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High Hba1c Complications

7 Diabetes Symptoms You Shouldn’t Ignore

7 Diabetes Symptoms You Shouldn’t Ignore

Blood sugar that’s consistently out of whack increases your risk of health problems throughout your body, including your heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Resulting complications could lead to disabling, even life-threatening, conditions — and that’s why, if you have type 2 diabetes, practicing good diabetes management and maintaining blood sugar control is a must. Being aware of possible complications and their symptoms is one of the first steps to successfully managing diabetes, says Gerald Bernstein, MD, director of the diabetes management program at Mount Sinai Beth Israel Hospital in New York City. Educating yourself may help you delay or prevent complications from happening. Start here, by reading about seven signs of diabetes complications that should never be ignored. Confusion, dizziness, and shakiness. These symptoms are often a sign of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). “People describe it as feeling nervous or anxious,” says Lori Zanini, RD, CDE, a spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Blood sugar is usually considered low when it falls below 70. If left untreated, blood sugar that goes too low could cause you to pass out and need emergency medical treatment. If you feel any of the symptoms of hypoglycemia, check your blood sugar. If your number is less than 70, eat 15 grams of carbohydrate such as 3 glucose tablets, 4 ounces of orange juice, or 2 tablespoons of raisins. Wait 15 minutes and then check your blood sugar again. If it hasn’t gone above 70, eat 15 more grams of carbohydrate, wait 15 minutes, and recheck your blood sugar. If you continue to experience symptoms, call your doctor or seek medical treatment. Zanini advises carrying hard candy or glucose tablets with you so you can react as soon as you feel you Continue reading >>

Precautions For Patients With Diabetes Undergoing Surgery

Precautions For Patients With Diabetes Undergoing Surgery

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Type 1 Diabetes article more useful, or one of our other health articles. There is a rising incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. About 50% of people with diabetes mellitus are unaware of their condition. Approximately 25% of all patients with diabetes undergoing surgery are undiagnosed on admission to hospital. Patients with diabetes have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes have a higher perioperative risk. They are more likely because of their disease to require surgery and those undergoing surgery are likely to be less well controlled and to have complications from their diabetes. Surgeons and anaesthetists operating on patients with diabetes should be familiar with the risks attached to having diabetes, and to the particular risks of the particular surgery and of anaesthesia in patients with diabetes. Risks and complications of diabetes mellitus Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk of the complications of the disease. It is worth considering these in outline when considering how best to care for patients with diabetes undergoing surgery. See also separate Diabetes Mellitus article. Perioperative risks and complications of diabetes mellitus It is important in assessing risk of complications in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery to consider the specific type of surgery and anaesthetic technique. There is evidence for higher risk in those with diabetes undergoing surgery and, when such evidence is lacking, it may in part be testament to the relative safety of modern surgery and anaesthesia. However, the following risks and observati Continue reading >>

Relationship Of Hba1c Variability, Absolute Changes In Hba1c, And All-cause Mortality In Type 2 Diabetes: A Danish Population-based Prospective Observational Study

Relationship Of Hba1c Variability, Absolute Changes In Hba1c, And All-cause Mortality In Type 2 Diabetes: A Danish Population-based Prospective Observational Study

Abstract Objective We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. Design A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. Methods Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individuals with type 2 diabetes during 2001–2006 were identified from public data files, with at least three HbA1c measurements: one index measure, one closing measure 22–26 months later, and one measurement in-between. Medium index HbA1c was 7.3%, median age was 63.9 years, and 48% were women. HbA1c variability was defined as the mean absolute residual around the line connecting index value with closing value. Cox proportional hazard models with restricted cubic splines were used, with all-cause mortality as the outcome. Results Variability between 0 and 0.5 HbA1c percentage point was not associated with mortality, but for index HbA1c ≤8% (64 mmol/mol), a variability above 0.5 was associated with increased mortality (HR of 1 HbA1c percentage point variability was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for index HbA1c 6.6–7.4%). For index HbA1c≤8%, mortality increased when HbA1c declined, but was stable when HbA1c rose. For index HbA1c>8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, with the lowest mortality for greatest decline (HR=0.9 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.98) for a 2-percentage point decrease). Conclusions For individuals with an index HbA1c below 8%, both high HbA1c variability and a decline in HbA1c were associated with increased mortality. For individuals with index HbA1c above 8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, whereas variability was not. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) l Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

