diabetestalk.net

Hgba1c 5.5

A1c Test Identifies Diabetes, Heart Risk

A1c Test Identifies Diabetes, Heart Risk

March 3, 2010 - You don't have to fast before taking the newly recommended A1c test to screen for diabetes -- and it spots early diabetes and heart disease better than the older test, researchers find. Late last year, the American Diabetes Association recommended using the A1c test to screen for diabetes. The test had been around for decades, but recent standardization made it useful as a screening tool. And now there's convincing evidence that A1c outperforms the older test, which measured blood sugar (glucose) in people who had fasted for eight hours. It comes from a study in which Johns Hopkins researcher Elizabeth Selvin, PhD, MPH, and colleagues compared results of both tests in 11,000 adults screened with both tests. A1c "was similarly associated with a risk of diabetes and more strongly associated with risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause as compared with fasting glucose," Selvin and colleagues report. The ADA says that an A1c level at or above 6.5% means you have diabetes. Selvin's team showed that the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and death rises with A1c. Compared to people with a normal A1c level of 5.0% to 5.5%, they found that: An A1c level of less than 5.0% means a 48% lower risk of diabetes and about the same risk of heart disease. An A1c level of 5.5% to 6.0% means an 86% higher risk of diabetes and a 23% higher risk of heart disease. An A1c level of 6.0% to 6.5% means a 4.5-fold higher risk of diabetes and a 78% higher risk of heart disease. An A1c level of 6.5% or more means a 16.5-fold higher risk of diabetes and a twofold higher risk of heart disease. A1c stands for glycated hemoglobin. The A1c percentage measures how much sugar is attached to the blood's hemoglobin protein. The A1c test result gives a measure of how well your Continue reading >>

Decoding Hba1c Test For Blood Sugar - Normal Reading For The Hba1c Calculator

Decoding Hba1c Test For Blood Sugar - Normal Reading For The Hba1c Calculator

Decoding HbA1c Test for Blood Sugar - Normal reading for the HbA1c Calculator Decoding HbA1c Test for Blood Sugar - Normal reading for the HbA1c Calculator Written by Tanya Thomas |Medically Reviewed by Dr. Sunil Shroff on Apr 01, 2016 What is considered a normal reading for the HbA1c calculator? Recommended HbA1c readings fall within the reference range of 6.5 to 7%. This implies that for every 100 red blood cells, 6-7 cells have glucose attached to them. Mean blood sugar levels can be better understood from the following table. Normal range for non-diabetics (pre-prandial) High possibility of serious electrolyte imbalance!! Blood Glucose, post-prandial, After meal, Micromat, Diastat, VARIANT, Immunoturbidimetric, hemoglobin testing system, diabetes monitoring, beta-thalassemia, hemoglobinopathy, sickle cell disease mg/dL mmol/L: Divide by 18 (or multiply by 0.055) Or, you could simply use Medindias Blood Sugar Converter available at or our HbA1c1c1c(A1c) Calculator for Blood Glucose. Since glucose binds slowly to Hemoglobin A (and decomposes at about the same rate), the HbA1c count is a good indicator of average blood glucose over a period of time. The American Diabetes Association recommends an A1c of 7% (implying 7 cells out of every 100 have an appendage of blood glucose) or lower. But deciding upon a generalized perfect blood sugar value is impossible as this varies from person to person. Continue reading >>

Blood Tests Results – Hgba1c Fails Alone

Blood Tests Results – Hgba1c Fails Alone

Single blood tests rarely provide meaningful information on their own. There are very few places in science—or life, for that matter—where a single piece of data gives a meaningful and certain conclusion. The HgbA1c test is one of those results that needs the other values from your Blood Code Discovery Panel or Progress Panel. HgbA1c, also known as glycosylated hemoglobin, is a subset of the hemoglobin molecule and a calculation reflects your eight- to twelve-week average blood glucose. It is a calculation that measures a chemical reaction, directly related to glucose concentrations, to hemoglobin (Hgb) in your bloodstream. 4.5–5.7% is normal (26–39 mmol/mol) < 5.6% is optimal (< 38 mmol/mol) 5.8–6.4% indicates significant insulin resistance (40–46 mmol/mol) >6.4% indicates diabetes (>46 mmol/mol) Fasting blood glucose measures your blood sugar only at the moment of the draw; HgbA1C measures the prior eight- to twelve-week average blood sugar. In 1990, most labs reported anything below 6.5% as normal. Now, the top edge of acceptable normal is 5.7% (39 mmol/mol). This lower acceptable limit is due to mounting evidence over the years that nondiabetic individuals with HgbA1C between 5.5% and 6% (37–42 mmol/mol) had significantly greater stroke and cardiovascular disease than those who maintained numbers between 5% and 5.5% (31–37 mmol/mol). Furthermore, as HgbA1C numbers went above 6% (42 mmol/mol), heart disease risk correspondingly increased with each level of elevated average glucose.[i] But, the lifespan of hemoglobin varies from person to person and the longer the hemoglobin remains in the bloodstream, the higher HgbA1c will go because it is in the presence of glucose for a longer time frame. How do you know whether you carried your hemoglobin for 12 w Continue reading >>

