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What Is Hba1c And A Normal Hba1c Range? Explained In Plain English

What Is Hba1c And A Normal Hba1c Range? Explained In Plain English

Those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes may have seen it before, but what is a normal HbA1c range? This article explores what your HbA1c reading should be and how you can improve it. What is HbA1c (Hemoglobin A1c)? HbA1c is a marker that can determine your average blood sugar (glucose) levels over the previous 3-months (1). That means it can be used to assess the quality of your diabetes management, as well as to diagnose pre-diabetes and diabetes. Sometimes HbA1c is also called glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c or just A1c. The ‘Hb’ refers to hemoglobin, a part of red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout your body. ‘A1c’ refers to a minor part of hemoglobin that sugar molecules attach to. The amount of sugar attached is directly proportional to the amount of sugar in your blood at a given time, so this reading is used to accurately reflect average blood sugar levels. If you’ve had high blood sugar levels in the past month or so, your HbA1c levels will be higher too. Summary: HbA1c is a marker that reflects your average blood sugar levels in the previous 3 months. It’s also called glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c or just A1c. Normal HbA1c Range The HbA1c test is measured as either a percentage or in mmol/mol. Below I’ve listed what is considered a normal HbA1c range, and what values would be considered outside of normal (pre-diabetic or diabetic): HbA1c range for normal (non-diabetic) adults: Below 6.0%, or below 42 mmol/mol HbA1c range for pre-diabetes: 6.0% to 6.4%, or 42 to 47 mmol/mol HbA1c range for diabetes: 6.5% or above, or 48 mmol/mol or above. Target ranges are also shown below in this table: HbA1c % mmol/mol Normal Below 6.0% Below 42 mmol/mol Pre-diabetes 6.0% to 6.4% 42 to 47 mmol/mol Diabetes 6.5% or above 48 mmol/mol or above Normal Hb Continue reading >>

Hba1c - The 7% Solution

Hba1c - The 7% Solution

Tue, 12/14/2010 - 10:32 -- Richard Morris Sure, you test your glucose level several times a day. You're aware of diet and exercise issues and do your best to stay on track. But what about your hemoglobin A1c level? What does it mean and why is it so important? When is the last time you had it checked? How often should you have it checked? The hemoglobin A1c test is a simple lab test that shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over the last two to three months. It's the best way to find out if your blood sugar is under control. All people with type 2 diabetes should have a hemoglobin A1c test at least twice a year. If your treatment changes or if your blood sugar level stays too high, you should get a hemoglobin A1c test at least every three months until your blood sugar level improves. Regular testing will help you and your doctor to track your blood sugar levels over time and plan long-term treatment options to reach your target level of control. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying pigment-it's what makes red blood cells red. The hemoglobin A1c test, sometimes called a glycated hemoglobin test, measures the proportion of hemoglobin molecules in your red blood cells that have glucose attached to them (and thus are "glycated"). Once glycated, a hemoglobin molecule stays that way throughout the 3- to 4-month lifecycle of its red blood cell. Red blood cells are continually dying and being replaced, so at any given time they have a range of ages in your body. In a sense, your blood tells the history of your glucose level over the last few months. For example, if your levels were not in control three weeks ago, glycated hemoglobin will persist in the blood cells that were active at that time. If your blood sugar tends to go up at night, when you are less likely to sel Continue reading >>

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know

The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>

Glycated Haemoglobin A1c As A Risk Factor Of Cardiovascular Outcomes And All-cause Mortality In Diabetic And Non-diabetic Populations: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Glycated Haemoglobin A1c As A Risk Factor Of Cardiovascular Outcomes And All-cause Mortality In Diabetic And Non-diabetic Populations: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Objective To examine the relationship between glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality based on data from observational studies and to determine the optimal levels of HbA1c for preventing cardiovascular events and/or mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Review methods We systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science databases, from inception to July 2016, for observational studies addressing the association of HbA1c levels with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Random effects models were used to compute pooled estimates of HR and respective 95% CI for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and risk of cardiovascular events, separately for people with and without diabetes. Results Seventy-four published studies were included in the systematic review, but only 46 studies could be incorporated in the meta-analysis. In both diabetic and non-diabetic populations, there was an increase in the risk of all-cause mortality when HbA1c levels were over 8.0% and 6.0%, respectively. The highest all-cause mortality in people with diabetes was HbA1c above 9.0% (HR=1.69; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.66) and in those without diabetes was HbA1c above 6.0% (HR=1.74; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.20). However, both diabetic and non-diabetic populations with lower HbA1c levels (below 6.0% HR=1.57; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.17 and below 5.0% HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36, respectively) had higher all-cause mortality. Similar pooled estimates were found when cardiovascular mortality was the outcome variable. Conclusion HbA1c is a reliable risk factor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both diabetics and non-diabetics. Ou Continue reading >>

Hba1c Below 7% As The Goal Of Glucose Control Fails To Maximize The Cardiovascular Benefits: A Meta-analysis.

