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How Are Diabetes And Kidney Disease Related

How Are Diabetes Andkidney Disease Related?

How Are Diabetes Andkidney Disease Related?

Diabetes mellitus is more commonly known to the public as diabetes. The connection between diabetes and kidney disease has been known for decades. Diabetes can occur in one of two ways: When the body doesn’t produce enough insulin. When the body cannot properly use insulin that the body produces. So how are diabetes and kidney disease related, and what part does insulin production and how the body uses it play a part? Insulin is an essential hormone for health. It governs the quantity of sugar that circulates through your blood. When blood sugar levels are too high or too low, the health of many of the body’s organs and tissues can be adversely affected. Diabetes is one of America’s leading chronic diseases. Diabetes is one of the most common conditions among patients who seek therapy at the National Stem Cell Institute (NSI), a leading regenerative medicine clinic based in the United States. So the physicians and medical staff at the Institute are well versed in the connection between diabetes and kidney disease. With that in mind, NSI takes a closer look at diabetes and how it affects the kidneys. The Difference Between Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2 The connection between diabetes and kidney disease is strong regardless of the type of diabetes someone has. The two primary forms of diabetes are: Type 1. Formerly known as juvenile diabetes, this type generally occurs in childhood. In cases of type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t produce adequate amounts of insulin. People diagnosed with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections throughout their lives. Type 2. This type of diabetes is the most common form. In type 2, the pancreas produces plenty of insulin, but the body loses the ability to use it correctly. Traditionally, it develops after the age of 40. Howeve Continue reading >>

What Are The Main Tests Related To Kidneys?

What Are The Main Tests Related To Kidneys?

Did you know one in three American adults is at risk for kidney disease? Anyone can get kidney disease at any time. If kidney disease is found and treated early, you can help slow or even stop it from getting worse. Most people with early kidney disease do not have symptoms. That is why it is important to be tested. Know your kidney numbers! Your kidney numbers include 2 tests: ACR (Albumin to Creatinine Ratio) and GFR (glomerular filtration rate). GFR is a measure of kidney function and is performed through a blood test. Your GFR will determine what stage of kidney disease you have – there are 5 stages. Know your stage.ACR is a urine test to see how much albumin (a type of protein) is in your urine. Too much albumin in your urine is an early sign of kidney damage. Urine Test called ACR. ACR stands for “albumin-to-creatinine ratio.” Your urine will be tested for albumin. Albumin is a type of protein. Your body needs protein. But it should be in the blood, not the urine. Having protein in your urine may mean that your kidneys are not filtering your blood well enough. This can be a sign of early kidney disease. If your urine test comes back “positive” for protein, the test should be repeated to confirm the results. Three positive results over three months or more is a sign of kidney disease. Blood Test to estimate your GFR. Your blood will be tested for a waste product called creatinine. Creatinine comes from muscle tissue. When the kidneys are damaged, they have trouble removing creatinine from your blood. Testing for creatinine is only the first step. Next, your creatinine result is used in a math formula with your age, race, and sex to find out your glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Your GFR number tells your healthcare provider how well your kidneys are work Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Problems

Diabetic Kidney Problems

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste and fluids build up in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It begins long before you have symptoms. People with diabetes should get regular screenings for kidney disease. Tests include a urine test to detect protein in your urine and a blood test to show how well your kidneys are working. If the damage continues, your kidneys could fail. In fact, diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in the United States. People with kidney failure need either dialysis or a kidney transplant. You can slow down kidney damage or keep it from getting worse. Controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure, taking your medicines and not eating too much protein can help. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease

