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Hemoglobin A1c Of 6.4

A1c Glucose Relationship

A1c Glucose Relationship

Ads by Google A1C and glucose level is close related; however, often, it appears to be unrelated. The A1C test is a blood test that reflects the average blood glucose level over the last two to three months. The glucose test is a measure of BS level in that instance. Now, imagine your vehicle speedometer, it shows speed in kph (kilometers covered per hour). Imagine odometer shows total kilometers covered from day one to present date. Your glucose test shows blood glucose at that instant during a day. At many other instances, you may have a lot of blood glucose highs or lows. That is why you end up with an unrelated hba1c as compared with glucose reading. Why are my A1C and blood glucose unrelated? A1C and blood glucose are two different but related things. For unknown reasons, some peoples' A1C may not reflect their average blood glucose. The A1C test has some limitations. Let us look at an example: Imagine two people (A & B) have an A1C of 7% and an estimated average blood sugar of 154 mg/dl or 8.6 mmol. Say A’s blood sugar has been no a roller coaster. It soars up to 300 mg/dl or 17 mmol before crashing back down (low blood sugars) to 40 mg/dl or 2 mmol. On average, these severe highs & lows average out to about 150 mg/dl. Say B has 90 days of blood sugars around 150 mg/dl or 8.6 mmol. Which one has a higher risk towards complications, A or B? The problem with the A1C test is that frequent low in blood sugars can lead to a lower A1C. If you want to reduce complications, it is important to maintain good BS most of the time than low. Even a slight high A1C is better, if there are fewer or no low blood sugars. What is the relation between Fasting Glucose and HbA1c? A1C has a less consistent relationship with fasting glucose levels. Wong TY, Liew G, Tapp RJ, Schmidt MI, Continue reading >>

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Citation Nr: 1644632 Decision Date: 11/28/16 Archive Date: 12/09/16 DOCKET NO. 14-38 736 ) DATE ) ) Received from the Department of Veterans Affairs Regional Office in Anchorage, Alaska THE ISSUE Entitlement to service connection for type II diabetes mellitus. REPRESENTATION Appellant represented by: Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States WITNESS AT HEARING ON APPEAL The Veteran ATTORNEY FOR THE BOARD A. Hampton, Associate Counsel INTRODUCTION The Veteran served on active duty from July 1968 to June 1990. This case comes before the Board of Veterans' Appeals (Board) on appeal of an April 2014 rating decision by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Regional Office (RO) in Salt Lake City, Utah. Jurisdiction over the Veteran's claim was subsequently transferred to the RO in Anchorage, Alaska. In August 2015, the Veteran testified before the undersigned Veterans Law Judge (VLJ) at a videoconference hearing. A transcript of the hearing is of record. The record before the Board consists of electronic records within Virtual VA and the Veterans Benefits Management System. FINDING OF FACT Type II diabetes mellitus has not been present at any time during the pendency of the Veteran's claim. CONCLUSION OF LAW The criteria for service connection for type II diabetes mellitus have not been met. 38 U.S.C.A. §§ 1110, 1131 (West 2014); 38 C.F.R. § 3.303 (2016). REASONS AND BASES FOR FINDING AND CONCLUSION Duty to Assist The Veterans Claims Assistance Act of 2000 (VCAA), codified in pertinent part at 38 U.S.C.A. §§ 5103, 5103A (West 2014), and the pertinent implementing regulation, codified at 38 C.F.R. § 3.159 (2015), provide that VA will assist a claimant in obtaining evidence necessary to substantiate a claim but is not required to provide assistance to a claimant if Continue reading >>

Effort To Lower A1c Levels With Drugs Increases Death Rate In Diabetics

Effort To Lower A1c Levels With Drugs Increases Death Rate In Diabetics

By Jim English While diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness and lower limb amputations not caused by accidents or trauma, the most serious threat facing diabetic patients is death from heart attack or stroke. Eighty percent of hospitalizations for patients with diabetes are for macrovascular disorders, such as coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease, and 75 percent of deaths in diabetics are cardiovascular death, mostly in patients with Type 2 diabetes. To put these numbers in perspective, while a 50-year-old patient with “average” blood pressure and cholesterol levels has a 7 percent chance of experiencing a heart attack in the next 10 years, a 50-year-old diabetic patient faces up to a 50 percent chance of having a heart attack in the next ten years. ACCORD Trial Fails to Protect Diabetic Patients In 2001, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched a trial to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic patients to reduce their risk for heart attack, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease. The trial, called Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes, or ACCORD, involved over 10,000 Type 2 diabetic patients who had either been previously diagnosed with heart disease or had two or more risk factors for heart disease when they entered the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The first group of 5,123 participants was treated with standard drugs and insulin at levels generally approved as the standard for Type 2 diabetes. The second group, consisting of 5,128 participants, was assigned to receive a much more aggressive form of treatment involving higher doses of the standard therapy. For both groups, study clinicians were permitted to use all major classes of FDA-ap Continue reading >>