An A1c Of Greater Than 5.4% Can Signal Undiagnosed Diabetes

An A1c Of Greater Than 5.4% Can Signal Undiagnosed Diabetes

At-risk individuals with an HbA1c test level of 5.4% or greater can signal undiagnosed diabetes and certainly prediabetes, according to new study findings. At-risk individuals with an HbA1c test level ≥6.1% are more likely to have undiagnosed diabetes, according to new study findings. Adit Ginde, MD, MPH, assistant professor of surgery, division of emergency medicine at the University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, stated that, “There are many advantages in efficacy of HbA1c vs. fasting glucose or glucose tolerance testing. Our results provide additional support that HbA1c can be an effective method to identify undiagnosed diabetes in at-risk patients,” Ginde and colleagues evaluated the predictive validity of HbA1c as a screening test in 6,723 NHANES 1999-2004 participants. The estimated prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL) in the United States population was 2.8%, or 5.5 million people. The researchers derived a risk score for undiagnosed diabetes and stratified participants into prevalence risk subgroups: low (0.44%), moderate (4.1%) and high (11.1%). “HbA1c is very effective in screening for undiagnosed diabetes when patients are stratified into risk groups,” Ginde said. Risk factors and independent predictors of undiagnosed diabetes were older age, male sex, black race, hypertension, elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides and low HDL. More than half of high-risk individuals with HbA1c ≥6.1% had undiagnosed diabetes. Among those with a combination of risk factors, HbA1c levels as low as 5.4% can signal undiagnosed diabetes, according to Ginde. Diabetes can be reliably excluded with HbA1c <6.1% in moderate-risk patients and <5.5% in high-risk patients, he said. In August, a consensus panel recommen Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>

Hgba1c

Hgba1c

Here’s an interesting study looking at the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients across the spectrum of blood sugar control. It showed that individuals with a Hgb A1c greater than 5.5% have the biggest increase in retina damage due to sugar exposure. A Hgb A1c of 5.5% is equivalent to an average blood sugar of 111 mg/dL. For reference, diabetes is diagnosed when a fasting blood sugar is 126 mg/dL on two occasions. That means that individuals who have not been diagnosed with diabetes may already have retina damage from high blood sugars. Now is the time to change. Call our office at 539-0270 to schedule an appointment with our Nutrition Counselors and take control of your blood sugar. Save your vision! Association of A1C and Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels With Diabetic Retinopathy Prevalence in the U.S. Population Implications for diabetes diagnostic thresholds OBJECTIVE To examine the association of A1C levels and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with diabetic retinopathy in the U.S. population and to compare the ability of the two glycemic measures to discriminate between people with and without retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study included 1,066 individuals aged ≥40 years from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A1C, FPG, and 45° color digital retinal images were assessed. Retinopathy was defined as a level ≥14 on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. We used join point regression to identify linear inflections of prevalence of retinopathy in the association between A1C and FPG. RESULTS The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 11%, which is appreciably lower than the prevalence in people with diagnosed diabetes (36%). There was a sharp increase in retinopathy prevalence in those with A1C Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c And Diabetes; What’s Your Number?

Hemoglobin A1c And Diabetes; What’s Your Number?

1 of every 10 people over the age of 20 years in the United States has Diabetes. More than 30 percent of all people over the age of 65 have Diabetes. These numbers keep climbing! Adult onset diabetes is preventable. If your fasting blood glucose (tested on your annual physical exam) is between 100 and 125, and you are not currently being treated to lower your blood glucose, now is the time to see your doctor and talk about preventing it from rising further and preventing a long term chronic illness. If you haven’t been tested within the past year or don’t know what your fasting blood glucose levels are, ask your doctor about getting either a fasting blood glucose, or a hemoglobin A1C test. The Old Standard Levels of glucose in your blood have been measured for many years as the gold standard to screen for the presence of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing is influenced by daily diet changes and can fluctuate quite a bit over time. In With the New In 2009, the Hemoglobin A1C test became the new gold standard for diabetes diagnosis. The hemoglobin A1C test doesn’t measure the amount of glucose floating loose in your blood, it measures glycosylated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise and remain elevated, increasing levels of glycosylated hemoglobin appear. The added benefit to this test, unlike other methods, is that you don’t have to be fasting to get it tested. The Test of Time Red blood cells remain in the blood for 120 days, or 4 months. The A1C test looks at levels over time, not just the snap shot of a single fasting test. Consequently, the hemoglobin A1C is much more effective as a diagnostic screening and treatment response assessment tool, because the the levels remain stable over a much longer period of time, eliminating the day-to-day variation Continue reading >>

