Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. Most people with the condition have type 2. There are about 27 million people in the U.S. with it. Another 86 million have prediabetes: Their blood glucose is not normal, but not high enough to be diabetes yet. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It's what lets your cells turn glucose from the food you eat into energy. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should. Doctors call this insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells. But eventually it can't keep up, and the sugar builds up in your blood instead. Usually a combination of things cause type 2 diabetes, including: Genes. Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin. Extra weight. Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. Now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly because of childhood obesity. Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Too much glucose from your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reac Continue reading >>
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Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease Is Easier Than You Think
Do you have insulin resistance? If you don’t know, you’re not alone. This is perhaps the single most important question any of us can ask about our physical and mental health—yet most patients, and even many doctors, don’t know how to answer it. Here in the U.S., insulin resistance has reached epidemic proportions: more than half of us are now insulin resistant. Insulin resistance is a hormonal condition that sets the stage throughout the body for inflammation and overgrowth, disrupts normal cholesterol and fat metabolism, and gradually destroys our ability to process carbohydrates. Insulin resistance puts us at high risk for many undesirable diseases, including obesity, heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Scarier still, researchers now understand that insulin resistance is the driving force behind most cases of garden-variety Alzheimer’s Disease. What is insulin resistance? Insulin is a powerful metabolic hormone that orchestrates how cells access and process vital nutrients, including sugar (glucose). In the body, one of insulin’s responsibilities is to unlock muscle and fat cells so they can absorb glucose from the bloodstream. When you eat something sweet or starchy that causes your blood sugar to spike, the pancreas releases insulin to usher the excess glucose out of the bloodstream and into cells. If blood sugar and insulin spike too high too often, cells will try to protect themselves from overexposure to insulin’s powerful effects by toning down their response to insulin—they become “insulin resistant.” In an effort to overcome this resistance, the pancreas releases even more insulin into the blood to try to keep glucose moving into cells. The more insulin levels rise, the more insulin resistant cells become. Over time, this vicious c Continue reading >>
Alzheimer’s = Type 3 Diabetes
“My parents are getting older and I want to do everything I can to help them prevent Alzheimer’s, considering both my grandmothers had this disease, and I am worried about getting it too.” writes this week’s house call. “What can we do to prevent dementia?” The truth is, dementia is a very big problem that’s becoming bigger every day. Statistics are grim. 10 percent of 65-year-olds, 25 percent of 75-year-olds, and 50 percent of 85-year-olds will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. And the fastest growing segment of our population is the 85-year-olds. Researchers predict Alzheimer’s will affect 106 million people by 2050. It’s now the seventh leading cause of death. Scientists now call Alzheimer’s disease “Type 3 diabetes.” What’s the link between Alzheimer’s and diabetes? Well, new research shows insulin resistance, or what I call diabesity (from eating too many carbs and sugar and not enough fat) is one of the major factors that starts the brain-damage cascade, which robs the memory of over half the people in their 80s, leading to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. But don’t think too much insulin affects only older folks’ memories. It doesn’t just suddenly occur once you’re older. Dementia actually begins when you’re younger and takes decades to develop and worsen. Here’s the bad news/good news. Eating sugar and refined carbs can cause pre-dementia and dementia. But cutting out the sugar and refined carbs and adding lots of fat can prevent, and even reverse, pre-dementia and early dementia. More recent studies show people with diabetes have a four-fold risk for developing Alzheimer’s. People with pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for having pre-dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). You Continue reading >>
Sugar And Your Brain: Is Alzheimer’s Disease Actually Type 3 Diabetes?
