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High Hemoglobin And Diabetes

Public Health And Clinical Implications Of High Hemoglobin A1c Levels And Weight In Younger Adult Native American People With Diabetes

Public Health And Clinical Implications Of High Hemoglobin A1c Levels And Weight In Younger Adult Native American People With Diabetes

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major public health issue for Native American people. Because glycemic levels are predictive of diabetes outcome, understanding determinants of high hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels may provide targets for prevention efforts. Objectives To investigate determinants of high HbA1c levels in Native American people. Methods We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 206 participants with diabetes from 8 Native American communities in New Mexico. We used linear regression to assess the relationship of HbA1c level with age, body mass index (BMI), treatment type, duration of diabetes, physical activity, and diet. Results Age, dietary pattern, and treatment type were determinants of HbA1c levels. Participants younger than 55 years had the highest adjusted HbA1c levels at 9.5% and those 65 years and older had the lowest levels at 7.8%. According to a participant's dietary intake, HbA1c levels were highest for those who consumed the most fat and sugar, and high consumption of fat and sugar affected HbA1c levels most among those younger than 55 years. Participants treated with insulin had the highest hemoglobin A1c levels. Physical activity was not associated with HbA1c level. Conclusions We found an increasing severity of diabetes among younger people. To avoid increased morbidity and mortality in the future, young Native American adults with diabetes need vigorous therapy to maintain tight glucose control. TYPE 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health problem among Native Americans, with some communities experiencing 50% prevalence among adults.1 Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising nationwide, largely due to environmental influences on genetic susceptibility.1,2 In New Mexico, diabetes is a major concern for Native Am Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

The hemoglobin A1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It's also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range. It can tell if you need to adjust your diabetes medicines. The A1c test is also used to diagnose diabetes. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells. It gives blood its red color, and it’s job is to carry oxygen throughout your body. The sugar in your blood is called glucose. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells. The A1c test measures how much glucose is bound. Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in your blood for the past 3 months. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher. For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% mean you have a higher change of getting of diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. The target A1c level for people with diabetes is usually less than 7%. The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher your risk of having complications related to diabetes. A combination of diet, exercise, and medication can bring your levels down. People with diabetes should have an A1c test every 3 months to make sure their blood sugar is in their target range. If your diabetes is under good control, you may be able to wait longer between the blood tests. But experts recommend checking at least two times a year. People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get misleading results with this test. Other things that can Continue reading >>

Association Between Hemoglobin Levels And Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Study Using Electronic Health Records

Association Between Hemoglobin Levels And Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-sectional Study Using Electronic Health Records

Copyright © 2017 Jun Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Objective. To investigate the relationship between hemoglobin levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. 1511 patients with T2DM were included in the study. DPN was diagnosed based on symptoms, signs, and laboratory tests. Hemoglobin was defined as both a continuous variable and a quartile category variable. We compared patient characteristics between the no diabetic peripheral neuropathy (NDPN) and DPN groups. Logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association of DPN with hemoglobin in all T2DM patients. Linear regression was also performed to investigate the impact of hemoglobin on the vibrating perception threshold (VPT). Results. Compared with the NDPN group, hemoglobin level in the DPN group was significantly lower (118.54 ± 16.91 versus 131.62 ± 18.32 g/L, ). The prevalence of DPN increased by 50.1% (95% CI: 42.2–57.0%; ) per standard deviation decrease in hemoglobin. Compared to the highest quartile of hemoglobin, the lower quartiles were associated with a significantly increased risk of DPN in the entire T2DM population (all ). A per unit decrease in hemoglobin leads to a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.07–0.168) unit increase in VPT after adjustment for possible confounders (). Conclusions. Lower hemoglobin levels were associated with increased prevalence of DPN and higher VPT. 1. Introduction It is estimated that there are 382 million people living with diabetes globally, and this number will rise to 592 million by 2035, as estimated by the International Continue reading >>

