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How Can Diabetes Affect The Cardiovascular System

Complications

Complications

What causes complications? Persistant high blood glucose over an extended period of time. The development of diabetes complications may depend on how long you’ve had diabetes and on your diabetes management over the years. Keeping your blood glucose under tight control helps to prevent or delay complications. However, some people are just more susceptible to long-term complications than others, of note: People who have had diabetes for several years, may develop problems with damage to blood vessels and reduced blood flow to nerve endings. Large Blood vessel damage (Macrovascular damage) may result in increased incidence of heart attack (Myocardial infarction) and stroke. Small blood vessel damage (Microvascular damage) causes problems with the tiny blood vessels to the Eyes, feet, Kidneys and nerve endings. Helping Prevent complications Have your diabetes management monitored regularly by hospital based diabetes team. Some diabetes monitoring checks are carried out for each visit e.g. HbA1c, cholesterol level and blood pressure, some are done annually e.g. general wellbeing, dietetic, kidney, eyes and foot review. You will get the chance to meet or arrange to meet with the dietitian for support. Always consult your doctor or another member of your diabetes care team, if you have any diabetes related problem. Tips include: Aim to maintain your diabetes under good control Maintain good blood pressure Maintain good cholesterol levels Do not smoke Be active Maintain a healthy diet Ask questions & keep informed HbA1c This is a measure of your blood glucose control over a period of the previous approx 6 -8 weeks. It is a very good indicator of your overall control of your condition despite the odd high or low readings you may have had during that time. The risk of developi Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Its Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Diabetes And Its Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Many people with diabetes are unaware of the complications that develop when diabetes is not well controlled. These include retinopathy, or damage to the retinas of the eyes, that can lead to blindness; neuropathy, or nerve damage; kidney failure, which can lead to dialysis; and cardiovascular disease. The term cardiovascular disease generally refers to diseases that include the heart and blood vessels. The latest statistics from the Texas Department of Health Services places diabetes as the sixth leading cause of death in Texas. The first and third leading causes of death in Texas are from heart attacks and strokes (cardiovascular diseases). In the Rio Grande Valley the death rate from diabetes is higher than in many other parts of Texas. It is also estimated that death from diabetes is underreported. Diabetes and its effects on the cardiovascular system is a slow and progressive process. If a diabetic person also has high blood pressure and abnormal lipids (high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, high LDL, and low HDL), which is a common finding in poorly controlled diabetics, the disease process is much more accelerated. The vessels that supply blood to the heart and the brain begin to stiffen, plaque develops inside them, and the blood supply to the heart and brain is greatly diminished. Decreased blood supply to the heart leads to symptoms of ischemia. A person may experience shortness of breath with activities, pressure–like chest pain, or feelings of fatigue. This can also lead to a heart attack and possible death. Sometimes signs of ischemia can be found on an–electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) when the symptoms are more pronounced. A stress test almost always helps to determine if a patient has ischemia from narrowing heart vessels (coronaries). Adding smok Continue reading >>

Prevent Complications

Prevent Complications

Diabetes can affect any part of your body. The good news is that you can prevent most of these problems by keeping your blood glucose (blood sugar) under control, eating healthy, being physical active, working with your health care provider to keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control, and getting necessary screening tests. How are cholesterol, triglyceride, weight, and blood pressure problems related to diabetes? How can I be "heart healthy" and avoid cardiovascular disease if I have diabetes? How can I keep my eyes healthy if I have diabetes? How can I keep my kidneys healthy if I have diabetes? Why is it especially important to take care of my feet if I have diabetes? What should I do on a regular basis to take care of my feet? Continue reading >>

