diabetestalk.net

Hga1c Vs Hba1c

A Comparison Of Hba1c And Fasting Blood Sugar Tests In General Population

A Comparison Of Hba1c And Fasting Blood Sugar Tests In General Population

Go to: Abstract Objectives: Early diagnosis of diabetes is crucially important in reduction of the complications. Although HbA1c is an accurate marker for the prediction of complications, less information is available about its accuracy in diagnosis of diabetes. In this study, the association between HbA1c and FBS was assessed through a cross-sectional population-based study. Methods: A random sample of population in Kerman city was selected. The total number was 604 people. Their HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were tested. The association between HbA1c and FBS and also their sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in detection of abnormal values of each other were determined. The association of HbA1c with FBS was relatively strong particularly in diabetic subjects. Generally, FBS was a more accurate predictor for HbA1c compared with HbA1c as a predictor of FBS. Although the optimum cutoff point of HbA1c was >6.15%, its precision was comparable with the conventional cutoff point of >6%. Conclusions: In conclusion, FBS sounds more reliable to separate diabetic from non-diabetic subjects than HbA1c. In case of being interested in using HbA1c in screening, the conventional cutoff points of 6% is an acceptable threshold for discrimination of diabetics from non-diabetics. Keywords: HbA1c, Blood glucose, Diabetics *The adjusted values were computed in a multivariable regression model with sex, BMI and age as independent variables. Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c) Test For Diabetes

The hemoglobin A1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It's also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range. It can tell if you need to adjust your diabetes medicines. The A1c test is also used to diagnose diabetes. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells. It gives blood its red color, and it’s job is to carry oxygen throughout your body. The sugar in your blood is called glucose. When glucose builds up in your blood, it binds to the hemoglobin in your red blood cells. The A1c test measures how much glucose is bound. Red blood cells live for about 3 months, so the test shows the average level of glucose in your blood for the past 3 months. If your glucose levels have been high over recent weeks, your hemoglobin A1c test will be higher. For people without diabetes, the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c level is between 4% and 5.6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and 6.4% mean you have a higher change of getting of diabetes. Levels of 6.5% or higher mean you have diabetes. The target A1c level for people with diabetes is usually less than 7%. The higher the hemoglobin A1c, the higher your risk of having complications related to diabetes. A combination of diet, exercise, and medication can bring your levels down. People with diabetes should have an A1c test every 3 months to make sure their blood sugar is in their target range. If your diabetes is under good control, you may be able to wait longer between the blood tests. But experts recommend checking at least two times a year. People with diseases affecting hemoglobin, such as anemia, may get misleading results with this test. Other things that can Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

Hba1c And Glycated Hemoglobin

Hba1c And Glycated Hemoglobin

What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is the red blood protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. It is the major component of the red cell. Because the life of the red cell averages some 120 days, the extent that the hemoglobin is glycated can be used as an indication of the average glucose level over the previous one or two months. A molecule of hemoglobin is made up of 4 protein chains. There are 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains, usually denoted as α2β2. Glucose will react and bond to certain positively charged chemical groups on the hemoglobin. These are located at the start (N-terminal end) of each of the α and β chains and on some amino acid side chains within the protein. In particular glucose reacts with the ε-amino group of lysine amino acids. What are Glycated Hemoglobins? Glycated hemoglobins arise from the non-enzymatic attachment of glucose to hemoglobin. They are formed and accumulate in the red cell in proportion to the blood glucose level. Their concentration reflects the long-term average glucose level and is thus useful as an indicator of diabetic control. The formation of HbA1c proceeds via a Schiff base adduct, or aldimine, followed by the Amadori rearrangement to form the stable ketoamine, HbA1c. The aldimine intermediate is often referred to as labile HbA1c and the rate of its conversion to the ketoamine is some 60 times slower than the reverse dissociation with release of the glucose. What is the difference between HbA1c and Glycated Hemoglobin? Glycated hemoglobin is defined as hemoglobin with glucose bound to any of these potential sites. HbA1c is a subset of glycated hemoglobins. It is defined as hemoglobin with glucose bound at the beginning (N-terminal) of the β-chain. The total glycated hemoglobin will include HbA1c plus al Continue reading >>

Drugs Affecting Hba1c Levels

Drugs Affecting Hba1c Levels

Go to: Diabetes mellitus has assumed epidemic proportions worldwide, causing much morbidity and mortality on account of its various complications. The development of chronic vascular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to the level of glycemic control attained by the individual with diabetes. Therefore, it is essential to have an index of the long-term glycemic control in diabetes patients, which in turn can be used to guide therapy and predict the likelihood of complications. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was first described by Rahbar et al. in 1969.[1] Subsequent studies showed that the level of HbA1c correlated well with the glycemic control over a period of 2 to 3 months, leading to the gradual incorporation of the test into clinical practice in the 1980s.[2] With the publication of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial[3] and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study,[4] both of which correlated the HbA1c levels to the development of diabetes complications, HbA1c estimation has become established as a cornerstone of diabetes management. Hemoglobin (Hb) is a tetramer formed of two alpha and two beta globin chains. On exposure to high levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin gets non-enzymatically glycated at different sites in the molecule. HbA1c is formed when glucose gets added on to the N-terminal valine residue of the beta chain of Hb.[5] The levels of HbA1c in the blood reflect the glucose levels to which the erythrocyte has been exposed during its lifespan (approximately 117 days in men and 106 days in women). Therefore, the HbA1c is an index of the level of glycemic control over the preceding 2 to 3 months. Of this period, the immediately preceding 30 days contribute 50% to HbA1c.[5] A Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Hba1c