What is diabetic kidney disease? Long-standing diabetes causes changes in small blood vessels that can lead to damage of the kidneys. This damage can result in severe kidney failure. Subtle damage to the kidneys can start within a year or so of type 1 diabetes, and can be present at diagnosis in type 2, but it usually takes 5 to 10 years to become a noticeable problem. Who gets diabetic kidney disease? Nephropathy: the medical term for the type of kidney disease that occurs in diabetes. There are wide differences in estimates of how many people with diabetes will progress to having diabetic kidney disease – from 6 to 27 per cent of people with type 1 diabetes, to 25 to 50 per cent of type 2. Poor glucose control and even modestly high blood pressure can increase your risk of making kidney disease worse. In type 2 diabetes, people from an Asian or Afro-Caribbean origin are twice as likely to develop diabetic kidney disease. What are the symptoms? There are no symptoms when diabetic kidney disease first develops. Later, the following signs of decreased kidney function are: nausea and vomiting itchy skin a metal taste in the mouth swelling in the limbs and/or eyelids due to the build-up of fluid in the tissues (oedema). What problems does diabetic kidney disease cause? The kidneys are essential organs: they filter and eliminate the waste products of metabolism they have a central role in controlling blood pressure and fluid balance in the body they produce the key hormone, erythropoietin, that stimulates the bone marrow to manufacture red blood cells. Diabetic kidney disease is the most common cause of kidney failure in the UK. People with very poor kidney function require some form of artificial kidney support (dialysis) or a kidney transplant. The increasing numbers of Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease

What is diabetic kidney disease? Diabetic kidney disease is a type of kidney disease caused by diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease. About 1 out of 4 adults with diabetes has kidney disease.1 The main job of the kidneys is to filter wastes and extra water out of your blood to make urine. Your kidneys also help control blood pressure and make hormones that your body needs to stay healthy. When your kidneys are damaged, they can’t filter blood like they should, which can cause wastes to build up in your body. Kidney damage can also cause other health problems. Kidney damage caused by diabetes usually occurs slowly, over many years. You can take steps to protect your kidneys and to prevent or delay kidney damage. What are other names for diabetic kidney disease? Diabetic kidney disease is also called DKD, chronic kidney disease, CKD, kidney disease of diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. How does diabetes cause kidney disease? High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. When the blood vessels are damaged, they don’t work as well. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can also damage your kidneys. Learn more about high blood pressure and kidney disease. What increases my chances of developing diabetic kidney disease? Having diabetes for a longer time increases the chances that you will have kidney damage. If you have diabetes, you are more likely to develop kidney disease if your blood glucose is too high blood pressure is too high African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanics/Latinos develop diabetes, kidney disease, and kidney failure at a higher rate than Caucasians. You are also more likely to develop kidney disease if you have diabetes and smoke don’t follow your di Continue reading >>

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease) (DN)[1] is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus. It is a serious complication, affecting around one-quarter of adult diabetics in the United States. It usually is slowly progressive over years. [2] Pathophysiologic abnormalities in DN begin with long-standing poorly controlled blood glucose levels. This is followed by multiple changes in the filtration units of the kidneys, the nephrons. (There are normally about 3/4-1 1/2 million nephrons in each adult kidney).[3] Initially, there is constriction of the efferent arterioles and dilation of afferent arterioles, with resulting glomerular capillary hypertension and hyperfiltration; this gradually changes to hypofiltration over time.[4] Concurrently, there are changes within the glomerulus itself: these include a thickening of the basement membrane, a widening of the slit membranes of the podocytes, an increase in the number of mesangial cells, and an increase in mesangial matrix. This matrix invades the glomerular capillaries and produces deposits called Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules. The mesangial cells and matrix can progressively expand and consume the entire glomerulus, shutting off filtration.[5] The status of DN may be monitored by measuring two values: the amount of protein in the urine - proteinuria; and a blood test called the serum creatinine. The amount of the proteinuria is a reflection of the degree of damage to any still-functioning glomeruli. The value of the serum creatinine can be used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which reflects the percentage of glomeruli which are no longer filtering the blood.[citation needed] Treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensi Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Kidney Problems