Heart Disease: The Diabetes Connection

Heart Disease: The Diabetes Connection

Most people living with diabetes are aware that they have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. But the statistics can be truly staggering: Nearly two-thirds of people with diabetes have high blood pressure, and, according to the American Diabetes Association, people with diabetes are two to four times more likely to die of heart disease or have a stroke than people who don't have the condition. The good news: Learning more about the link between heart disease and diabetes can help you take steps to help protect your heart and manage your diabetes. How Diabetes and Heart Disease Are Related The connection between diabetes and heart disease starts with high blood sugar levels. Over time, the high glucose in the bloodstream can damage the arteries, causing them to become stiff and hard. Fatty material that builds up on the inside of these blood vessels, a condition known as atherosclerosis. This can eventually block blood flow to the heart or brain, leading to heart attack or stroke. Your risk of heart disease with diabetes is further elevated if you also have a family history of cardiovascular disease or stroke. Other heart facts to consider: People with diabetes develop cardiovascular disease at a much earlier age than others. Heart disease that leads to heart attack or stroke is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. A person who has diabetes has the same risk of heart attack as someone who is not diabetic, but already had a heart attack. Protecting Your Heart When You Have Diabetes If you believe you are at a higher risk for heart disease, don’t despair. There are several small lifestyle changes you can make to not only help prevent heart disease, but also manage your diabetes more effectively. Be active. The American Heart Association recomme Continue reading >>

What Is Hypertension?

What Is Hypertension?

Each time your heart beats, blood is pumped through your arteries and veins, the blood vessels of your circulatory system. Arterial blood pressure is created by the force exerted by the blood against the artery walls, as they carry blood around your body. Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is when the pressure of the blood being pumped through your arteries is higher than it should be. High blood pressure, or hypertension has been called the "silent killer", because it often has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not even know they have it. Over time, the constant pressure overload causes accumulating damage that eventually becomes more than your circulatory system can handle, often leading to serious health problems. Your circulatory system, blood pressure, and what can go wrong Your circulatory system is made up of three main parts: blood, which carries substances such as nutrients, oxygen and waste products around your body; your blood vessels, a network of tubes that carry the blood; and your heart, a muscular organ, located in the centre of your chest, whose job is to pump your blood throughout the circulatory system. Blood is made of a pale yellow fluid, called plasma that contains red and white blood cells, and platelets. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a chemical that can combine with oxygen. You have different types of blood vessels, the tubes through which your blood travels, with different jobs. Blood flows away from your heart through strong, thick-walled vessels, called arteries, which branch into networks of tiny, thin-walled tubes, called capillaries. Oxygen and other substances can easily diffuse out of your capillaries into the cells of your tissues and organs, where they are needed, while carbon dioxide and waste pro Continue reading >>

Causes Of Circulatory System Diseases

Causes Of Circulatory System Diseases

Circulatory system diseases cover a vast array of different abnormalities and disorders that affect the way the body circulates blood. Circulatory system disorders can lead to decreased perfusion of blood throughout the body, threatening the healthy function of tissue and organs. The human circulatory system is a complex network of blood vessels, varying in size, working in tandem with the rhythmic pumping of the heart. Essential for keeping the body working optimally, its main purpose is to carry oxygen, nutrients, electrolytes, and hormones, via the blood, making sure that all your bodily processes get what they need to be able to function as they should, with the end goal of keeping you healthy and alive. Complications affecting the circulatory system can arise from a number of different factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and even infection that could threaten your health or even your life. Anatomy of the circulatory system There are two blood vessel systems in the body, arterial and venous. Arteries are tasked with carrying blood away from the heart and to all reaches of the body, from the top of your head to the tips of your toes. Veins transport the blood from the body’s tissues back to the lungs to become re-oxygenated again via pulmonary circulation. This blood is then sent to the heart to be pumped back into the arterial vascular system. The anatomy of the circulatory system consists of a network of blood vessels that resembles the branches of a tree, extending to every corner of the human body. None of this would be useful, however, without the pumping action of the heart, as it works to make sure blood is pumped with enough force to reach the most remote places in the body. The human heart is made up of four chambers: the right and left atriums and the Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: A Major Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes Mellitus: A Major Risk Factor For Cardiovascular Disease