The True Value Of Hba1c As A Predictor Of Diabetic Complications: Simulations Of Hba1c Variables

The True Value Of Hba1c As A Predictor Of Diabetic Complications: Simulations Of Hba1c Variables

The True Value of HbA1c as a Predictor of Diabetic Complications: Simulations of HbA1c Variables Affiliation Department of Medicine, Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla, Sweden Affiliation Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Sweden Affiliation Department of Medicine, Kunglv Hospital, Kunglv, Sweden Affiliation Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden The True Value of HbA1c as a Predictor of Diabetic Complications: Simulations of HbA1c Variables The updated mean HbA1c has been used in risk estimates of diabetic complications, but it does not take into account the temporal relationship between HbA1c and diabetic complications. We studied whether the updated mean HbA1c underestimated the risk of diabetic complications. Continuous HbA1c curves for 10,000 hypothetical diabetes patients were simulated over an average of 7 years. Simulations were based on HbA1c values encountered in clinical practice. We assumed that each short time interval of the continuous HbA1c curves had a long-lasting effect on diabetic complications, as evidenced by earlier studies. We tested several different HbA1c variables including various profiles, e.g. different duration, of such a long-lasting effect. The predictive power of these variables was compared with that of the updated mean HbA1c. The predictive power of the constructed HbA1c variables differed considerably compared to that of the updated mean HbA1c. The risk increase per standard deviation could be almost 100% higher for a constructed predictor than the updated mean HbA1c. The importance of good glycemic control in preventing diabetic complications could have been underestimated in earlier hallmark studies by not taking the time-dependent effect of HbA1 Continue reading >>

Higher Hba1c = Healthier?

Higher Hba1c = Healthier?

For years, it has been probably the most memorable number for people with diabetes: Seven percent or lower, according to the American Diabetes Association, should be the target HbA1c level (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) for most people. In its Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2010, the Association notes that reaching an even lower HbA1c level has been associated with further benefits, namely a lower risk of small-blood-vessel diabetic complications such as neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney disease), and retinopathy (eye disease). But it also warns that the risk of hypoglycemia may outweigh the benefits of reaching an HbA1c level below 7%. Now, the authors of a study published in the journal The Lancet suggest that even 7% may be too low as a general HbA1c goal for people with Type 2 diabetes. To reach this conclusion, the researchers examined a database of nearly 48,000 people with Type 2 diabetes, ages 50 and over, who took either multiple oral medicines or insulin (or both) for their diabetes. Based on these participants’ average HbA1c levels, the researchers created 10 equal-size groups for analysis. When they examined the rate of death in these groups after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, cholesterol levels, cardiovascular risk, and general illness, they found that a lower HbA1c level was not consistently associated with a lower risk of death. In fact, the group with the lowest HbA1c level — an average of 6.4% — had a risk of death 1.52 times as high as the lowest-death-risk group, whose average HbA1c level was 7.5%. The group with the highest HbA1c level — an average of 10.5% — did also have the highest risk of death, 1.79 times that of the lowest-risk group. According to a summary of the study on the Web si Continue reading >>

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

Significance Of Hba1c Test In Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Diabetic Patients

Significance Of Hba1c Test In Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Diabetic Patients