High Hemoglobin Count

High Hemoglobin Count

High hemoglobin count occurs most commonly when your body requires an increased oxygen-carrying capacity, usually because: You live at higher altitudes and your red blood cell production naturally increases to compensate for the lower oxygen supply there High hemoglobin count occurs less commonly because: Your red blood cell production increases to compensate for chronically low blood oxygen levels due to poor heart or lung function. You have a bone marrow dysfunction that results in increased production of red blood cells. You've taken drugs or hormones, most commonly erythropoietin (EPO), that stimulate red blood cell production. You're not likely to get a high hemoglobin count from EPO given to you if you have chronic kidney disease. But EPO doping getting injections to enhance athletic performance can cause a high hemoglobin count. A high hemoglobin count in the absence of any other abnormalities is unlikely to be related to any condition of concern. Specific disorders or other factors that may cause a high hemoglobin count include: COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Continue reading >>

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

For some, home blood sugar testing can be an important and useful tool for managing your blood sugar on a day-to-day basis. Still, it only provides a snapshot of what’s happening in the moment, not long-term information, says Gregory Dodell, MD, assistant clinical professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. For this reason, your doctor may occasionally administer a blood test that measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. Called the A1C test, or the hemoglobin A1C test, this provides a more accurate picture of how well your type 2 diabetes management plan is working. Taking the A1C Test If your diabetes is well controlled and your blood sugar levels have remained stable, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you have the A1C test two times each year. This simple blood draw can be done in your doctor's office. Some doctors can use a point-of-care A1C test, where a finger stick can be done in the office, with results available in about 10 minutes. The A1C test results provide insight into how your treatment plan is working, and how it might be modified to better control the condition. Your doctor may want to run the test as often as every three months if your A1C is not within your target range. What the A1C Results Mean The A1C test measures the glucose (blood sugar) in your blood by assessing the amount of what’s called glycated hemoglobin. “Hemoglobin is a protein within red blood cells. As glucose enters the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, or glycates. The more glucose that enters the bloodstream, the higher the amount of glycated hemoglobin,” Dr. Dodell says. An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 perce Continue reading >>

Three Things Diabetics Can Do About High Iron And High Hemoglobin Levels

Three Things Diabetics Can Do About High Iron And High Hemoglobin Levels

Three Things Diabetics Can Do About High Iron and High Hemoglobin Levels Hemoglobin levels are a marker for diabetic health, but the healthy direction is usually down, not up. Here are three simple interventions for diabetes to get iron and hemoglobin into healthy ranges. Iron issues and high hemoglobin levels are far more important to diabetics than most diabetics and their doctors know. Anyone can lecture diabetics about all the foods they eat that they shouldnt. Helping diabetics find the keys to managing their appetites takes a little more compassion, and a lot more science. Diabetes Involves Errors in Iron Metabolism The definition of diabetes is strictly in terms of blood sugar levels. If your blood sugar levels test above 126 mg/dl (7.1 mmol/L) when you are fasting or above 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/L) two hours after you eat, you have diabetes (or more specifically diabetes mellitus, distinguishing it from an unrelated disease, diabetes insipidus). Any successful treatment of diabetes involves lowering your blood sugar levels. The driving force of diabetes, however, is inflammation. And one of the driving forces of inflammation is iron. One of the ways a diabetics body deals with inflammation is to create a protein called ferritin[ 1 ]. This protein serves as a kind of jail for iron. When iron is bound to ferritin, it cant generate free radicals that damage cells all over the body, but especially the insulin-making cells of the pancreas and the appetite-regulating cells in your fat mass. In diabetics, excess ferritin causes another problem. It generates insulin resistance. It also can more than double the bloodstream concentration of a protein called high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or h-CRP.[ 2 ] Even worse, there is a growing body of evidence that ferritin inc Continue reading >>