Abundant evidence shows that patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes are at high risk for several cardiovascular disorders: coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular complications are now the leading causes of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The public health impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes is already enormous and is increasing. Several explanations are behind this increase. First, the incidence of diabetes rises with advancing age, and the number of older people in the United States is growing rapidly. Second, insulin treatment for persons with type 1 diabetes has prolonged their lives significantly, and with each year of additional life comes an increased risk for CVD complications. Third, type 2 diabetes occurs at an earlier age in obese and overweight persons, and the prevalence of obesity is rising in the United States. The risk for diabetes in overweight persons is heightened by physical inactivity; unfortunately, the majority of Americans engage in little regular or sustained physical activity. Fourth, the populations that are particularly susceptible to diabetes—African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Asians—are growing in this country. Fifth, improved medical care, particularly when extended to susceptible populations, will bring an increasing number of patients with type 2 diabetes into the medical care system. All of these factors will lead to an absolute increase in the number of patients who will require medical intervention to prevent the complications of diabetes. Diabetes has long been recognized to be an independent risk factor for CVD. Prospective studies, such as the Framingham, Honolulu Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Heart Disease: How Diabetes Affects The Heart

Diabetes And Heart Disease: How Diabetes Affects The Heart

Heart disease is common in people with diabetes . Data from the National Heart Association from 2012 shows 65% of people with diabetes will die from some sort of heart disease or stroke . In general, the risk of heart disease death and stroke are more than twice as high in people with diabetes. While all people with diabetes have an increased chance of developing heart disease , the condition is more common in those with type 2 diabetes . In fact, heart disease is the number one cause of death among people with type 2 diabetes . The Framingham Study was one of the first pieces of evidence to show that people with diabetes are more vulnerable to heart disease than those people who did not have diabetes. The Framingham Study looked at generations of people, including those with diabetes, to try to determine the health risk factors for developing heart disease. It showed that multiple health factors -- including diabetes -- could increase the possibility of developing heart disease. Aside from diabetes, other health problems associated with heart disease include high blood pressure , smoking , high cholesterol levels , and a family history of early heart disease. The more health risks factors a person has for heart disease, the higher the chances that they will develop heart disease and even die from it. Just like anyone else, people with diabetes have an increased risk of dying from heart disease if they have more health risk factors. However, the probability of dying from heart disease is 2 to 4 times higher in a person with diabetes. So, while a person with one health risk factor, such as high blood pressure , may have a certain chance of dying from heart disease, a person with diabetes has double or even quadruple the risk of dying. For example, one medical study foun Continue reading >>

The Pathophysiology Of Cardiovascular Disease And Diabetes: Beyond Blood Pressure And Lipids

The Pathophysiology Of Cardiovascular Disease And Diabetes: Beyond Blood Pressure And Lipids

In Brief The pathophysiology of the link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is complex and multifactorial. Understanding these profound mechanisms of disease can help clinicians identify and treat CVD in patients with diabetes, as well as help patients prevent these potentially devastating complications. This article reviews the biological basis of the link between diabetes and CVD, from defects in the vasculature to the cellular and molecular mechanisms specific to insulin-resistant states and hyperglycemia. It concludes with a discussion of heart failure in diabetes, a clinical entity that demonstrates many of the mechanisms discussed. Diabetes is a prime risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Vascular disorders include retinopathy and nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), stroke, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Diabetes also affects the heart muscle, causing both systolic and diastolic heart failure. The etiology of this excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is not completely clear. Evidence suggests that although hyperglycemia, the hallmark of diabetes, contributes to myocardial damage after ischemic events, it is clearly not the only factor, because both pre-diabetes and the presence of the metabolic syndrome, even in normoglycemic patients, increase the risk of most types of CVD.1–4 In 2002, a survey of people in the United States with diagnosed diabetes found that, surprisingly, 68% of patients did not consider themselves at risk for heart attack or stroke.5 In addition, only about half of patients surveyed reported that their health care providers discussed the high risk of CVD in diabetes and what steps they could take to reduce that risk.5 Fortunately, we are now making the link. Health care providers are now focuse Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes, Heart Disease, And You