Understanding Your Hba1c

You’ve heard about a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1C. It’s sometimes shortened to HgbA1c or HbA1c or just A1C. Hopefully, you know what yours is. But do you know what it means and what to do with the information? Hemoglobin is what makes red blood cells red. It consists of several proteins wrapped around an iron-based molecule called heme. Heme attaches to oxygen and carries it to the cells. That’s why iron is important in our diets. We need iron to make heme to carry oxygen, so our cells can breathe. Glucose (sugar) molecules are also floating along in our blood. Glucose attaches itself to all kinds of proteins, including the hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). When glucose levels are high, many more of them will attach. Hemoglobin coated with glucose is called “glycated” or “glycosylated” hemoglobin. Glycation (“sugar-coating”) may not harm an RBC, but it does tell us if the cell has encountered much glucose during its lifetime. The more glucose has been in the blood, the more RBCs will be glycated. This is what an HbA1c test measures. A1C isn’t measuring what your blood glucose level is at the moment. It measures how high glucose has been over the last two months or so. RBCs only live about 100–120 days in the bloodstream. Once they become glycated, they stay glycated for life, so the number of glycated RBCs (HbA1c) gives a good picture of how much glucose has been in the blood recently. The A1C test has several advantages over other tests such as a fasting blood sugar (FBS). You don’t have to fast for an A1C. It can be taken at any time of day. It doesn’t matter what you ate the day before or on the day of the test, because it’s not measuring your current sugar. Normally, between 4.2% and 5.6% of RBCs will be glycated. The America Continue reading >>

A1c Test

A1c Test

Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>

A1c Calculator*

A1c Calculator*

Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

5 Ways To Lower Your A1c

For some, home blood sugar testing can be an important and useful tool for managing your blood sugar on a day-to-day basis. Still, it only provides a snapshot of what’s happening in the moment, not long-term information, says Gregory Dodell, MD, assistant clinical professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. For this reason, your doctor may occasionally administer a blood test that measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. Called the A1C test, or the hemoglobin A1C test, this provides a more accurate picture of how well your type 2 diabetes management plan is working. Taking the A1C Test If your diabetes is well controlled and your blood sugar levels have remained stable, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you have the A1C test two times each year. This simple blood draw can be done in your doctor's office. Some doctors can use a point-of-care A1C test, where a finger stick can be done in the office, with results available in about 10 minutes. The A1C test results provide insight into how your treatment plan is working, and how it might be modified to better control the condition. Your doctor may want to run the test as often as every three months if your A1C is not within your target range. What the A1C Results Mean The A1C test measures the glucose (blood sugar) in your blood by assessing the amount of what’s called glycated hemoglobin. “Hemoglobin is a protein within red blood cells. As glucose enters the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, or glycates. The more glucose that enters the bloodstream, the higher the amount of glycated hemoglobin,” Dr. Dodell says. An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 perce Continue reading >>

Hba1c And Estimated Average Glucose (eag)

Hba1c And Estimated Average Glucose (eag)

Why is relating HbA1c to glucose important? We are frequently asked about the relationship between HbA1c and plasma glucose levels. Many patients with diabetes mellitus now perform self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the home setting, and understanding the relationship between HbA1c and glucose can be useful in setting goals for day-to-day testing. HbA1c: A "Weighted" Average Many studies have shown that HbA1c is an index of average glucose (AG) over the preceding weeks-to-months. Erythrocyte (red blood cell) life-span averages about 120 days. The level of HbA1c at any point in time is contributed to by all circulating erythrocytes, from the oldest (120 days old) to the youngest. However, HbA1c is a "weighted" average of blood glucose levels during the preceding 120 days, meaning that glucose levels in the preceding 30 days contribute substantially more to the level of HbA1c than do glucose levels 90-120 days earlier. This explains why the level of HbA1c can increase or decrease relatively quickly with large changes in glucose; it does not take 120 days to detect a clinically meaningful change in HbA1c following a clinically significant change in AG. How does HbA1c relate to average glucose (AG)? In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial or DCCT (New Engl J Med 1993;329:977-986) study of patients with Type 1 diabetes, quarterly HbA1c determinations were the principal measure of glycemic control; study subjects also performed quarterly 24-hour, 7-point capillary-blood glucose profiles. Blood specimens were obtained by subjects in the home setting, pre-meal, 90 minutes post-meal, and at bed-time. In an analysis of the DCCT glucose profile data (Diabetes Care 25:275-278, 2002), mean HbA1c and AG were calculated for each study subject (n= 1439). Results showed Continue reading >>