It starves your brain, tangles and twists vital cells, and for decades it has been misrepresented as an untreatable, genetically determined disease. Alzheimer's disease is the 6th leading cause of death in North America1. The truth, however, is that this devastating illness shares a strong link with another sickness that wreaks havoc on millions of individuals in North America — Diabetes. We all know that individuals affected by Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes have a notable resistance to insulin. Type 1 is caused by the body's inability to produce insulin, and Type 2 is caused by the deterioration of the body's insulin receptors and associated with the consumption of too much refined carbohydrate like processed grains and sugar. But when studies began to appear in 2005 that revealed a shocking correlation between insulin and brain cell deterioration, major breaks were made around Alzheimer's prevention[i]. Health practitioners became curious about a critical question — could Alzheimer's disease simply be Type 3 Diabetes? Alzheimer's disease has long been perceived as mysterious and inevitable. 5.3 million individuals suffer every year from the disease that appears to be untreatable[ii]. But, if this illness is associated with insulin resistance, this simply isn't the case. We already know that diabetics are at least twice as likely to experience dementia[iii]. The cells of your brain can become insulin-resistant just like other cells in the body. What was once considered a mysterious accumulation of beta amyloid plaques characteristic in the Alzheimer brain is now associated with the same lack of insulin that negatively affects cognition[iv]. Where there is knowledge about underlying causes there is the opportunity for prevention. Research that surfaced around problems Continue reading >>
Alzheimer's Risk: Why You Should Cut Your Sugar Intake
The problem is, I’m in no doubt, our consumption of sugar. It makes sense that a problem with blood sugar must be linked to the amount of sugar we eat. Yet many experts argue that the real problem is the amount of fat in our diets, not sugar. They say “fat is fattening” and being overweight raises your risk of Type 2 diabetes. Opinions are slowly changing, with diabetes experts acknowledging that while being overweight does increase your risk of Type 2 diabetes, it’s weight gain from excess sugar that is really the problem. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body struggles to cope with blood sugar. Instead of being turned into fuel, the sugar builds up because insulin receptors in cells fail to send the signals that your system needs to move sugar out of your blood and into your cells as fuel. This is called insulin resistance, which is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s. In fact, sugar’s impact on the brain goes beyond the effects of insulin. Being on the blood sugar roller coaster also raises levels of the stress hormone cortisol and this, over time, increases inflammation in the brain, speeding up deterioration. My clinic uses a Brain Protection Profile blood test which includes the four key tests for brain health: heavy toxic metals, a nutritional test; HbA1c – to check average blood glucose levels over three months and homocysteine. If your level of homocysteine is greater than 14mmol/l it doubles your risk of developing Alzheimer’s. If a low or no-sugar diet can reverse Type 2 diabetes or reduce your risk, then it may also prevent the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Recent research has focused on getting people with Type 2 diabetes to consume no more than 25 per cent of their calories from carbohydrates, a “hidden” source of sugar. According to Continue reading >>
Insulin As A Bridge Between Type 2 Diabetes And Alzheimer Disease – How Anti-diabetics Could Be A Solution For Dementia
1Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal 2Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal 3Institute for Interdisciplinary Research (IIIUC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal 4Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal 5Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are two major health issues nowadays. T2D is an ever increasing epidemic, affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, with major repercussions in the patients’ daily life. This is mostly due to its chronic complications that may affect brain and constitutes a risk factor for AD. T2D principal hallmark is insulin resistance which also occurs in AD, rendering both pathologies more than mere unrelated diseases. This hypothesis has been reinforced in the recent years, with a high number of studies highlighting the existence of several common molecular links. As such, it is not surprising that AD has been considered as the “type 3 diabetes” or a “brain-specific T2D,” supporting the idea that a beneficial therapeutic strategy against T2D might be also beneficial against AD. Herewith, we aim to review some of the recent developments on the common features between T2D and AD, namely on insulin signaling and its participation in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ) plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation (the two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD). We also critically analyze the promising field that some anti-T2D drugs may protect against dementia and AD, with a special emphasis on the novel incretin/glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Is someone you love suffering from Alzheimer’s disease? If so, you know how devastating this tragic disease is—not only for the people who suffer from it, but for their friends and families as well. That’s why we fear it even more than cancer, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, or stroke. But here’s something you might not know. Increasingly, scientists are calling Alzheimer’s disease by another name: Type 3 diabetes. The scientist who coined this term—Suzanne de la Monte, a neuropathologist at Brown University—discovered that rats with insulin resistance (the forerunner of diabetes) “developed an Alzheimer-like disease pattern, including neurodegeneration.” Dr. de la Monte says that Alzheimer’s has “virtually all of the features of diabetes, but is largely confined to the brain.” Dr. de la Monte’s