Hba1c Below 7% As The Goal Of Glucose Control Fails To Maximize The Cardiovascular Benefits: A Meta-analysis.

Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015 Sep 22;14:124. doi: 10.1186/s12933-015-0285-1. HbA1c below 7% as the goal of glucose control fails to maximize the cardiovascular benefits: a meta-analysis. Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, No. 87 DingJiaQiao Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, East District, No. 32, Section2, 1st Ring Road (West), Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. wangpin542[email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, No. 87 DingJiaQiao Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Intensive Care Unit, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, No. 32, Section2, 1st Ring Road (West), Chengdu, 610072, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, No. 87 DingJiaQiao Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, No. 87 DingJiaQiao Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, No. 87 DingJiaQiao Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital of Southeast University, No. 87 DingJiaQiao Road, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. [email protected] Department of Endocrinology, Affil Continue reading >>

Understanding Your Hba1c

Understanding Your Hba1c

You’ve heard about a diabetes test called a hemoglobin A1C. It’s sometimes shortened to HgbA1c or HbA1c or just A1C. Hopefully, you know what yours is. But do you know what it means and what to do with the information? Hemoglobin is what makes red blood cells red. It consists of several proteins wrapped around an iron-based molecule called heme. Heme attaches to oxygen and carries it to the cells. That’s why iron is important in our diets. We need iron to make heme to carry oxygen, so our cells can breathe. Glucose (sugar) molecules are also floating along in our blood. Glucose attaches itself to all kinds of proteins, including the hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs). When glucose levels are high, many more of them will attach. Hemoglobin coated with glucose is called “glycated” or “glycosylated” hemoglobin. Glycation (“sugar-coating”) may not harm an RBC, but it does tell us if the cell has encountered much glucose during its lifetime. The more glucose has been in the blood, the more RBCs will be glycated. This is what an HbA1c test measures. A1C isn’t measuring what your blood glucose level is at the moment. It measures how high glucose has been over the last two months or so. RBCs only live about 100–120 days in the bloodstream. Once they become glycated, they stay glycated for life, so the number of glycated RBCs (HbA1c) gives a good picture of how much glucose has been in the blood recently. The A1C test has several advantages over other tests such as a fasting blood sugar (FBS). You don’t have to fast for an A1C. It can be taken at any time of day. It doesn’t matter what you ate the day before or on the day of the test, because it’s not measuring your current sugar. Normally, between 4.2% and 5.6% of RBCs will be glycated. The America Continue reading >>

What Is The Hba1c?

What Is The Hba1c?

In the blood stream are the red blood cells, which are made of a molecule, haemoglobin. Glucose sticks to the haemoglobin to make a 'glycosylated haemoglobin' molecule, called haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C. The more glucose in the blood, the more haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C will be present in the blood. Red cells live for 8 - 12 weeks before they are replaced. By measuring the HbA1C it can tell you how high your blood glucose has been on average over the last 8-12 weeks. A normal non-diabetic HbA1C is <36mmol/mol (5.5%). In diabetes about 48mmol/mol (6.5%) is good. The HbA1C test is currently one of the best ways to check diabetes is under control; it is the blood test that gets sent to the laboratory, and it is done on the spot in some hospital clinics. Remember, the HbA1C is not the same as the glucose level. Coincidentally the glucose/HbA1C numbers for good control are rather similar though in the UK and Europe: glucose levels averaging 6.5 mmols/l before meals is equivalent to 60mmol/mol (7%). HbA1C (glucose levels are higher after meals) (see below). Two examples Below are two examples of people who have their HbA1c measured. One is poorly controlled, one well controlled. When should the HbA1C be measured? Measure HbA1c every 3 months if trying to improve every 6 months if very stable If your diabetes is controlled (basically an HbA1C lower than 53mmol/mol ( 7% ), every 3-6 months. But if the last reading is above 53mmol/mol (7%) and you are in reasonable health, you will need to achieve a lower level if possible, and the next reading should be sooner. This assumes you will make changes to improve your control. There is no point in having your HbA1c measured if you are not trying to achieve good control of your diabetes, although the level does predict the likelihood of co Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