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Evaluating the long-term control of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients Diagnosing diabetes Identifying patients at increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States. Long-term treatment of the disease emphasizes control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, long-term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease can be minimized if blood glucose levels are effectively controlled. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a result of the nonenzymatic attachment of a hexose molecule to the N-terminal amino acid of the hemoglobin molecule. The attachment of the hexose molecule occurs continually over the entire life span of the erythrocyte and is dependent on blood glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. Therefore, the HbA1c level reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period (approximately 8-12 weeks, depending on the individual) and provides a much better indication of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose determinations. Diabetic patients with very high blood concentrations of glucose have from 2 to 3 times more HbA1c than normal individuals. Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following: -Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL -Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL -Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be Continue reading >>

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. The test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months (120 days). However, since RBCs do not all undergo lysis at the same time, HbA1C is taken as a limited measure of 3 months. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin.[1] The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction to separate, probably considered to be pure Hemoglobin A, was designated HbA0, the following fractions were designated HbA1a, HbA1b, and HbA1c, respective of their order of elution. There have subsequently been many more sub fractions as separation techniques have improved.[2] Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous three months before the measurement as this is the lifespan of red blood cells. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. A trial on a group of patients with Type 1 diabetes found that monitoring by caregivers of HbA1c led to changes in diabetes treatment and improvement of metabolic control compared to monitoring only of blood or urine glu Continue reading >>

Diabetes Control And Your Hga1c Blood Test

Diabetes Control And Your Hga1c Blood Test

Do you know what your last HgA1C reading was? If you answered no, than you're like most patients we see. But we think that 100% of patients should know what it is, what it means and why it's important. Diabetes is a significant contributor to vision loss, along with contributing to many other health care conditions. With the increase of diabetes in Canada, this condition has become a major area of concern for physicians and other health care providers like optometrists. Diabetes is a chronic disease that must be monitored and treated over many years and decades. As such, family doctors and diabetic specialists will use blood tests like the Hemoglobin A1C (HgA1C or HbA1C) to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a patient’s diabetes. So what is diabetes? Simplistically, diabetes is the body’s inability to transfer sugar from the bloodstream into our cells. Sugar is the gas that runs our bodies. Without it, our cells slowly start to die, but too much of it is also bad. Diabetes causes a rise of free-flowing sugar throughout your blood because the body is unable to transfer this sugar into the cells efficiently. Having high blood sugar levels is known as hyperglycemia. Because free flowing blood sugar binds itself to the red blood cells of the body (hemoglobin or haemoglobin), a hemoglobin A1C test can give your doctors an accurate picture of the overall blood sugar levels within your body. When blood sugar binds to a red blood cell, it is referred to as being glycated. Once glycated the red blood cell does not revert to a non-glycated stated. As red blood cells live for approximately 3-4 months (100-120 days), the test can determine the number of glycated red blood cells over that period. As such, your doctor or diabetes specialist will typically schedule you for regular Continue reading >>

Hba1c And Pregnancy

Hba1c And Pregnancy

Tweet Keeping blood sugar levels under control is hugely important for women who either have diabetes going into pregnancy or who develop diabetes during their pregnancy. Tight blood glucose control helps increase the chances of a successful pregnancy by cutting the risk of complications for your baby. If you have diabetes, one of the ways your doctor or nurse will monitor your glycemic control is by carrying out a HbA1c test. The HbA1c test measures glycated haemoglobin - a molecule within red blood cells that naturally bonds with glucose - to get a good indication of your average blood glucose over the past 8-12 weeks. This guide outlines when your HbA1c readings will be taken and what HbA1c values should be before (planning stage), during and after your pregnancy. Planning pregnancy The NICE guidelines for Diabetes in Pregnancy (Clinical Guideline 63) state that women with diabetes should aim to achieve an HbA1c result of 43 mmol/mol (6.1%) or lower. If you are planning to become pregnant, you should be offered an HbA1c measurement on a monthly basis to help monitor your blood glucose control. Meeting the target will help to minimise the risk of the baby developing risk of congenital malformations. If you have an HbA1c above 10%, it is strongly advised to avoid becoming pregnant until good diabetes control is achieved and sustained. During pregnancy During the first trimester of pregnancy, the HbA1c target for women with diabetes is the same as for planning a pregnancy, that is 43 mmol/mol (6.1%) or lower. During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, from week 13 onwards, HbA1c should not be used for assessing blood glucose control. Throughout pregnancy, women with diabetes should aim to meet the following blood glucose targets Before meals: 3.5 to 5.9 mmol/l Continue reading >>

More in diabetes