findings are consistent with the fact that diabetics have a much higher rate of Alzheimer’s disease than non-diabetics. They’re also in line with research showing that people with high blood glucose levels are at elevated risk for dementia even if they don’t have diabetes. Recent studies are shedding still more light on the connection between Alzheimer’s and insulin resistance or diabetes. For example: A 2017 study found that the fluctuations in fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c (a long-term blood glucose measurement) that are common in diabetics are independently associated with a higher risk for Alzheimer’s disease. A 2016 study of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) concluded that Type 2 diabetes “may accelerate cognition deterioration in patients with MCI by affecting glucose metabolism and brain volume.” Another 2016 study found that “glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness [ a si Continue reading >>
At Risk For “type 3 Diabetes” – Aka Alzheimer’s Disease
AT RISK FOR “Type 3 DIABETES” – aka Alzheimer’s Disease? Diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Dementia are all on the rise. You cannot help but to worry about your grandparents and aging parents. Dementia is a big problem and getting bigger every day. Statistics are daunting, 10 percent of 65-year-old, 25 percent of 75-year-old, and 50 percent of 85-year-old’s, will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. And the fastest growing segment of our population is the 85-year-old’s. Researchers predict Alzheimer’s will affect 106 million people by 2050. It’s now the seventh leading cause of death. Scientists now call Alzheimer’s disease “Type 3 diabetes.” Diabetes type 3 is the new link between Alzheimer’s, Dementia and diabetes. New research shows insulin resistance, (from eating too many carbs and sugar and not enough fat) is one of the major factors that starts the brain-damage cascade. It is important to recognize that too much insulin does not just affect the older population. Dementia actually begins when you are younger and can take decades to develop. The underlying causes of Alzheimer’s disease begin with too much sugar on the brain. The cycle starts when we over-consume sugar and don’t eat enough fat, which leads to diabesity. Diabesity leads to inflammation, which creates a vicious cycle that wreaks havoc on your brain. If you looked at an autopsy of a brain of an Alzheimer’s patient, you’d see a brain on fire. This inflammation occurs over and over again in every chronic disease and very dramatically with the aging brain and overall aging process Eating sugar and refined carbs creates insulin resistance and inflammation, this can cause pre-dementia and dementia. But cutting out the sugar and refined carbs and adding lots of healthy fats ca Continue reading >>
What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
What is type 3 diabetes? We all know there are two main types of diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. There is also the transient gestational diabetes which only affects women during pregnancy. But now diabetes is being linked with Alzheimer’s and it’s being called type 3. Are you at risk? The path to diabetes The path to diabetes is a complex and often long one. Many people start on the road to this disease from an early age. Whilst we’re young, our bodies can mostly compensate and cope with the stupidity of consuming rubbish food with a vengeance, regularly bingeing on alcohol and sodas, smoking and using recreational drugs and taking in a plethora of poisons and toxins. Now take a look at this 2 minute video. Normal living conditions are bad enough! It’s bad enough that we have to contend with environmental hazards and harmful chemicals that we have no control over. But to then make it even worse by further abusing our bodies with added burdens of contaminating foods and drink is witless! After all, we do have a certain amount of control over what we put into our bodies. Problem is, when we’re young, we think we’re immortal. Another difficulty is the mindset of the human race as a whole. We’re definitely a very clever species, but we’re certainly not too intelligent! It will catch up with you. So here you are, in your prime, not long out of college and rearing to go. Your whole life ahead of you and you’re determined to enjoy every minute of it. No matter about your diet or lifestyle, as long as a good time is had by all. You turn around and suddenly you’re 30 with a spouse and a couple of kids. The youngsters are growing up fast. Right from weaning, they’ve had your lifestyle. Then there’s the TV ads. What’s worse is that we are all bombarded with Continue reading >>
#322 – Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Guest: Dr. Brian Mowll Dr. Brian Mowll, host of the upcoming Diabetes Summit, discusses how insulin resistance in the brain may be at the root of Alzheimer’s and dementia. And what you can do about it! Here’s what you’ll learn: 2:10 – How The Diabetes Coach came to be and found his passion for helping people lost in the medical system with whole body diabetes care. 5:45 – It’s not just your genes. The Diabetes-Alzheimer’s connection, the diabetes spectrum and what happens when your body and your brain is “bathing in insulin.” 12:30 – Brain food: the biggest feeder on sugar in your body and what it means for insulin. 16:13 – This is your brain on fire – the vicious cycle of plaque, tangles and inflammation that is preventing your brain from working right. 25:25 – Is insulin resistance affecting your mood or is your mood affecting your insulin levels? Here’s why it might not even matter. 26:42 – The ADA’s “appetite for profit” and how money is influencing the standard of care for diabetics. 30:27 – “There’s no evidence that sugar has anything to do with diabetes.” Is sugar really to blame or should we give it a break? 33:48 – Dr. Mowll recommendations (with some surprises) for preventing and maybe even reversing Type 3 Diabetes and Alzheimer’s. 40:10 – Is your fat protecting you? How cutting too many carbs can cause a problem and why a little extra weight might not always be a bad thing. 46:19 – Supplements and nutrients vital to blood sugar regulation plus some medications you might want to avoid! Continue reading >>
Alzheimer's: Type 3 Diabetes?