Anemia

Anemia

When “Tired Blood” is Slowing You Down Most people have heard of anemia and know that it has something to do with the blood. Most people also associate anemia with feeling tired. But probably not too many people could explain exactly what anemia is. Stated simply, anemia is a condition in which there is a lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells in the body and/or a lower than normal amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. The specific part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen is called hemoglobin. Red blood cells also carry waste products from the cells to the urinary and respiratory systems to be excreted. When either the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is low, the body’s cells receive less oxygen than normal. A low oxygen level can cause fatigue and other symptoms such as weakness, difficulty exercising, and light-headedness. Anemia can develop for many reasons. In fact, there are more than 400 types of anemia. But they can all be categorized into these three general groups: Anemia caused by the loss of blood Anemia caused by a decrease in red blood cell production in the bone marrow or impaired production of red blood cells Anemia caused by red blood cell destruction Anemia is a fairly common condition, but it often goes unrecognized and therefore not treated. Its symptoms are vague and easily mistaken for symptoms of other serious or chronic diseases. But even mild anemia can significantly lower one’s quality of life, and untreated anemia can have serious long-term health effects. Diabetes and anemia Diabetes does not directly cause anemia, but certain complications and conditions associated with diabetes can contribute to it. For example, both Continue reading >>

Are Hemoglobin Levels Elevated In Type 1 Diabetes?

Are Hemoglobin Levels Elevated In Type 1 Diabetes?

Are Hemoglobin Levels Elevated in Type 1 Diabetes? From the Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvantia. Corresponding author: Trevor J. Orchard, [email protected] . Received 2009 Apr 14; Accepted 2009 Nov 2. Copyright 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. While lower hemoglobin is generally associated with adverse events in diabetes, we have recently observed in type 1 diabetes that those with overt nephropathy had hemoglobin levels as high as 18.8 g/dl. We thus explored whether hemoglobin concentrations are generally higher in type 1 diabetes. Baseline (19861988) hemoglobin levels from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) of type 1 diabetes were compared with general population data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III in the same age range as the EDC population (aged 848 years). Both male and female EDC study participants had significantly higher hemoglobin levels than their NHANES III counterparts (men: 16.0 vs. 15.1 g/dl, P < 0.0001; women: 14.1 vs. 13.3 g/dl, P < 0.0001). The difference between the two populations was greatest in adolescent female subjects. Hemoglobin levels may be higher in type 1 diabetes than in the general population, which may have important clinical implications. Although low hemoglobin is generally associated with adverse events in diabetes ( 1 ) and kidney disease ( 2 ), we have recently observed relatively high hemoglobin levels (as high as 18.8 g/dl) among individuals with type 1 diabetes and overt nephropathy ( 3 ) compare Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

Acp Recommends New Ideal Hemoglobin A1c Range For Type 2 Diabetes

Acp Recommends New Ideal Hemoglobin A1c Range For Type 2 Diabetes

ACP recommends new ideal hemoglobin A1c range for type 2 diabetes Physicians should aim for hemoglobin A1c levels between 7% and 8% in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to recommendations by the American College of Physicians. But the guidance drew strong condemnation from diabetes and endocrinology organizations, which warned the higher target range could do more harm than good. Evidence presented in the ACP statement shows the intensive therapy commonly used to reach the previous target of 6.5%-7% is likely either to increase risk of adverse cardiovascular and hypoglycemic events or have the same risk as less intensive therapy. Treatment with drugs targeted to 7%, in contrast to 8%, does not prevent heart attacks or strokes, said Jack Ende, MD, president of the ACP. But it does result in substantial harm, including low blood sugar, increased medication burden, and increased cost. The ACP recommends clinicians should talk with patients about creating personalized treatment plans based on the risks and benefits of different drugs, what the patients prefers, life expectancy, and cost of care. Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