Diabetes is a common disease that is on the rise in America. Having diabetes raises your risk for developing other dangerous conditions, especially heart disease and stroke. November is National Diabetes Month, a time to raise awareness about preventing and managing diabetes and protecting yourself from its complications. Diabetes is a serious condition that happens when your body can’t make enough of a hormone called insulin or can’t properly use the insulin it has. Insulin helps your body digest sugars that come from what you eat and drink. Without enough insulin, sugar builds up in your blood. Over time, that sugar buildup damages your nerves, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes, or about 1 of every 11 people. 1 About 8 million of them don’t know they have diabetes. Another 86 million—more than 1 in 3 Americans older than 20 years—have prediabetes, a condition in which a person’s blood sugar is high, but not yet high enough to trigger diabetes.2 Most people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes are about twice as likely to die from heart disease as adults who do not have diabetes.3 Surprising Facts About Diabetes Women with diabetes have a 40% greater risk of developing heart disease and a 25% greater risk of stroke than men with diabetes do.5 Experts aren’t sure why the risk is so much greater in women with diabetes than in men with diabetes. Women’s biology may play a role: Women usually have more body fat, which can put them at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. If you are a woman with diabetes, you can take steps to control your condition and improve your chances for avoiding heart disease and stroke (see below). Almost 7 in 10 people with diabetes over age 65 will die o Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And The Cardiovascular System

Diabetes Mellitus And The Cardiovascular System

aDivision of Cardiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36617, USA bCorresponding Author: Bassam Omar, Division of Cardiology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36617, USA Short title: DM and Cardiovascular System doi: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an epidemic which affects close to 100 million patients worldwide; the majority being type 2 diabetes mellitus. The rising incidence has resulted in a proportional increase in the frequency of cardiovascular disease attributable to DM, as revealed by various population-based studies. Over the past 50 years, DM has been shown to be an important and independent risk factor in the development of a variety of cardiac conditions, especially vascular disease, primarily through accelerated atherosclerosis. Diabetic neuropathy is a serious complication of DM, which leads to the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy results in heart rate abnormalities, exercise intolerance, orthostatic blood pressure abnormalities, QT interval prolongation, silent ischemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy, all of which lead to increased morbidity and mortality related to diabetes. This conditions remains difficult to diagnose and treat, requiring a multifaceted approach. Inflammation appears to play a central role in accelerating many of the injurious effects of DM on the cardiovascular system. Expression of specific inflammatory markers has been directly linked to some of the known harmful effects of DM on the cardiovascular system, in addition to indirectly potentiating the deleterious effects of other major cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hyperglycemia results in increased intracellular glucose which triggers several pro-inflammatory reactions leading to the production of harmful free radic Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Heart

Diabetes And Your Heart

If you have diabetes, you are more likely to develop coronary heart disease than someone without diabetes. Diabetes causes high levels of glucose in your blood. This is because of a problem with a hormone your pancreas produces called insulin. Insulin is responsible for moving glucose (a type of sugar) from your bloodstream and into the cells of your body for energy. If there little or no insulin being produced, or your body has become resistant to insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream and can’t move across to your cells to give them energy to work properly. High levels of glucose in your blood can damage the walls of your arteries, and make them more likely to develop fatty deposits (atheroma). If atheroma builds up in your coronary arteries (the arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart) you will develop coronary heart disease, which can cause angina and heart attack. Types of diabetes Type one diabetes happens when your body cannot make insulin. This type most commonly affects children and young adults, and is a result of your body’s immune system attacking the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. Type two diabetes occurs when your pancreas isn’t producing enough insulin or your body has become resistant to the insulin it’s producing. Type two diabetes is much more common than type 1 and tends to develop gradually as people get older – usually after the age of 40, but more and more people every year are being diagnosed at a much younger age. It's closely linked with: being overweight, especially if you carry weight around your middle being physically inactive a family history of type 2 diabetes. Some ethnic groups have a much higher rate of diabetes - particularly people of South Asian and African Caribbean origin. Diabetes and your he Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure Dangers: Hypertension's Effects On Your Body