In 2005, while testing the effects of impaired insulin signaling on the brain, Suzanne de la Monte at Brown University and her colleagues observed several unexpected phenomena in her experimental mice. Hallmarks of neurodegenerative disease had surfaced: oxidative stress, amyloid fibrils, and cell loss. "It was the craziest thing," de la Monte says. Glucose metabolism and Alzheimer's had been linked previously, says de la Monte, and perhaps her findings explained why. Looking in the brains of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, de la Monte found reductions in insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and downstream elements such as tau, insulin receptor substrate, and kinases.1 Type 1 diabetes is a deficiency in insulin production, and type 2 is a resistance to insulin, where there is plenty of insulin but cells don't respond to it. Her group coined the term "type 3 diabetes" to explain their observations. "In Alzheimer's you have both things going on. That's why we called [what we saw] type 3, because it resembles both of them," de la Monte says. De la Monte's findings made a splash in the media, appearing in the BBC and numerous Alzheimer's news outlets. However, in the scientific community, "I wouldn't say that the term type 3 diabetes has caught on," says Greg Cole at the University of California, Los Angeles. The term might not be popular because what is happening in the brain is still unclear. Cole says accumulated evidence suggests that insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling is impaired in patients with Alzheimer's disease. "It looks like in Alzheimer's disease you end up having a defect in these kinds of pathways, which are similar to the pathways for insulin-resistant diabetes," says Cole. But, it's unknown as to which comes first, the disease or Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Disease Type 3 Diabetes?
lightwise / 123RF Stock Photo For decades, the progressive damage to brain cells and the connections between them that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease has been associated with abnormalities in two brain proteins: clumps of the protein fragment beta-amyloid into plaques and twisted strands of the protein tau into tangles. Over the past decade, scientists have been getting closer to a better understanding of why the brain develops these hallmark changes. Among the contributing causes, as reviewed in a recently released online article May 2016 in the journal Physiology & Behavior is accumulating evidence that Alzheimer’s disease is a metabolic disease—a disease of how the brain responds to insulin, utilizes glucose, and metabolizes energy. Alzheimer’s disease may be a form of diabetes of the brain. Why Type 3 diabetes? The brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease show both insulin resistance—the primary problem in type 2 diabetes, and insulin deficiency—the primary problem in type 1 diabetes. In order to account for both types of insulin abnormalities, and their parallel biochemical effects in the brain, Dr. Suzanne de la Monte, a Brown University researcher, coined the term Type 3 diabetes. Studies have shown that even very early in Alzheimer’s disease, either prior to or coincident with memory changes, the brain loses its ability to metabolize sugar efficiently. For the brain, which relies on glucose as its primary fuel, a drop in glucose can be detrimental. Insulin is equally important because it helps the brain uptake glucose from blood, and metabolize it for energy. If a brain becomes insulin resistant, its ability to uptake and utilize glucose becomes impaired. Put simply, the brain “starves.” Downstream, a cascade of events occurs. Starvation ca Continue reading >>
Diabetes Types – A Guide To Type 1, Type 2 & Type 3 Diabetes
There are three diabetes types that go by the name type 1, type 2 and type 3. Each can have serious and even life-threatening consequences. This guide shares information about three diabetes types to help you better understand this condition called diabetes. "An estimated 23.6 million people in the United States—7.8 percent of the population—have diabetes, a serious, lifelong condition. Of those, 17.9 million have been diagnosed, and 5.7 million have not yet been diagnosed".