First-trimester A1c As A Tool To Predict The Development Of Gestational Diabetes In High-risk Women

First-trimester A1c As A Tool To Predict The Development Of Gestational Diabetes In High-risk Women

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine if hemoglobin A1C drawn with the first prenatal laboratory tests in women at high risk for diabetes is associated with risk of developing gestational diabetes (GDM). We hypothesized that pregnant women with first-trimester impaired glucose tolerance (hemoglobin A1C of 5.7–6.4%) are at an increased risk of developing GDM when compared with women with normal glucose tolerance (hemoglobin A1C of less than 5.7%). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in two clinics in Charlotte, North Carolina. We included all women who met the American Diabetes Association guidelines for being at risk of diabetes who had a hemoglobin A1C drawn before 14 weeks of gestation and who did not have overt diabetes (hemoglobin A1C 6.5 or greater). We compared frequency of diagnosis of GDM between patients with a hemoglobin A1C of 5.7–6.4% and those with a hemoglobin A1C less than 5.7% using a χ2 test. RESULTS: Two hundred four women had a hemoglobin A1C drawn at less than 14 weeks of gestation; two were diagnosed with diabetes; 15 had impaired glucose tolerance; and 187 had normal glucose. Fifty percent of women with hemoglobin A1C 5.7–6.4% developed GDM compared with 13.6% of those with hemoglobin A1C less than 5.7% (P=.002). After adjusting for race and history of GDM, women with hemoglobin A1C 5.7–6.4% had more than five times higher odds of developing GDM compared with women with hemoglobin A1C less than 5.7% (odds ratio 5.43, 95% confidence interval 1.69–17.44). CONCLUSIONS: Among women at high risk for diabetes, hemoglobin A1C in the first trimester of pregnancy may predict higher risk and earlier onset of GDM. Financial Disclosure: Lee A. Garner, MD and Jodie Katon, PhD, MS—These authors have no conflicts o Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Tests

Hemoglobin A1c Tests

What is hemoglobin A1C? — Hemoglobin A1C is a blood test that shows what your average blood sugar level has been for the past 2 to 3 months (table 1). Doctors and nurses use this test for 2 reasons: ●To see whether a person has diabetes ●To see whether diabetes treatment is working the right way Other names for hemoglobin A1C are "glycated hemoglobin," "HbA1C," or just "A1C." What should my A1C numbers be? — That depends on why you have the test. ●When checking for diabetes – If you had an A1C test to see if you have diabetes, your A1C should be 6 or less. •If your A1C is 6.5 or higher, it probably means you have diabetes, but you should have the test done again to be sure. •If your A1C is between 5.7 and 6.4, you are at risk for getting diabetes. You should probably start doing things that can help prevent diabetes. For example, you should become more active and lose weight (if you are overweight). ●When checking how treatment is working – If you already know you have diabetes, and you had an A1C test to see how well controlled your blood sugar is, your A1C should probably be 7 or less. But you need to check with your doctor on what your level should be. Not everyone with diabetes is the same. Some people need to aim for different A1C levels than others. Can I do this test at home? — It is now possible to buy kits to test your A1C at home. But home testing of A1C is not usually necessary. How often should I have an A1C test? — That depends on whether you have diabetes and on what your last A1C test showed. ●If you had an A1C test to check for diabetes and your A1C was less than 5.7 (meaning you do NOT have diabetes), you should have A1C tests done every 3 years. ●If you had an A1C test to check for diabetes and your A1C was between 5.7 and 6 Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

