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How Can Diabetes Affect The Immune System

Diabetes And Oral Health

Diabetes And Oral Health

Diabetes and Oral Health November is American Diabetes Month. Did you know that diabetes can increase your risk of dental disease and other symptoms that show up in your mouth? One in five cases of total tooth loss is linked to diabetes, according to the Journal of the American Dental Association. How does diabetes affect your oral health? Gum disease affects 22 percent of diabetics. According to MouthHealthy, patient website for the American Dental Association, people with diabetes are at a higher risk for gum problems because of poor blood sugar control. Have you ever noticed a cold sore or a cut in your mouth that doesn’t quite seem to go away? Poor control of blood sugar can keep injuries from healing quickly and properly. Studies show that some people with diabetes have less saliva, so you might find yourself feeling parched or extra thirsty. Fight dry mouth by drinking water. You can also chew sugarless gum and eat healthy, crunchy foods to get saliva flowing. This is especially important because extra sugar in your saliva, combined with less saliva to wash away leftover food, can lead to cavities. Diabetes also affects your immune system, leaving you more vulnerable to infection. One common issue among people with diabetes is a yeast infection called oral thrush. The yeast thrive on the higher amount of sugar found in your saliva, and it looks like a white layer coating your tongue and the insides of your cheeks. Thrush is more common in people who wear dentures and can often leave a bad taste in your mouth. The good news is you can take charge of your health today. Controlling your blood sugar, brushing, flossing and visiting your dentist regularly can go a long way to help decrease the likelihood of developing these diabetes-related mouth issues. For more inf Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes, which used to be called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes, is a chronic disease that destroys the body’s ability to make insulin, a hormone used to break down and store energy (in the form of glucose or “sugar”) from foods. Without insulin, high levels of fat and glucose remain in the bloodstream, which can damage blood vessels and vital organs over time. Scientists do not know exactly what causes type 1 diabetes, but they believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors are to blame. Diabetes is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system, which normally ignores healthy cells but destroys germs and foreign substances that could cause illness, mistakenly launches an attack on the body itself – in this case destroying insulin producing islet cells in the pancreas. People may develop type 1 diabetes at any age, but it is frequently diagnosed before adulthood. It accounts for about 5%-10% of all diabetes cases, and affects approximately one in every 400 to 500 children in the U.S. Most Commonly Used Terms Autoimmune disease: disorder of the body’s immune system in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys body tissue considered foreign. Islet cells: cells that make insulin and are found within the pancreas; also called pancreatic beta cells. Islet transplantation: moving the islets from a donor pancreas into a person whose pancreas has stopped producing insulin. Beta cells in the islets make the insulin that the body needs for using blood glucose. Pancreas: an organ that makes insulin and enzymes for digestion. The pancreas is located behind the lower part of the stomach and is about the size of a hand. Insulin: A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin controls the amount of sugar i Continue reading >>

Does Diabetes Affect Your Immune System?-how To Boost It Naturally

Does Diabetes Affect Your Immune System?-how To Boost It Naturally

What is the immune system? The immune system is without a doubt the most important system in your body. It is the center of your system. But does diabetes affect your immune system? It most certainly does and when it is compromised then you need to learn how to boost the immune system naturally. Your immune system is your defense against any invaders either from outside your body or from inside your body. Once your blood sugar is elevated, it affects your immune system. We have to get your immune system back up and working in top notch form again. If these invaders are not stopped, they can cause disease or even death. You cannot take lightly how crucial your immune system is. As far as toxins go, the less you have the better off you are and the more you have the worse it is for your health. You have to turn things around and reverse an immune system that isn’t healthy. Three factors determine the health of your immune system You are what you eat. Isn’t that what was always said? It’s true. Bad eating will weaken your immune system and healthy eating will strengthen your immune system. You should know that fruits and vegetables are what you should be feeding your body. Foods with sugar are the worst for you. There are suppressors that are toxic to your body and your immune system. Examples are chemicals, metals, and even radiation that will disrupt the health of your immune system. Refined sugars in your diet can damage your immune system too because of the bacteria and fungi which are fed on from the sugars. Is it heredity? If it’s in your genes, there isn’t anything you can do about that. But some folks eat healthy and do everything right and will die early and others eat junk and don’t look after their health and live a longer life. Or maybe you’re sick Continue reading >>