Diabetes And Kidney Problems

Diabetes can lead to a variety of serious complications, including kidney problems. More than 100,000 new cases of kidney failure are diagnosed in the United States annually. Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are unable to get rid of the body’s waste products; it is considered the final stage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes causes 44 percent of kidney failure cases and, even with good diabetes management, you can still develop CKD. But it is not an automatic complication: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases reports that almost 24 million people in the United States have diabetes, and only about 180,000 have kidney failure. How Diabetes Leads to Kidney Problems The connection between diabetes and kidney problems starts when small blood vessels become damaged from diabetes. Injury to blood vessels in the kidneys prevents these organs from functioning properly. As a result, they do not clean the blood efficiently and protein and wastes accumulate. Your body also retains more salt and water, causing you to swell. The nerves in your body can also be injured by diabetes, which leads to problems emptying your bladder. Pressure from a full bladder can, in turn, hurt your kidneys. When urine stays in the bladder for a long time, infections can develop. Kidney problems related to diabetes generally develop over several years. During this time, people who develop kidney problems will have small amounts of the blood protein albumin leak into their urine. Your kidney’s filtration function typically stays normal during this stage of CKD, which is called microalbuminuria. But as CKD progresses, more albumin leaks into your urine and your kidney's filtering function starts to fail. Along with this comes a rise in blood pressure. Howev Continue reading >>

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic Nephropathy

Definition and Causes Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is typically defined by macroalbuminuria—that is, a urinary albumin excretion of more than 300 mg in a 24-hour collection—or macroalbuminuria and abnormal renal function as represented by an abnormality in serum creatinine, calculated creatinine clearance, or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Clinically, diabetic nephropathy is characterized by a progressive increase in proteinuria and decline in GFR, hypertension, and a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Prevalence and Risk Factors Diabetes has become the primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to grow in the United States and worldwide. Approximately 44% of new patients entering dialysis in the United States are diabetics. Early diagnosis of diabetes and early intervention are critical in preventing the normal progression to renal failure seen in many type 1 and a significant percentage of type 2 diabetics. In the United States, approximately 20.8 million people, or 7.0% of the population, are estimated to have diabetes, with a growing incidence. Roughly one third of this population, 6.2 million, is estimated to be undiagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in certain racial and ethnic groups, affecting approximately 13% of African Americans, 9.5% of Hispanics, and 15% of Native Americans, primarily with type 2 diabetes.1, 2 Approximately 20% to 30% of all diabetics will develop evidence of nephropathy, although a higher percentage of type 1 patients progress to ESRD. Pathophysiology and Natural History The common progression from microalbuminuria to overt nephropathy has led many to consider microalbuminuria to define early or incipient Continue reading >>

Diabetes-related Kidney Disease Drops Among Native Americans

Diabetes-related Kidney Disease Drops Among Native Americans

Native American populations, heavily afflicted by diabetes during the last several decades, have seen a dramatic decrease in kidney failures often related to the disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention disclosed earlier this month. The CDC announced that between 1996 and 2013 there was a 54 percent reduction in the number of diabetes-related kidney failures, called end-stage renal disease. The data in the CDC report stated that Type-2 Diabetes still causes two out of three kidney failures in Native Americans. Native American communities have the highest proportion of diabetes among all U.S. populations. About 16 percent of adult Native American people have diabetes, compared with the national average for all adults of 9.3 percent, or 29 million people, according to 2014 statistics from the CDC. According to the Indian Health Service, a federal agency charged with improving the health of an estimated 2.2 million Native Americans (AI) and Alaska Natives (AN), an aggressive campaign to educate and treat diabetes, bolstered by the support of $150 million in annual federal funding through the Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI), played a large part in the reductions. “We’re very rural … Our patients don’t have access like the rest of the country. It’s getting out to those people, identifying them and getting the resources.” — Jared Eagle, director of the Ft. Berthold Diabetes Program “This decline is especially remarkable given the well-documented health and socioeconomic disparities in the AI/AN population, including poverty, limited health care resources and disproportionate burden of many health problems,” the CDC report stated. The CDC told the NewsHour that in 1996, 673 Native Americans started treatment for kidney failure and i Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Report From An Ada Consensus Conference

Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Report From An Ada Consensus Conference