14 Things People Do To Keep Their Hba1c Below 7%

14 Things People Do To Keep Their Hba1c Below 7%

14 things people do to keep their HbA1c below 7% Jack is a 27-year-old journalist based in Coventry, UK. He is a type 1 diabetic who enjoys sport, boring weekends, MTV and once won a talent show for dancing to Dario Gs 1997 hit Sunchyme. Getting your HbA1c results can either be actually pretty exciting or beyond daunting, depending on your expectations. Were told by NICE to aim for 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), but scoring below 7% (53 mmol/mol) is still impressive, and for some this target is easily achievable. For others, its not. So what is it people do to keep their HbA1c below 7%? Well, its actually quite a lot. Theres no singular fix, it derives from a lot of hard work and desire to maintain their good health. Weve picked out 14 tips which, should you choose to implement, will likely return improvements at your next HbA1c test. If you dont already eat low-carb then firstly, why not? Secondly, going low-carb can have a big impact on your HbA1c. Cut out processed foods and those high in starches and stick to healthy, real foods. Our Low Carb Program has helped people put their type 2 diabetes into remission through eating healthily. There is anecdotal evidence that eating after 8pm causes an overnight spike in blood glucose levels, which wont help your HbA1c levels at all. It can be easier said than done, but getting good quality sleep can help you feel less hungry the day after and less inclined to crave sweeter foods. It can also prevent insulin resistance. Eating sensible portion sizes and having the confidence to leave food on your plate when youre full can help you manage your weight and your blood sugar. Some beers, ciders and cocktails can be surprisingly high in sugar. Stick to lower-carb alcohol choices . You dont need to overexert yourself, but regular exercise whe Continue reading >>

Acp Guidance Statement On Hba | Annals Of Internal Medicine | American College Of Physicians

Acp Guidance Statement On Hba | Annals Of Internal Medicine | American College Of Physicians

Author, Article, and Disclosure Information This article was published at Annals.org on 6 March 2018. * This paper, authored by Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA; Timothy J. Wilt, MD, MPH; Devan Kansagara, MD, MCR; Carrie Horwitch, MD, MPH; Michael J. Barry, MD; and Mary Ann Forciea, MD, was developed for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Individuals who served on the Clinical Guidelines Committee from initiation of the project until its approval were Mary Ann Forciea, MD (Chair); Nick Fitterman, MD; Kate Balzer, MSW; Michael J. Barry, MD; Cynthia Boyd, MD, MPH; Carrie Horwitch, MD, MPH; Linda L. Humphrey, MD, MPH; Alfonso Iorio, MD, PhD; Devan Kansagara, MD, MCR; Jennifer Lin, MD, MCR; Scott Manaker, MD, PhD; Michael Maroto, JD, MBA; Robert McLean, MD; Reem Mustafa, MD, PhD, MPH; Janice Tufte; Sandeep Vijan, MD, MS; and Timothy J. Wilt, MD, MPH. Approved by the ACP Board of Regents on 26 March 2017. Author (participated in discussion and voting). Nonauthor contributor (participated in discussion but excluded from voting). American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (A.Q.) Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota (T.J.W.) Oregon Health & Science University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Oregon (D.K.) Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (C.H.) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (M.J.B.) University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (M.A.F.) Note: Guidance statements are guides only and may not apply to all patients and all clinical situations. Thus, they are not intended to override clinicians' judgment. All ACP guidance statements are considered automatically withdrawn or invalid 5 years after publication, or once an update h Continue reading >>

Hba1c Explained - Type 1 Diabetes Network

Hba1c Explained - Type 1 Diabetes Network

Forum for parents to discuss caring for children with T1 Sign up for our free e-learning for health professionals Chat to others with T1D on a range of topics And an extra special thanks to @CarlyWanderlust for coming along to share her experiences with us! #type1backpacking about 3 years ago Looks like it's time for @CarlyWanderlust to go back to experiencing Colombia! Thanks to all for your questions #type1backpacking about 3 years ago Does anyone have any more questions for Carly about her backpacking adventures? #type1backpacking about 3 years ago Do you have a handle on HbA1c? It may seem complicated, but getting a grip on HbA1c doesnt have to be hard. Whether you have a basic understanding or no idea at all, this article explains all you need to know about HbA1c. Think of it this way sugar sticks. And inside the body, sugar sticks (binds) to red blood cells, creating a red blood cellsugar complex. Technically, sugar sticks to haemoglobin a specific part of red blood cells. (Haemoglobin is what gives red blood cells their colour.) This sugarhaemoglobin complex is called glycosylated (or glycated) haemoglobin, otherwise known as HbA1c (HbA = haemoglobin; 1c = glycosylated). Once red blood cells become glycosylated (stuck to sugar), they stay glycosylated until they die (about 3 months). As red blood cells die, new ones are produced. If the new blood cells are not glycosylated due to better blood glucose control then the overall HbA1C will decrease. Unlike Blood Glucose Level (BGL) tests that you do daily with a glucose meter, HbA1c tests need to be done by healthcare professionals ideally 2 to 4 times a year. They most commonly use the traditional method of withdrawing blood from a vein in the arm (venous blood draw). The blood is sent to a laboratory to measure th Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Hemoglobin A1c Greater Than 6.5% And 7.0% Among Hospitalized Patients Without Known Diagnosis Of Diabetes At An Urban Inner City Hospital

