and weakness, in the feet and sometimes in the hands. Peripheral neuropathy may be more prevalent in people who have difficulty managing their blood sugar levels, have high blood pressure, are overweight, and are over 40 years old. A clinical examination may identify early signs of neuropathy in diabetics without symptoms. Today, doctors are exploring a link between pre-diabetes (also known as impaired glucose tolerance or IGT) and peripheral neuropathy. Approximately 10% of adults in America have what is being called “pre-diabetes” or “borderline diabetes”—a condition where the body has higher than normal blood sugar levels, but not high enough to be diagnosed as true diabetes. If left untreated, people with pre-diabetes are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and nerve damage (which could result in peripheral neuropathy.) People with pre-diabetes or IGT can significantly reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes through diet, exercise and learning to control their blood sugar levels. Pre Diabetes Symptoms & Signs (Not all symptoms and signs may be present.) People with IGT often have no symptoms. People who actually have diabetes—and who therefore are at greater risk of developing peripheral neuropathy—often don’t realize it because the symptoms of diabetes come on so gradually. Pre Diabetic symptoms and its complications include: Frequent urination Blurred vision Constant thirst Fatigue Frequent infections Cuts and Continue reading >>

Can Diabetic Neuropathy Be Reversed?

Can Diabetic Neuropathy Be Reversed?

Diabetic neuropathy refers to nerve damage caused by diabetes. Neuropathy is a common condition impacting 60 to 70 percent of adults with diabetes. However, it mainly concerns those with uncontrolled blood sugar levels or those who have had diabetes for more than 25 years. The nerve damage caused by diabetic neuropathy is irreversible but there are ways to lessen symptoms and prevent further harm. Contents of this article: What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a family of progressive nerve disorders related to type 1 and 2 diabetes. Although research is still taking place on this type of nerve damage, doctors think that blood sugars may damage nerve cells by impairing nerve fibers and reducing or confusing signaling. However, nerve damage is likely to be caused by a combination of factors, such as how the immune system functions, genetics, smoking, or alcohol use. Neuropathy can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, loss of sensation, numbness, tingling, and muscle weakness. Although neuropathy can occur wherever there are nerves, it tends to affect the legs and feet. Those with diabetic neuropathy tend to: have poor blood sugar control be over the age of 40 be overweight or obese have had diabetes for at least 10 to 25 years, depending on the severity Types Diabetic neuropathy is typically divided into four categories depending on which nerves are affected. Peripheral neuropathy Nerve damage that impacts the ability of the peripheral nerves to sense things, such as temperature and touch. Peripheral neuropathy most commonly affects the arms, hands, legs, feet, and toes, often causing pain or loss of feeling. It is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. Proximal neuropathy Nerve damage resulting in pain in the hips, thighs, pelvis, and buttocks. Continue reading >>

Neuropathy

Neuropathy

Tweet Neuropathy (or diffuse neuropathy) is a nerve disorder which may be categorised as sensory neuropathy, motor neuropathy or autonomic neuropathy. Neuropathy can be caused by both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Types of neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy may be categorised as follows: Sensory neuropathy occurs when nerves which detect touch and temperature are damaged. This form of neuropathy commonly affects the feet and hands. Motor neuropathy results from damage to the nerves affecting muscle movement. Autonomic neuropathy follows if the nerves which control involuntary actions, such as digestion or heart rate are affected. Over time, people with diabetes who do not control their condition, may develop damage to the nerves around the body. The term peripheral neuropathy may also be used and the term simply refers to nerve damage affecting any nerve outside of the brain or spinal cord. How common is diabetic neuropathy? Incidences are more common in patients with poor control, overweight, have higher levels of blood fat and blood pressure, and are over the age of 40. The longer a person has diabetes, the greater the risk of developing neuropathies. Neuropathy may affect up to 50% of people with diabetes.[1] Symptoms of neuropathy will often first manifest as numbness or pain in the hands, feet, arms or legs (distal symmetric neuropathy). However, they may also affect the organs, including the heart and sex organs. What exactly causes neuropathy amongst people with diabetes? The exact effect of glucose on the nervous system is still not known. However, prolonged exposure to higher than normal glucose levels certainly damages the nerves, causing neuropathy. High levels of triglycerides, a key blood fat which is measured during a cholesterol check, are also associated with Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Management

Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Management

Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Symptoms: Patients can experience diabetic neuropathic pain from damaged nerves that can feel like sharp pain, burning, tingling or numbness in the arms/hands and legs/feet. Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Causes: Diabetic neuropathic pain is caused when there is a prolonged exposure to high blood sugar/glucose levels, causing nerve damage in the body. Other factors that may contribute to diabetic neuropathic pain include inflammation, genetic factors, smoking and alcohol abuse. There are different types of diabetic neuropathy causing different types of pain symptoms. You may have more than one type causing more than one type of diabetic neuropathic pain symptom as well. Most of the diabetic neuropathic pain symptoms do develop gradually and may not be noticeable until significant nerve injury is present. The different types of diabetic neuropathy are listed below. Numbness. Tingling and burning sensations that may be worse at night. Decreased ability to feel pain in the feet causing unnoticed injury that can progress to infections. Commonly, patient can develop ulcers and infection causing deformity and bone and joint pain. Pain with movement. Allodynia or pain to light touch. Weakness. Mononeuropathy also called Focal Neuropathy: This is typically seen more commonly in older adults. The pain symptoms from this condition can occur suddenly but tends to improve and resolve over a period of weeks to months. A specific nerve gets injured, often in the head, torso or leg, but there usually is no associated long-term injury. The pain symptoms of mononeuropathy include: Double vision, difficulty focusing, pain in one eye. Paralysis on one side of the face (Bell’s palsy). Pain in specific area of the leg, thigh or foot. Chest or abdominal pain that can s Continue reading >>

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