Go to: Introduction Analysis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood provides evidence about an individual’s average blood glucose levels during the previous two to three months, which is the predicted half-life of red blood cells (RBCs).1 The HbA1c is now recommended as a standard of care (SOC) for testing and monitoring diabetes, specifically the type 2 diabetes.2 Historically, HbA1c was first isolated by Huisman et al.3 in 1958 and characterized by Bookchin and Gallop4 in 1968, as a glycoprotein. The elevated levels of HbA1c in diabetic patients were reported by Rahbar et al.5 in 1969. Bunn et al.6 identified the pathway leading to the formation of HbA1c in 1975. Using the HbA1c as a biomarker for monitoring the levels of glucose among diabetic patients was first proposed by Koenig et al.7 in 1976. Proteins are frequently glycated during various enzymatic reactions when the conditions are physiologically favorable. However, in the case of hemoglobin, the glycation occurs by the nonenzymatic reaction between the glucose and the N-terminal end of the β-chain, which forms a Schiff base.8,9 During the rearrangement, the Schiff base is converted into Amadori products, of which the best known is HbA1c (Fig. 1). In the primary step of glycated hemoglobin formation, hemoglobin and the blood glucose interact to form aldimine in a reversible reaction. In the secondary step, which is irreversible, aldimine is gradually converted into the stable ketoamine form.10 The major sites of hemoglobin glycosylation, in the order of prevalence, are β-Val-1, β-Lys-66, and α-Lys-61. Normal adult hemoglobin consists predominantly of HbA (α2β2), HbA2 (α2δ2), and HbF (α2γ2) in the composition of 97%, 2.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. About 6% of total HbA is termed HbA1, which in turn Continue reading >>

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Evaluating the long-term control of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients Diagnosing diabetes Identifying patients at increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States. Long-term treatment of the disease emphasizes control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, long-term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease can be minimized if blood glucose levels are effectively controlled. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a result of the nonenzymatic attachment of a hexose molecule to the N-terminal amino acid of the hemoglobin molecule. The attachment of the hexose molecule occurs continually over the entire life span of the erythrocyte and is dependent on blood glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. Therefore, the HbA1c level reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period (approximately 8-12 weeks, depending on the individual) and provides a much better indication of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose determinations. Diabetic patients with very high blood concentrations of glucose have from 2 to 3 times more HbA1c than normal individuals. Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following: -Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL -Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL -Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be Continue reading >>

A Diabetic Patient Should Know Their Hemoglobin A1c Level: Monitoring And Managing It Could Reduce Complications

A Diabetic Patient Should Know Their Hemoglobin A1c Level: Monitoring And Managing It Could Reduce Complications

Red blood cells carry oxygen (O2) to the tissues through the blood flow of the circulatory system (Figure 1). When the hemoglobin binds to oxygen, the cells appear red (that is why they are called red blood cells. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which normally carries oxygen to the tissue, and when the hemoglobin binds with glucose in the blood, it becomes “glycated.” The term HbA1c refers to glycated hemoglobin (Figure 2). The more glycated hemoglobin that is made, the higher the percentage of HbA1c. A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is good for monitoring long-term glucose (sugar) control in people with diabetes. HbA1c is a percentage of the glycated hemoglobin relative to the total hemoglobin in the blood (Figure 3). The normal range of HbA1c is 4-6%. More than 7% is high. With more glucose present in the blood, the more likely that the glucose will interact with the hemoglobin and make more glycated hemoglobin. HA1c is a better measurement used to track the progress of diabetes than a blood sugar test. The blood sugar test does not give the big picture. Blood sugar in the body changes during the day depending on diet and level of activity, so the blood sugar test is not very accurate. The A1c test is used to measure how much sugar a person has in their blood over a longer period of time, which is usually 3 months. The lifespan of red blood cells is about 120 days, while the life span of hemoglobin is on average only two months (Figure 4). The A1c test is usually done 2-4 times a year. The higher the A1c, the higher the risk of diabetic complications. A decrease of 1% in A1c decreases the risk of microvascular complication by 37%. Diabetes is a serious disease that affects the eyes, kidneys, heart and feet (Figure 5). How does hemoglobin work? The red blood cells Continue reading >>