Feedback Patient Preparation Collect Specimen Preparation Storage/Transport Temperature Unacceptable Conditions Remarks Stability Ambient: 24 hours; Refrigerated: 1 month; Frozen: 1 year (avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles) Hemoglobin A1c values of 5.7-6.4 percent indicate an increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus. Hemoglobin A1c values greater than or equal to 6.5 percent are diagnostic of diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis should be confirmed by repeating the Hb A1c test. This boronate affinity Hb A1c method provides accurate analytical results in the presence of nearly all hemoglobin variants. Hb F higher than 10 percent of total Hb may yield falsely low results. Conditions that shorten red cell survival, such as the presence of unstable hemoglobins like Hb SS, Hb CC, and Hb SC, or other causes of hemolytic anemia may yield falsely low results. Iron deficiency anemia may yield falsely high results. A1C A1c Hemoglobin Glycated Hemoglobin Glyco HGB Glyco-Hb Glycosylated Hemoglobin HA1C HbA1c Hemoglobin A1C Hemoglobin A1c, Blood HgbA1c Continue reading >>

10 Facts About A1c Levels

10 Facts About A1c Levels

What is A1C The use of A1c levels is a very convenient way of diagnosing and examining people with diabetes type 1 and 2. If the levels of glucose in the blood is high, then the A1c levels will be high. Before we proceed with the significant aspects of A1C, let us first identify what is hemoglobin A1C blood test below. What is A1C Test Hemoglobin A1C test (also hemoglobin A1c, Hgb A1c, glycohemoglobin, or HbA1c test) is a blood test to determine the average blood sugar levels of an individual for the past 3 months. Now, what is normal A1C? Hemoglobin A1C Range We can categorically place range positions for hba1c normal levels and high levels as indicated below. What is a normal A1C level? Normal A1C levels are within the A1C range of 4% to 5.6%. If within the A1C normal range, it means the person doesn’t have diabetes. What is a high A1C level? HgA1c levels out of the normal hemoglobin A1C range poses possible problem. A level between 5.7% and 6.4% is indicative of the risk of diabetes. While an A1C level of 6.5% or more is already A1C diabetes, meaning it indicates the presence of diabetes. A1C Calculator To compute your A1C you can simply use the formula below. Glucose in mg/dL: A1c = (46.7 + average_blood_glucose) / 28.7 Glucose in mmol/L: A1c = (2.59 + average_blood_glucose) / 1.59 For further details, you may refer to the A1C levels chart at the end of this post. Facts About Hemoglobin A1c Levels 1. Helps identify blood sugar levels HgbA1c levels is an effective way of testing blood sugar levels in the body. The test is performed by having an amount of blood taken for examination through the pricking of a finger. At times, the blood is drawn from the vein. 2. Evaluates glucose level for a longer period A1c levels evaluate and determine the average glucose level i Continue reading >>

Could Slightly High Blood Sugar Cause Neuropathy?

Could Slightly High Blood Sugar Cause Neuropathy?

My glucose levels usually run between 120 and 135 with a nonfasting blood test, though do not have a diagnosis of diabetes. I suffer greatly with my feet and been told by a podiatrist that it is neuropathy. Is it possible that my high glucose levels are causing the neuropathy? Dear Terry, Thanks for your question. I like to think of blood glucose values as a spectrum of numbers with no clear cutoff between nondiabetic and diabetic. In similar manner there is a gray area of blood glucose that defines pre-diabetes. Many people use blood sugar and blood glucose interchangeably. The definition of diabetes has changed over time. The numbers you quote might very well be considered diagnostic of diabetes today whereas they were not 20 years ago. In 1997, the American Diabetes Association definition of normal blood glucose decreased from 120 to 110 mg/dL (6.1 mmol/L). In 2002, the American Diabetes Association defined a normal fasting blood glucose as less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). Today we consider fasting blood sugars of 100 mg/dl to 125mg/dl to be in the realm of glucose intolerance which is sometimes called pre-diabetes. These patients are at increased risk for developing frank diabetes. Several fasting glucose levels over 125 or a single random glucose over 200 mg are considered diagnostic of diabetes. There are other tests used to make the diagnosis of pre-diabetes or diabetes. Pre-diabetes is defined as a blood sugar of 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L) two-hour after drinking 75 grams of an oral glucose solution. The diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed with a blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or greater, two hours after ingestion of the glucose solution. Hemoglobin A1C is a blood test that gives an estimate of blood sugar levels over the previous three months. Persons with Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

On This Site Tests: Glucose Tests; Urine Albumin; Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio; Fructosamine Conditions: Diabetes In the News: Screening, Diet and Exercise Key Factors in Task Force's New Diabetes Guidelines (2015), Task Force Updates Recommendations for Screening for Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in Adults (2014), New Report Finds that Diabetes is on the Rise (2014) Elsewhere On The Web American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Basics American Diabetes Association: Risk Test American Association of Diabetes Educators Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes Public Health Resource National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: Prevent diabetes problems - Keep your diabetes under control National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Diabetes A to Z National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program American Diabetes Association – DiabetesPro, estimated Average Glucose, eAG Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c)