Profile Of The Immune And Inflammatory Response In Individuals With Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes

Profile Of The Immune And Inflammatory Response In Individuals With Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE The inflammatory and immune systems are altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the aim was to profile the immune and inflammatory response in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes in a large population-representative sample. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In total, 15,010 individuals were analyzed from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Glucose status was classified according to HbA1c concentration and history of diagnosis. All samples were analyzed for white blood cells (WBCs), granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, fibrinogen, and hematocrit. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and neopterin concentrations were determined in a subcohort. RESULTS In total, 7,584 men and 7,426 women were analyzed (range 35–74 years), with 1,425 and 1,299 having prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. Biomarkers showed varying dynamics from normoglycemic via subjects with prediabetes to subjects with diabetes: 1) gradual increase (WBCs, granulocytes, monocytes, IL-1RA, IL-18, and fibrinogen), 2) increase with subclinical disease only (lymphocytes and CRP), 3) increase from prediabetes to diabetes only (neopterin), and 4) no variation with glucose status (hematocrit). The strongest relative differences were found for CRP, IL-1RA, and fibrinogen concentrations. Several inflammatory and immune markers were associated with the glucose status independent from cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities, varied with disease severity and the presence of disease-specific complications in the diabetes subcohort. CONCLUSIONS The inflammatory and immune biomarker profile varies with the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Markers of inflammation and immunity enable differentiation between the early prec Continue reading >>

What Is The Immune System?

What Is The Immune System?

Your immune system protects you from some things and tolerates others. To maintain health, the balance between a destructive response and a tolerant one has to be just right. To understand the autoimmune attack of beta cells in type 1 diabetes, it helps to understand how the immune system normally functions. In humans, the immune system protects the person from outside invaders (also known as pathogens), such as bacteria or viruses, and abnormal or diseased cells, such as cancer cells. Additionally, the immune response allows some foreign material and normal cells for each individual (or “self”) to be tolerated. The balance between a destructive response and a tolerant response has to be just right; otherwise, people get autoimmune medical problems. On this page you will learn about: Lymphocytes & Immune Organs The immune cells are called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Important immune organs or sites in the body are the thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes. Lymphocytes include: T cells that can attack or kill infected or defective cells, and also regulate the immune response. The T cell receptors (TCRs) on their cell surface recognize and respond to foreign or abnormal tissue. This process is called cell-mediated immunity. See the glossary below for more about the different types of T cells B cells that make antibodies. B cells are involved in humoral – related to the blood – immunity. NK (natural killer) cells that cause cell death. Immune organs include: The thymus – a gland in the chest that programs the immune system. An important function is to choose and develop T cells that will protect the body and to eliminate T cells that could attack the body. Bone marrow – the source of precursor, or stem cells that can turn into new blood cells. Lymph Continue reading >>

Diabetic Pregnancy Activates The Innate Immune Response Through Tlr5 Or Tlr1/2 On Neonatal Monocyte

Diabetic Pregnancy Activates The Innate Immune Response Through Tlr5 Or Tlr1/2 On Neonatal Monocyte