The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), accounting for approximately 50% of cases in the developed world. Although incidence rates for ESRD attributable to DKD have recently stabilized, these rates continue to rise in high-risk groups such as middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics. The costs of care for people with DKD are extraordinarily high. In the Medicare population alone, DKD-related expenditures among this mostly older group were nearly $25 billion in 2011. Due to the high human and societal costs, the Consensus Conference on Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes was convened by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with the American Society of Nephrology and the National Kidney Foundation to appraise issues regarding patient management, highlighting current practices and new directions. Major topic areas in DKD included 1) identification and monitoring, 2) cardiovascular disease and management of dyslipidemia, 3) hypertension and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, 4) glycemia measurement, hypoglycemia, and drug therapies, 5) nutrition and general care in advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, 6) children and adolescents, and 7) multidisciplinary approaches and medical home models for health care delivery. This current state summary and research recommendations are designed to guide advances in care and the gener Continue reading >>

What Is The Relation Between Hypertension, Diabetes And Kidney Diseases?

What Is The Relation Between Hypertension, Diabetes And Kidney Diseases?

Firstly, let's look at what exactly each condition is: Hypertension is high blood pressure around 140/90, prehypertension being above 120/80. Hypertension often occurs as a “secondary” disease, meaning that it can come about as a result of another condition, such as kidney disease, I will explain why in a bit. Diabetes is a condition where there is either a complete depletion of insulin, or insulin resistance. The body is then unable to metabolize carbs and utilize glucose. Hypertension is a very frequently occurring diabetes-related disease. Physical inactivity, obesity, and high-sodium/fat/sugar diets in combination with genetics puts someone at risk for type 2 diabetes. In addition, those same factors can put someone at risk for hypertension because the heart has to work that much harder to move blood and oxygen around the body. Imagine turning on a faucet, but a pebble is lodged in the pipes. More and more water is trying to flow through, but only a little can go past the pebble, and eventually the pressure builds and builds. Kidney disease put simply is the state where a kidney is unable to perform its normal function. Kidney function is vital for numerous processes in your body: urine filtration, drug excretion, acid-base homeostasis, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc etc. Kidney disease can cause hypertension because when the kidney is unable to filter fluid out sufficiently, the increased fluid in the body can increase blood pressure. In turn, the resulting increased blood pressure can damage the kidneys, exacerbating the condition which is why it is important to protect the kidneys in treating hypertension. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic kidney disease is a complication that occurs in some people with diabetes. It can progress to kidney failure in some cases. Treatment aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Also, it aims to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke which are much more common than average in people with this disease. To find out more about the kidneys and urine see also separate leaflet called The Kidneys and Urinary Tract. What is diabetic kidney disease? Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) is a complication that occurs in some people with diabetes. In this condition the filters of the kidneys, the glomeruli, become damaged. Because of this the kidneys 'leak' abnormal amounts of protein from the blood into the urine. The main protein that leaks out from the damaged kidneys is called albumin. In normal healthy kidneys only a tiny amount of albumin is found in the urine. A raised level of albumin in the urine is the typical first sign that the kidneys have become damaged by diabetes. Diabetic kidney disease is divided into two main categories, depending on how much albumin is lost through the kidneys: Microalbuminuria: in this condition, the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is between 30 and 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called incipient nephropathy. Proteinuria: in this condition the amount of albumin that leaks into the urine is more than 300 mg per day. It is sometimes called macroalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. How does diabetic kidney disease develop and progress? A raised blood sugar (glucose) level that occurs in people with diabetes can cause a rise in the level of some chemicals within the kidney. These chemicals tend to make the glomeruli more 'leaky' which then allows albumin to lea Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is The Leading Cause Of Chronic Kidney Disease