Hemoglobin A1c (hba1c)

CPT Code: Hemoglobin A1c: 83036 Hemoglobin A1c with Reflex to Glycomark: 83036 (and 84378 if GlycoMark is indicated) Order Code: Hemoglobin A1c: C145 Hemoglobin A1c with Reflex to GlycoMark: C522 Includes: HbA1c and Estimated Average Glucose ABN Requirement: No Synonyms: Hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c; HgbA1c; Glycohemoglobin; Glycated Hemoglobin; Glycosylated Hemoglobin Specimen: Hemoglobin A1c: EDTA whole blood Hemoglobin A1c with Reflex to GlycoMark: EDTA whole blood and serum Volume: 5.0 mL Minimum Volume: 2.5 mL Container: Hemoglobin A1c: EDTA (Lavender Top tube) Hemoglobin A1c with Reflex to GlycoMark: EDTA (Lavender Top tube) and Gel-barrier Tube (SST) Collection: Collect and label sample according to standard protocols. Gently invert tube 8-10 times immediately after draw. DO NOT SHAKE. Do not centrifuge Transport: Store EDTA whole blood at 2°C to 8°C after collection and ship the same day per packaging instructions provided with the Cleveland HeartLab, Inc. shipping box. Stability: Ambient (15-25°C): 72 hours Refrigerated (2-8°C): 7 days Frozen (-20°C): 6 months Deep Frozen (-70°C): 6 months Causes for Rejection: Specimens other than EDTA whole blood; improper labeling; samples not stored properly; samples older than stability limits Methodology: Turbidimentric Inhibition Immunoassay (TINA) Turn Around Time: 1 to 3 days Relative Risk: Hemoglobin A1c: Age Low Risk % Moderate Risk % High Risk % All Ages 4.0-5.6 5.7-6.4 >6.4 eAG (Estimated Average Glucose): Age Low Risk mg/dL Moderate Risk mg/dL High Risk mg/dL All Ages <117 <140 >139 HbA1c Reflex Value for GlycoMark: All Ages 6.0-8.0 For additional information on the GlycoMark test, please see www.clevelandheartlab.com/tests/glycomark/ Intended Use: HbA1c testing is used to monitor the glucose control of diabetics t Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c

Hemoglobin A1c

From Standard Of Care Reflects 2-3 month average endogenous exposure to glucose, including postprandial blood glucose spikes. Represents the percent of hemoglobin A with glucose bound to it. Reflects average glucose over approximately hundred 120 days, the average red blood cell lifespan. Has low intraindividual variablitiy, especially in nondiabetics. While a reliable marker of glycemic control, it may explain less than 25% of the risk of developing diabetic microvascular complications. Formed by the nonenzymatic attachment of glucose to hemoglobin and reflects the ambient glucose concentration of the previous 2 to 3 months. The mean lifespan is increased with splenectomy so that hemoglobin A-1 C is increased because of increased RBC exposure time for glycation. When the mean erythrocyte lifespan is decreased such as with hemolytic anemia hemoglobin A-1C is decreased because of the reduced RBC exposure time for glycation. With decreased erythropoiesis such as with iron deficiency anemia increased mean age of red blood cells increases hemoglobin A-1 C levels. Severe chronic kidney disease may increase RBC glycation through lipid peroxidation of hemoglobin and by extending erythrocytes lifespan due to decreased erythropoietin levels, causing false elevation of hemoglobin A-1 C level. Optimal control of diabetes defined as HbA1c level of less than 6.5%. HbA1c levels greater than 6.5% generally lead to a diagnosis of diabetes, and HbA1c levels between 5.7% and 6.5% are considered prediabetic American Diabetes Association recommends the use of glycated analysis in the diagnosis of diabetes because of the association between this test and microvascular disease. Elevated levels associated with microvascular and neuropathic complications. Levels of HbA1C and fructosamine depen Continue reading >>