Highlights • Maternal diabetes mellitus induces excessive inflammatory activation in neonatal monocytes via TLR5- or TLR1/2-mediated innate immune response. • TLR5- and TLR1/2-mediated excessive production of IL-8 or TNF-α (or both) in the neonates of diabetic mothers may contribute to the deleterious outcome after early neonatal infection with E. coli or L. monocytogenes. • Maternal obesity may contribute to the activation of neonatal innate immunity. Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy causes congenital malformation, macrosomia, respiratory distress syndrome, and other abnormalities in neonates, but whether maternal DM affects the neonatal innate immune system is unknown. Therefore we aimed to reveal the influence of DM in pregnancy on the toll-like receptor (TLR)–mediated innate immune response in neonates. Cord blood was collected after full-term vaginal or cesarean delivery and classified into a DM group (n = 8) and non-DM (control) group (n = 7). Mononuclear cells were harvested from cord blood by using density gradient centrifugation, after which anti-CD14 magnetic beads were used to isolate monocytes from the mononuclear population. After monocytes were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 ligand), flagellin (TLR5 ligand), Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/TLR2 ligand), zymosan (TLR2/TLR6 ligand), or macrophage-activating lipopeptide (TLR2/TLR6 ligand) for 12 h, the cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-8, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-12) in the culture supernatants were measured. Compared with the control group, the DM group had higher concentrations of IL-8 (P = 0.01) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (P = 0.02) after monocyte cultures were stimulated with Pam3CSK4 and higher concentrations of IL-8 (P = 0.01) after flagellin treatment Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects The Digestive System

How Diabetes Affects The Digestive System

With an increase of glucose in the blood, our digestive systems can experience problems with absorbing necessary nutrients. Diabetes is currently one of the most common health conditions. This illness arises when the body is not capable of producing insulin, something that usually helps regulate the amount of sugar in the blood. Diabetes varies in type and severity, but regardless of these details they all pose health risks. While it continues to be incurable, it is treatable. For this reason, we are about to explain in detail how diabetes affects the digestive system. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com The functions of the digestive system One of the most important systems in a human being is the digestive system. It is a network of organs including the mouth, the pharynx, and the stomach, which must transform food into something that can be absorbed by parts of the body, mainly cells, so that it can function. The complete digestive cycle is comprised of transportation, secretion, absorption, and excretion in order for the body to function properly. It supplies all of the nutrients our bodies need through this process. It also allows us to clean or dispose of those elements that our bodies no longer need. How diabetes affects the digestive system As we already know, digestion is an automatic process. This means that our body does not require a conscious stimulus to work and digest food. The opposite is actually true, the digestive system operates on its own thanks to the nervous system. Diabetes creates issues with this system that prevent proper functioning of the digestive system. When the blood has an increased amount of glucose, our digestive system can Continue reading >>

Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?

Can High Blood Sugar Affect The Immune System?

When you have an injury or infection, your body sends white blood cells to heal the damaged tissue. But too much glucose in your blood can slow the work of white blood cells, resulting in cuts and bruises that never seem to heal. Even minor injuries like a cut with a razor will take longer to heal and may become infected. When your blood sugar goes up above 200, your white blood cells can't fight really well. And that weakens your immune system. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Food Poisoning