Diabetes Is The Leading Cause Of Chronic Kidney Disease

According to the Centers for Disease Control, over 17 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, one-third does not realize they have the disease. Diabetes is the number one cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In 1999, almost 44% of patients who needed dialysis had diabetes as the underlying cause for their kidney disease. The numbers continue to rise today. How diabetes damages the kidneys Diabetes is a disease that affects the body’s ability to produce or use insulin. When the body turns the food eaten into energy (also called sugar or glucose), insulin is used to move this sugar into the cells. If someone produces little or no insulin, or if the body cannot use the insulin (insulin resistant), the sugar remains in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. Over time, high levels of sugar in the blood damage tiny blood vessels throughout the body including the filters of the kidneys. As more damage occurs to the kidneys, more fluid and waste remain in the bloodstream instead of being removed. Symptoms of diabetes The American Diabetes Association lists the symptoms of diabetes as: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger Unusual weight loss Excessive fatigue Irritability Blurry vision Lack of an early diagnosis compounds the problem Type 1 diabetes (also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes) is typically diagnosed early because its symptoms are severe and rapid. A treatment plan can then be put in place and continued. Unfortunately, Type 2 diabetes often goes undiagnosed for many years because early symptoms are not severe. It is estimated that by the time someone is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the disease has been present for four to seven years. Since diabetes may have been present for some time, the chances for kidn Continue reading >>

Kidney Disease Of Diabetes

Kidney Disease Of Diabetes

Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts* *Kidney Disease of Diabetes Facts Medically Edited by: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD Medical Editor: Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C) Proper nutrition is essential for anyone living with diabetes. Control of blood glucose levels is only one goal of a healthy eating plan for people with diabetes. A diet for those with diabetes should also help achieve and maintain a normal body weight as well as prevent heart and vascular disease, which are frequent complications of diabetes. There is no prescribed diet plan for those with diabetes. Rather, eating plans are tailored to fit an individual's needs, schedules, and eating habits. A diabetes diet plan must also be balanced with the intake of insulin and oral diabetes medications. In general, the principles of a healthy diabetes diet are the same for everyone. Consumption of a variety of foods including whole grains, fruits, non-fat dairy products, beans, and lean meats or vegetarian substitutes, poultry and fish is recommended to achieve a healthy diet. Each year in the United States, more than 100,000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure, a serious condition in which the kidneys fail to rid the body of wastes. Kidney failure is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for nearly 44 percent of new cases. Even when diabetes is controlled, the disease can lead to chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. Most people with diabetes do not develop chronic kidney disease that is severe enough to progress to kidney failure. Nearly 24 million people in the United States have diabetes, and nearly 200,000 people are living with kidney failure a Continue reading >>

Work With Your Ohio State Specialists To Prevent Complications Of Diabetes.

Work With Your Ohio State Specialists To Prevent Complications Of Diabetes.

If you are diagnosed with diabetes, it is critically important that you work with your Ohio State doctor to manage your diabetes so that you can maintain your health and longevity. Without proper management of diabetes, blood sugar (glucose) levels can remain high and lead to serious, irreversible health complications. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to problems with the heart, eyes, feet, kidneys and nerves. It can also result in skin disorders, digestive conditions, sexual dysfunction and problems with the gums or teeth. Low blood sugar can also result if diabetes is not managed well. Diabetes and Heart Disease If you have diabetes or pre-diabetes (higher than normal blood sugar, but not high enough to be considered diabetes), you have an increased risk for heart disease. Diabetes can increase the risk of coronary heart disease, heart failure and diabetic cardiomyopathy. In addition to being diabetic, other factors that put you at risk for heart disease include: Family history of heart disease Extra weight around the waist Abnormal cholesterol levels High blood pressure Smoking Some people who have diabetic heart disease have no signs or symptoms of heart disease. Others have some or all of the symptoms of heart disease. It’s important to talk with your doctor about reducing your risk for heart disease, even if you don’t notice any symptoms. Lifestyle changes can help lower the risk of heart disease. These include a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active and quitting smoking. Treatments may include medications to lower your blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol or to treat any heart damage that may have occurred. In some cases, surgery or another medical procedure may be needed. Learn more about heart care at Ohio State. Diabetic Continue reading >>

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