Hba1c For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes And Prediabetes: Is It Time For A Mid-course Correction?

Hba1c For The Diagnosis Of Diabetes And Prediabetes: Is It Time For A Mid-course Correction?

An estimated 6.2 million people in the United States have undiagnosed diabetes. The average time between onset and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is 7 yr (1). Diagnosing diabetes is the first step in assuring that appropriate lifestyle, glycemic, and nonglycemic interventions are implemented (2) to reduce the toll that end-organ complications take on the life of the individual and on the health of the nation. The 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) standards of care for diabetes, based largely on the opinion of an international expert committee, added hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as diagnostic criteria for diabetes (≥6.5%) and prediabetes (5.7–6.4%) (3,4). In theory, wider application of this new approach should reduce the delay in diagnosing diabetes by adding a straightforward test to complement fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance testing. However, if HbA1c is not sensitive, that is, if it does not identify individuals who truly have diabetes, and if its limitations are not fully appreciated by those implementing it, this new approach could fail to achieve this goal or further delay the diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c has long been used as a marker of glycemic control in established diabetes. In affected patients, the rate of HbA1c formation is a direct function of the average blood glucose concentration. Compared with glucose measurements, the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic test has advantages, including convenience, less day-to-day variability, greater preanalytical stability, and international standardization (3,4). Disadvantages are: HbA1c is more costly than fasting plasma glucose (FPG), guidelines do not adequately reflect the accuracy of HbA1c measurements available across the nation at the current level of standardization, and more importantly perhaps, it m Continue reading >>

Does 5.5 A1c Predict Retinopathy?

Does 5.5 A1c Predict Retinopathy?

A new, high quality study which I cited in my Updates to Blood Sugar 101 blog found a steep increase in the incidence of retinopathy in people not diagnosed with diabetes whose A1cs were 5.5% or more. The study found that the predictive value of the A1c was much stronger than the predictive value of fasting blood sugars in the same population. At first glance this might be a very disturbing finding to those of us who find it difficult if not impossible to lower our A1cs below 5.5%. I have not been able to do this even when eating a very low carb diet. My A1cs are almost always between 5.7% and 5.8%. I've discussed why some of us have higher than expected A1cs in another blog post. But I want to raise another point here, one that is often lost when researchers use A1c: The A1c reflects average blood sugar values over time, but there are many ways to attain an average. In fact, what the A1c really measures the amount of glucose that has gotten bonded onto red blood cells over a period of time. The more exposure red blood cells have to high blood sugars, the more glucose they accumulate. Since these red blood cells live about 3 months, the A1c is supposed to reflect three month's worth of blood sugar exposure. In reality, though, the A1c reflects the several weeks right before the test, much more than it does the whole three month period. Studies that compare CGMS readings with A1cs conclude that that A1c gives a close approximation to average blood sugars for a population as a whole, and much rougher approximations for the average blood sugar of the individuals in a population. Note, however, that people with unusually high or low concentrations of red blood cells will get A1c readings that do not reflect the actual concentration of glucose in their blood. So will people Continue reading >>

A1c Level And Future Risk Of Diabetes: A Systematic Review

A1c Level And Future Risk Of Diabetes: A Systematic Review

Go to: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources We developed a systematic review protocol using the Cochrane Collaboration's methods (9). We formulated search strategies using an iterative process that involved medical subject headings and key search terms including hemoglobin A, glycated, predictive value of tests, prospective studies, and related terms (available from the authors on request). We searched the following databases between database establishment and August 2009: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science (WOS), and The Cochrane Library. Systematic searches were performed for relevant reviews of A1C as a predictor of incident diabetes. Reference lists of all the included studies and relevant reviews were examined for additional citations. We attempted to contact authors of original studies if their data were unclear or missing. Study selection and data abstraction We searched for published, English language, prospective cohort studies that used A1C to predict the progression to diabetes among those aged ≥18 years. We included studies with any design that measured A1C—whether using a cutoff point or categories—and incident diabetes. Titles and abstracts were screened for studies that potentially met inclusion criteria, and relevant full text articles were retrieved. X.Z. and W.T. reviewed each article for inclusion and abstracted, reviewed, and verified the data using a standardized abstraction template. If A1C measurement was standardized by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and both standardized and unstandardized A1C values were reported, standardized values were used in the analyses. A sensitivity analysis, however, was conducted using both standardized and unsta Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