High Blood Pressure Dangers: Hypertension's Effects On Your Body

High blood pressure is a risk factor for more than heart disease. Discover what complications high blood pressure can cause. High blood pressure (hypertension) can quietly damage your body for years before symptoms develop. Left uncontrolled, you may wind up with a disability, a poor quality of life or even a fatal heart attack. Roughly half the people with untreated hypertension die of heart disease related to poor blood flow (ischemic heart disease) and another third die of stroke. Treatment and lifestyle changes can help control your high blood pressure to reduce your risk of life-threatening complications. Here's a look at the complications high blood pressure can cause when it's not effectively controlled. Damage to your arteries Healthy arteries are flexible, strong and elastic. Their inner lining is smooth so that blood flows freely, supplying vital organs and tissues with nutrients and oxygen. Hypertension gradually increases the pressure of blood flowing through your arteries. As a result, you might experience: Damaged and narrowed arteries. High blood pressure can damage the cells of your arteries' inner lining. When fats from your diet enter your bloodstream, they can collect in the damaged arteries. Eventually, your artery walls become less elastic, limiting blood flow throughout your body. Aneurysm. Over time, the constant pressure of blood moving through a weakened artery can cause a section of its wall to enlarge and form a bulge (aneurysm). An aneurysm can potentially rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding. Aneurysms can form in any artery throughout your body, but they're most common in your body's largest artery (aorta). Damage to your heart Your heart pumps blood to your entire body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can damage your heart Continue reading >>

Circulatory System And Diabetes

Circulatory System And Diabetes

Tweet The circulatory system is responsible for the delivery of blood, and therefore glucose in the blood, round the body. The different complications of diabetes are a consequence of damage to blood vessels in different parts of the circulatory system. What is the circulatory system? The circulatory system is essentially the body infrastructure, providing the route ways for the blood to transport oxygen, nutrients and hormones to and from the cells and organs. The heart plays a key role in the circulatory system, helping to pump blood around all the body. Blood vessels range in size, from larger arteries into very small blood vessels called capillaries. Capillaries feed into the veins which carry blood back to the heart. The role of the circulatory system The circulatory system performs a number of roles, including: Delivering oxygen and nutrients, including glucose, to the body’s cells Carrying carbon dioxide and waste products away from the cells Transporting hormones and therefore helping the body communicate with its organs Transport white blood cells to fight off infection Regulating body temperature The circulatory system and diabetes The circulatory system allows blood glucose levels to be regulated. The hormone glucagon, carried in the blood, signals the liver to release glucose into the blood and the presence of insulin in the blood instructs the cells to take in glucose from the blood. If blood glucose levels become too high for extended periods of time, damage can be sustained by the blood vessels. If significant numbers of blood vessels are damaged, this can have a negative effect on the functioning of the body. Circulatory complications in diabetes Where damage is sustained to a significant number of blood vessels in a certain area of the body, diabetic Continue reading >>

Diabetes And The Vascular System

Diabetes And The Vascular System

Tweet The vascular system is made up of arteries and veins that carry oxygenated blood around the body and oxygen depleted blood to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and replenish the oxygen. People with diabetes commonly experience problems with their vascular system and charity Diabetes UK notes that diabetes is associated with a 5 times higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. What are the problems that can arise with the vascular system? Arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis is the thickening and stiffening of the arteries this means that they become less flexible and create resistance for the blood that is moving inside them. Arteriosclerosis is thought to be caused by excess fat in the diet and high cholesterol. There are some schools of thought that have hypothesised that it is refined food and food rich in omega-6 fatty acids that leads to an inflammation of the endothelial cells that line the veins and arteries in the entire circulatory system. It is thought that this inflammation means that excess fat and cholesterol consumed binds easier to the artery walls forming hard plaque structures which result in the stiffening and in some severe cases blockages of veins and arteries. Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease results if the build up of plaque on the inside of the arteries and veins that supply oxygen to and take away carbon dioxide from the heart. This causes the narrowing of the arteries and veins which means the heart isn't receiving enough oxygen as it is needed and it is being poisoned by excess carbon dioxide. High blood pressure High blood pressure can result from the heart trying to pump blood through narrowed arteries, although is has also been attributed to a diet high in salt, obesity, alcoholism and high stress level Continue reading >>

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