Diabetes And Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is a risk for everyone, but it can be especially serious for people with diabetes. If you have diabetes, you're not alone. Diabetes affects about 29 million Americans, while one in three Americans has prediabetes. If not managed properly, diabetes can have serious, life-threatening effects on your health. One important way to manage your diabetes is by following proper food safety practices. Why is food safety important for diabetics? Diabetes can affect organs and systems of your body, causing them not to function properly: Immune system readily fights off harmful bacteria and other pathogens that cause infections. Diabetics' immune systems may not readily recognize harmful bacteria and pathogens. This delayed recognition places diabetics at an increased risk for infection. Gastrointestinal tract allows the foods and beverages you consume to be digested normally. Diabetes may damage the cells that create stomach acid and the nerves that help your stomach digest food. This damage may cause your stomach to hold on to food and beverages for a longer period of time, giving harmful pathogens more time to grow. Kidneys clean the body of harmful toxins. If you have diabetes, your kidneys may not be flushing the body of those harmful pathogens. In 2011, 49,677 people of all ages began treatment for kidney failure due to diabetes. Diabetes can lengthen the process of recovering from food poisoning. Diabetics are more likely to have a lengthier illness, undergo hospitalization or even face death. How to reduce your risk of food poisoning? To avoid contracting a foodborne illness be vigilant when handling, preparing and consuming foods. Remember the four simple steps: wash, separate, cook and refrigerate to reduce your risk of contracting food poisoning. If you are Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach and has two main functions: to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help us digest food to produce the hormone called insulin. Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body. Type 2 diabetes is caused by: insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas a resistance to the action of insulin in the body's cells – especially in muscle, fat and liver cells. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with being overweight, but it's less clear what causes it, compared to the Type 1 disease. Term watch Type 2 diabetes used to be called 'non-insulin dependent diabetes'. This is because insulin injections were not part of its treatment. As some people with Type 2 also now require insulin, the term Type 2 is preferred. In the first few years after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes high levels of insulin circulate in the blood because the pancreas can still produce the hormone. Eventually insulin production dwindles. For reasons we don't understand, the effect of insulin is also impaired. This means it doesn't have its normal effect on the cells of the body. This is called insulin resistance. What is insulin resistance? Insulin resistance has a number of knock-on effects: it causes high blood glucose it disturbs the fat levels in the blood, making the arteries of the heart more likely to clog (coronary heart disease) The insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in people with Type 2 diabetes don't seem to come under attack from the immune system as they do in Type 1. But they are still unable to cope with the need to produce a surge of insulin after a meal. Normally, this insulin surge causes the body to store excess glucose coming in and so keeps Continue reading >>

What Causes Autoimmune Diabetes?

What Causes Autoimmune Diabetes?

Autoimmune diabetes is influenced by genetics. What starts the autoimmune destruction is unknown, but it may be due to environmental factors. You may want to learn more about how type 1a diabetes develops. We know type 1a diabetes is caused by an autoimmune process in the body that mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells, or beta cells and occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. What starts the autoimmune destruction is unknown, but it may be due to environmental factors. In this section, you can learn more about: What is the Immune system? An overview of the different cells and organs in the immune system and how the immune system works Autoimmunity and diabetes: Current ideas about how the immune systems destroys insulin producing cells Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And The Immune System: Scientists Uncover Another Piece Of The Puzzle

Type 1 Diabetes And The Immune System: Scientists Uncover Another Piece Of The Puzzle

Germs could play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes by triggering the body’s immune system to destroy the cells that produce insulin, new research suggests. Scientists have previously shown that killer T-cells, a type of white blood cell that normally protects us from germs, play a major part in type 1 diabetes by destroying insulin producing cells, known as beta cells. Now, using Diamond, a team from Cardiff University’s Systems Immunity Research Institute found the same killer T-cells that cause type 1 diabetes are strongly activated by some bacteria. The team hope this research will lead to new ways to diagnose, prevent or even halt type 1 diabetes. Cardiff University’s Professor Andy Sewell, lead author of the study, said: “Killer T-cells are extremely effective at killing off germs, but when they mistakenly attack our own tissues, the effects can be devastating.” “During type 1 diabetes, killer T-cells are thought to attack pancreatic beta cells. These cells make the insulin that is essential for control of blood sugar levels. “When beta cells are destroyed, patients have to inject insulin every day to remain healthy.” Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes is prevalent in children and young adults, and is not connected with diet. There is little understanding of what triggers type 1 diabetes and currently no cure with patients requiring life-long treatment. In previous studies the Cardiff team isolated a killer T-cell from a patient with type 1 diabetes to view the unique interaction which kills the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. They found these killer T-cells were highly ‘cross-reactive’, meaning that they can react to lots of different triggers raising the possibility that a pathogen might stimulate the T-cells that Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect The Immune System?

How Does Type 1 Diabetes Affect The Immune System?

ANSWER What experts do know is that when you have type 1 diabetes, something goes wrong with your immune system. It destroys beta cells in your pancreas responsible for making a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose -- or sugar -- to get into your cells, where it's turned into energy. But if you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't make insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream and, over time, can cause serious health problems. Continue reading >>

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