Hba1c Tests: Preventing Complications And Helping Cut ‘hidden’ Diabetes

Hba1c Tests: Preventing Complications And Helping Cut ‘hidden’ Diabetes

The Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is key to better diabetes treatment. The blood test indicates the patient’s average blood sugar levels over the previous six to eight weeks, unlike glucose tests which show only current levels. HbA1c can be used to diagnose diabetes, spot those at risk, monitor treatment, and help prevent complications. Reducing the chances of complications Professor Eric Kilpatrick of Hull Royal Infirmary and Hull York Medical School and author of over 50 papers involving HbA1c, says: “Keeping the HbA1c at the target level substantially reduces the likelihood of a patient developing diabetes complications such as eye, kidney, nerve or heart problems. Even in people with complications, keeping HbA1c at their ideal level reduces the chances of them getting worse.” Using the test may impact the level of ‘hidden’ diabetes — around 850,000 people have diabetes unknowingly. Finding the undiagnosed Prof Kilpatrick, who is also President of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, says: “Traditionally, most people with diabetes have been diagnosed by a blood glucose test taken after overnight fasting. Some diabetes experts believe that many people remain undiagnosed partly because it is hard to catch them before breakfast. “However, the HbA1c test, unlike blood glucose tests, shows the same results whether or not someone has eaten, so it has been recommended that the use of HbA1c be extended to diagnose people as having Type 2 diabetes, not to just monitor existing patients.” As a result, in the last two years the HbA1c test has been added to blood glucose testing as another diagnosis option for Type 2 diabetes in the UK. Prof Kilpatrick says: “It seems likely that HbA1c testing will become an increasingly popular o Continue reading >>

Impact Of Hba1c, Followed From Onset Of Type 1 Diabetes, On The Development Of Severe Retinopathy And Nephropathy: The Viss Study (vascular Diabetic Complications In Southeast Sweden)

Impact Of Hba1c, Followed From Onset Of Type 1 Diabetes, On The Development Of Severe Retinopathy And Nephropathy: The Viss Study (vascular Diabetic Complications In Southeast Sweden)

OBJECTIVE HbA1c is strongly related to the development of diabetes complications, but it is still controversial which HbA1c level to strive for in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate HbA1c, followed from diagnosis, as a predictor of severe microvascular complications and to formulate HbA1c target levels for treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A longitudinal observation study followed an unselected population of 451 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1983–1987 before the age of 35 years in a region of Southeast Sweden. Retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photography and nephropathy data collected from medical records. HbA1c was measured starting from diagnosis and during the whole follow-up period of 20–24 years. Long-term weighted mean HbA1c was then calculated. Complications were analyzed in relation to HbA1c levels. RESULTS The incidence of proliferative retinopathy and persistent macroalbuminuria increased sharply and occurred earlier with increasing long-term mean HbA1c. None of the 451 patients developed proliferative retinopathy or persistent macroalbuminuria below long-term weighted mean HbA1c 7.6% (60 mmol/mol); 51% of the patients with long-term mean HbA1c above 9.5% (80 mmol/mol) developed proliferative retinopathy and 23% persistent macroalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS Long-term weighted mean HbA1c, measured from diagnosis, is closely associated with the development of severe complications in type 1 diabetes. Keeping HbA1c below 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) as a treatment target seems to prevent proliferative retinopathy and persistent macroalbuminuria for up to 20 years. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was proposed as a long-term measure of average glycemia and introduced into clinical practice in the early 1980s Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications

Diabetes Complications

Search the A-Z of complications: Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to a number of short and long-term health complications, including hypoglycemia, heart disease, nerve damage and amputation, and vision problems. The majority of these diabetes-related conditions occur as a result of uncontrolled blood glucose levels, particularly elevated blood sugar over a prolonged period of time. It is essential that diabetics are aware of the complications that can occur as a result of diabetes to ensure that the first symptoms of any possible illness are spotted before they develop. In this section, you'll find information on all of the diseases, illnesses and disorders that are linked to diabetes, including the different causes, symptoms and treatments for each condition. How common are complications of diabetes? It is common for most people with diabetes to begin to develop complications after having diabetes for a number of years. With good diabetes control and living a healthy, active lifestyle, it is possible for people to go a number of decades complication free. However, if you have had less well controlled diabetes, have led a less healthy lifestyle, or had undiagnosed diabetes for a number of years, the complications of diabetes are more likely to develop earlier. Why do complications occur? Scientists still do not fully understand how complications develop. What is known, however, is that high blood glucose levels cause damage to the blood vessels and nerves which supply our organs and therefore result in impaired functioning of any affected organs. How do I prevent complications? The risk of developing complications can be reduced by following a number of healthy lifestyle steps: Reducing your HbA1c Large scale research studies have shown that the chances of developing the Continue reading >>

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