The hemoglobin A1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It's also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range. It can tell if you need to adjust your diabetes medicines. The A1c test is also used to diagnose diabetes. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells. It gives blood its red color, and it’s job is to carry oxygen throughout your body. The sugar in your blood is called glucose. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells. The A1c test measures how much glucose is bound. Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in your blood for the past 3 months. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher. For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% mean you have a higher change of getting of diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. The target A1c level for people with diabetes is usually less than 7%. The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher your risk of having complications related to diabetes. A combination of diet, exercise, and medication can bring your levels down. People with diabetes should have an A1c test every 3 months to make sure their blood sugar is in their target range. If your diabetes is under good control, you may be able to wait longer between the blood tests. But experts recommend checking at least two times a year. People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get misleading results with this test. Other things that can Continue reading >>

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>

Hba1c Levels Are Significantly Lower In Early And Late Pregnancy

Hba1c Levels Are Significantly Lower In Early And Late Pregnancy

Strict glycemic control is essential to minimize the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality of pregnancies complicated by diabetes (1–3). In addition to home blood glucose measurement, which may not always reflect the true average blood glucose level (4), HbA1c is a useful parameter in metabolic regulation (5–8). Thus, supplementation with HbA1c, as is common outside pregnancy, seems appropriate. Before pregnancy, the target for metabolic control in women with diabetes is HbA1c values near the normal range (9). However, the upper normal range of HbA1c during normal pregnancy is only sparsely investigated with different methods (10), mainly in late pregnancy (5,6,11,12), and reference ranges are generally established from the nonpregnant state (4). Increased third-trimester HbA1c levels are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (3,13), macrosomia (1), and stillbirth (2), leading to speculations that the target for HbA1c in pregnancy should be even lower than outside pregnancy to prevent adverse events. There is a need to establish the reference range of HbA1c during normal pregnancy with an internationally recognized Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)-aligned method. In this study, we evaluated the normal upper range of HbA1c in early and late pregnancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From our antenatal clinic, we randomly selected 100 healthy pregnant women without previous gestational diabetes (early pregnancy group). All subjects had a random capillary blood glucose level <7.0 mmol/l at their first antenatal visit at approximately week 14 (range 8–17), and none developed gestational diabetes. A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was used (14). A late pregnancy group was established of 98 h Continue reading >>

Using Hemoglobin A1c ( Hgba1c ) For Diagnosing Diabetes

Using Hemoglobin A1c ( Hgba1c ) For Diagnosing Diabetes

The use of HgbA1C for diagnosis of diabetes changed in 2010, when the American Diabetes Association (ADA) revised criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. In addition to the fasting glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the Hemoglobin A1c > 6.5 (HgbA1C) was accepted as another way to diagnose diabetes This cutpoint ( 6.5% ) is acknowledged to classify fewer individuals as diabetic than using the standard FPG >125 mg/dL. The FPG >125 better correlates with plasma glucose of 200 or greater. Several studies have suggested increase of diabetic retinopathy when plasma glucose is greater than 200, so a marker that correlates would be helpful. Hemoglobin A1C is accepted as the best measure of average glucose. HgbA1C has been shown to correlate with likelihood of diabetic retinopathy in a linear fashion, and as expected specificity increases as the cut-point is raised. A HgbA1C of 6.5% is estimated to have a specificity of 99% for identifying diabetics. The cut-point of 6.5 was chosen because moderate to severe retinopathy was rarely found below that level, but there were no mathematical models able to identify a clear, objective cut-point. This is a concern, because above 6.0% there is increasing retinopathy in some studies. In a Japanese study the optimal cut-point or inflection point would have been 5.3-5.5% for the development of retinopathy. There is growing data that retinopathy, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease and peripheral neuropathy may have a continuous linear relationship to the HgbA1C which makes choosing a cut-point difficult. Comparison of the 3 ways of diagnosing diabetes shows that HgbA1c is the least sensitive and may miss 70% of the diabetics. The 2 hour post prandial plasma glucose (OGTT) better identifies diabetics by almost a Continue reading >>

More in diabetes