(1) Of the diabetes types, most people are familiar with type 1 and type 2. These types of diabetes result due to issues with insulin production within the pancreas or insulin uptake by the body cells. Type 3 diabetes is connected to newly discovered insulin production in the brain. In type 1 diabetes the body does not produce insulin due to a problem with the beta cells of the pancreas. Because type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed in children and young adults it is still commonly referred to as juvenile diabetes. A person with type 1 diabetes cannot control their blood sugar level without daily insulin supplementation. Insulin can be administered as an injection under the skin or through an insulin pump. Type 1diabetes and type 2 diabetes have similar symptoms including excessive thirst, more frequent urination, increased hunger, unexplained weight loss, chronic fatigue and possibly blurred vision. However, type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 as far as cause and treatment. Type 2 diabetes is the most common of the diabetes types and develops slowly over time as a person’s body cells build a resistance to insulin. This resistance makes it difficult for insulin to move sugar out of the blood and this can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels. Patients with type 2 diabetes do not typically requ Continue reading >>
Alzheimer's Disease: Type 3 Diabetes
(UPDATE: 4/20/2015: I’ve written an e-book about this topic! You can find it here. You can download a free sample, which includes the table of contents, so you can see the breadth of topics covered and decide if it is a resource that will be helpful for you or your loved ones. I also encourage you to read the post I wrote about what's in the book and why I wrote it.) Hey Everyone, I know I sometimes joke around in my blog posts, making light of serious issues and poking fun at things in general (such as my ongoing food label series, and the sarcastic comment I made about Mikey and his gluten-free cupcake in the book review of Health Food Junkies.) But today I am bringing you something serious. Very serious. If you know anyone suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, or someone who’s a caregiver to a loved one with this devastating condition, please keep reading. Also keep reading if you are interested in learning about a growing view of Alzheimer's as another of the “diseases of civilization,” and largely the result of our modern diet, high in refined carbohydrates and vegetable/seed oils, and lower in cholesterol and healthful saturated fats. In 2009, I read the book, Good Calories, Bad Calories, by Gary Taubes. Chapter 13, called “Dementia, Cancer, and Aging,” was the first place I ever heard Alzheimer’s disease explained as a possible result of insulin dysregulation and problems with glucose handling in the brain. (Turns out this isn't news. The medical literature to date supports this so strongly, in fact, that experts in the field have come to call Alzheimer’s “diabetes of the brain,” or even “type 3 diabetes.”) I found the notion fascinating, and that little seed stayed planted in my mind until it germinated and grew in the form of my graduate Continue reading >>
Type 1 Plus Type 2 Diabetes Is Not Type 3 Diabetes?
Last week at the 8th Annual Obesity Symposium hosted by the European Surgery Institute in Norderstedt, one of the case presentations included an individual with type 1 diabetes (no insulin production), who had gained weight and subsequently also developed increasing insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes. In my discussion, I referred to this as 1+2 diabetes, or in other words, type 3 diabetes. Unfortunately, it turns out that the term type 3 diabetes has already been proposed for the type of neuronal insulin resistance found in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. As discussed in a paper by Suzanne de la Monte and Jack Wands published in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, “Referring to Alzheimer’s disease as Type 3 diabetes (T3DM) is justified, because the fundamental molecular and biochemical abnormalities overlap with T1DM and T2DM rather than mimic the effects of either one.” These findings have considerable implications for our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease as a largely neuroendocrine disorder, which may in part be amenable to treatment with drugs normally used to treat type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes. In retrospect, I believe, whoever came up with the term type 3 diabetes for Alzheimer’s disease, should perhaps have called it type 4 diabetes, given that the 1+2 diabetes is now increasingly common (and well studied) in patients with type 1 diabetes, who go on to develop type 2 diabetes (which, as discussed at the symposium responds quite well to bariatric or “metabolic” surgery). @DrSharma Edmonton, AB Continue reading >>
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