Hba1c And Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Explained

Hba1c And Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Explained

Diabetes and its complications remain a major cause of early disease and death worldwide. The diagnosis of diabetes is to a large extent based on detecting elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a laboratory measure frequently used for this purpose. The test is also useful to monitor treatment in patients with established diabetes. Approximately 8 percent of the US populations suffer from type 2 diabetes, with as many as 40 percent of those undiagnosed (1). Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated at 6.4 percent in adults but varies somewhat among countries with the rate of undetected diabetes as high as 50 percent in some areas (2). The term diabetes describes several disorders of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism that are characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Diabetes is associated with a relative or absolute impairment in insulin secretion, along with varying degrees of peripheral resistance to the action of insulin (3). The Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes The prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes continues to increase worldwide, with type 2 diabetes much more common and accounting for over 90 percent of patients with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes because it often presents in childhood and it is characterized by the inability of the pancreas to produce the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the cells of the body to be able to utilize glucose for energy production. Without insulin, glucose accumulates in the blood leading to hyperglycemia. Due to the absence of insulin, most patients with type 1 diabetes need to be treated with insulin. Conversely, type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-depend Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

High Hemoglobin Levels: Seventeen Reasons Your Hemoglobin Production Is Increased

High Hemoglobin Levels: Seventeen Reasons Your Hemoglobin Production Is Increased

High hemoglobin levels are a symptom of many diseases. Here are the seventeen most common reasons you hemoglobin levels may be elevated. A high hemoglobin count confirms that your blood carries an above-average concentration of the oxygen-carrying compound hemoglobin. That's not quite the same thing as a high red blood cell count, because red blood cells may carry varying amounts of hemoglobin. It's also not the same thing as high iron levels. It's possible to have iron levels because of hereditary hemochromatosis or beta-thalassemia but low hemoglobin levels because of red blood cell anemia at the same time. But it's also possible to have high hemoglobin levels even with anemia [1].Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) isn't a measurement of total hemoglobin either. It is a measurement of the percentage of red blood cells that are bound to sugar groups. You can have high HbA1C but low hemoglobin because you have both diabetes and anemia. And diabetics can have artificially high HbA1C numbers because they have low hemoglobin or a low red blood cell count. Hemoglobin also isn't the same thing as hematocrit. Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood. Since red blood cells don't all contain the same amount of hemoglobin, hematocrit doesn't tell you how much hemoglobin you have. What does Lab Measurement indicate High Hemoglobin? Different doctors apply slightly different definitions for "high" hemoglobin (abbreviated Hb or Hgb). In the United States, most doctors would define high hemoglobin as anything over 17.5 grams (g) of hemoglobin per deciliter (dl) of blood for men, or 15.5 g/dl for women who are still menstruating. Low, normal, and high hemoglobin levels for children vary by age and gender. The rest of the world measures hemoglobin in m Continue reading >>

High Hemoglobin Levels Are Associated With Decreased Risk Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Korean Type 2 Diabetes

High Hemoglobin Levels Are Associated With Decreased Risk Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Korean Type 2 Diabetes

High hemoglobin levels are associated with decreased risk of diabetic retinopathy in Korean type 2 diabetes Scientific Reportsvolume8, Articlenumber:5538 (2018) | Download Citation Anemia is an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Hemoglobin levels may also be associated with DR. We investigated the association between hemoglobin levels and DR risk. This cross-sectional, population-based study utilized data from 2,123 type 2 DM patients aged 30 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012. Participants underwent an ophthalmic examination, including fundus photographs. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between hemoglobin levels and DR risk. The mean hemoglobin levels in patients with and without DR were 13.76 0.12 and 14.33 0.05 g/dL, respectively, with anemia observed in 16.2 (2.4)% and 7.8 (0.8)%, respectively. A 19% decrease in DR risk was found with a 1.0-g/dL increase in hemoglobin level. DR risk exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing hemoglobin levels (P for trend <0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio of DR was significantly lower in the highest hemoglobin quartile. Our findings indicate that high hemoglobin levels are significantly related to a decreased DR risk in Korean type 2 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems. The prevalence of DM in Korea has increased 1 and its complications are becoming the major causes of morbidity and mortality 2 . Diabetic complications ultimately impact quality of life and mortality and are associated with increased medical costs 3 . Multifact Continue reading >>

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