Hba1c And Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Explained

Hba1c And Diabetes – Glycated Hemoglobin (a1c) Explained

Diabetes and its complications remain a major cause of early disease and death worldwide. The diagnosis of diabetes is to a large extent based on detecting elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a laboratory measure frequently used for this purpose. The test is also useful to monitor treatment in patients with established diabetes. Approximately 8 percent of the US populations suffer from type 2 diabetes, with as many as 40 percent of those undiagnosed (1). Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated at 6.4 percent in adults but varies somewhat among countries with the rate of undetected diabetes as high as 50 percent in some areas (2). The term diabetes describes several disorders of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism that are characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Diabetes is associated with a relative or absolute impairment in insulin secretion, along with varying degrees of peripheral resistance to the action of insulin (3). The Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes The prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes continues to increase worldwide, with type 2 diabetes much more common and accounting for over 90 percent of patients with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes because it often presents in childhood and it is characterized by the inability of the pancreas to produce the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the cells of the body to be able to utilize glucose for energy production. Without insulin, glucose accumulates in the blood leading to hyperglycemia. Due to the absence of insulin, most patients with type 1 diabetes need to be treated with insulin. Conversely, type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-depend Continue reading >>

Get Unlimited Access On Medscape.

Get Unlimited Access On Medscape.

WARNING: RISK OF THYROID C-CELL TUMORS In rodents, semaglutide causes dose-dependent and treatment-duration-dependent thyroid C-cell tumors at clinically relevant exposures. It is unknown whether Ozempic® causes thyroid C-cell tumors, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), in humans as human relevance of semaglutide-induced rodent thyroid C-cell tumors has not been determined. Ozempic® is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of MTC and in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). Counsel patients regarding the potential risk for MTC with the use of Ozempic® and inform them of symptoms of thyroid tumors (e.g. a mass in the neck, dysphagia, dyspnea, persistent hoarseness). Routine monitoring of serum calcitonin or using thyroid ultrasound is of uncertain value for early detection of MTC in patients treated with Ozempic®. Ozempic® is not recommended as a first-line therapy for patients who have inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise because of the uncertain relevance of rodent C-cell tumor findings to humans. Ozempic® has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. Consider other antidiabetic therapies in patients with a history of pancreatitis. Ozempic® is not a substitute for insulin. Ozempic® is not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Pancreatitis: Acute and chronic pancreatitis have been reported in clinical studies. Observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back with or without vomiting). If pancreatitis is suspected, discontinue Ozempic® promptly and if pancreatitis is confirmed, do not restart. Diabetic Ret Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes (t2dm)

Type 2 Diabetes (t2dm)

Acronyms and Definitions A1C - Hemoglobin A1C ADA - American Diabetes Association AN - Acanthosis Nigricans Beta-cells are a type of "islet cell." The term "Islet cell" and "Beta-cell" are used interchangeably. CrCl - Creatinine Clearance DKA - Diabetic Ketoacidosis Gestational diabetes - Diabetes during pregnancy HLA - Human Leukocyte Antigens LADA - Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults T1DM - Type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM - Type 2 diabetes mellitus DEFINITION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES DIABETES Type 2 diabetes is also called "Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)" and "Adult-onset diabetes" There are primarily two types of diabetes - Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of the overall cases of diabetes (Type 1 about 5-10%) PHYSIOLOGY Beta-cells (also called islet cells) in the pancreas secrete insulin in response to rising blood sugar Insulin stimulates cells in various tissues (muscle, liver, and fat) to absorb sugar from the blood In T2DM, two problems occur simultaneously that lead to elevated blood sugars: The Beta-cells secrete an inadequate amount of insulin to lower the blood sugar to its normal range The tissues of the body become resistant to the effects of insulin This is in contrast to Type 1 Diabetes where a person does not make any insulin [1] PREVALENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES Type 2 diabetes has become a worldwide epidemic. In 2010, the worldwide prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes was 6.4%. [3] In the United States, the estimated prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes is shown in the table below Reference [2] Age (years) U.S. prevalence (% of total population) 20 - 44 4.1% 45 - 64 16.2% ≥ 65 25.9% RISK FACTORS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES KNOWN RISK FACTORS Family history of T2DM is the strongest known risk fa Continue reading >>

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Evaluating the long-term control of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients Diagnosing diabetes Identifying patients at increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States. Long-term treatment of the disease emphasizes control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, long-term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease can be minimized if blood glucose levels are effectively controlled. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a result of the nonenzymatic attachment of a hexose molecule to the N-terminal amino acid of the hemoglobin molecule. The attachment of the hexose molecule occurs continually over the entire life span of the erythrocyte and is dependent on blood glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. Therefore, the HbA1c level reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period (approximately 8-12 weeks, depending on the individual) and provides a much better indication of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose determinations. Diabetic patients with very high blood concentrations of glucose have from 2 to 3 times more HbA1c than normal individuals. Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following: -Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL -Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL -Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be Continue reading >>

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