Prevalence Of Hemoglobin A1c Greater Than 6.5% And 7.0% Among Hospitalized Patients Without Known Diagnosis Of Diabetes At An Urban Inner City Hospital

Context: Bronx, New York, an urban county with a large low-income, immigrant and minority population, has a prevalence of diabetes that is among the highest in the United States. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in identifying patients at risk for diabetes on an in-patient medical service of a hospital serving a high prevalence community. Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective cohort study at an urban public hospital. Patients: The study included 971 patients (1132 admissions) admitted to the general medicine service over 4 months. Main Outcome Measures: HbA1c was measured on all patients. Records were checked for prior diagnosis of diabetes and other clinical data. Follow-up data were obtained for those with repeat HbA1c testing or glucose within 1 yr after admission. Results: We found that 35.2% of the patients (n = 342) had an established diagnosis of diabetes. The remaining 629 patients defined the study cohort of patients without known diabetes. Mean HbA1c was 6.05 ± 0.87%. A total of 152 patients (24%) had admission HbA1c of at least 6.5% and 62 (9.9%) had HbA1c of at least 7.0%. Fifty-five patients with HbA1c of at least 6.5% had follow-up HbA1c within 1 yr. Of those, 44 (80.0%) met the criteria for diabetes as proposed by The International Expert Committee using repeated HbA1c testing. Conclusion: In communities with high prevalence of diabetes, a large percentage of patients without a diagnosis of diabetes who are admitted as in-patients have HbA1c of at least 6.5% and 7.0%. Hospital-based HbA1c testing might identify patients for whom further testing is indicated to make the diagnosis of diabetes. Context: Widespread thyroid hormone actions offer the possibility of developing selective thyromimetic Continue reading >>

Haemoglobin A1c (hba1c) In Non-diabetic And Diabetic Vascular Patients. Is Hba1c An Independent Risk Factor And Predictor Of Adverse Outcome?

Haemoglobin A1c (hba1c) In Non-diabetic And Diabetic Vascular Patients. Is Hba1c An Independent Risk Factor And Predictor Of Adverse Outcome?

Abstract Background Plasma Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflects ambient mean glycaemia over a 2–3 months period. Reports indicate that patients, with and without diabetes, with an elevated HbA1c have an increased risk of adverse outcome following surgical intervention. Our aim was to determine whether elevated plasma HbA1c level was associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing vascular surgical procedures. Methods Plasma HbA1c was measured prospectively in 165 consecutive patients undergoing emergency and elective vascular surgical procedures over a 6-month period. Patients were categorized into four groups depending on whether their plasma HbA1c was ≤6%, 6.1–7%, 7.1–8% or >8% and clinical data was entered into a prospectively maintained database. Patients were also classified by diabetic status with suboptimal HbA1c in a patient without diabetes being >6 to ≤7% and suboptimal HbA1c in a patient with diabetes being >7%. Patients with plasma HbA1c >7% were reclassified as having undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Composite primary endpoints were all cause 30-day morbidity and mortality and all cause 6-month mortality. Composite secondary endpoints were procedure specific complications, adverse cardiac events, stroke, infection and mean length of hospital stay. Results Of the 165 patients studied, 43 (26.1%) had diabetes and the remaining 122 (73.9%) did not. The mean age was 72 years and 59% were male. Suboptimal HbA1c levels were found in 58% patients without diabetes and in 51% patients with diabetes. In patients without diabetes those with suboptimal HbA1c levels (6–7%) had a significantly higher incidence of overall 30-day morbidity compared to patients with HbA1c levels ≤6% (56.5 vs 15.7%, p<0.001). Similarly, for pati Continue reading >>

What Is An Hba1c? What’s A Good Number?

What Is An Hba1c? What’s A Good Number?

If you have diabetes, you should be tracking your HbA1c. It’s the best measure that we have of your average blood sugars over the last three months. But what is an HbA1c?! Hemoglobin is the stuff that carries oxygen in your blood and gives it that red color. When you have extra sugar in your blood, some of it attaches to the homoglobin and forms a variant called hemoglobin A1c. It’s also called “glycated hemoglobin” – or HbA1c for short. Hemoglobin and its variations live for about 120 days. By measuring the percentage of HbA1c in your blood, we can tell about how high your blood sugars have been during that lifespan. How is an HbA1c test performed? The HbA1c test is done by drawing blood from a vein. You may feel a slight pinch when the needle in inserted. Blood can be sent away to a lab or measured on a machine in your doctor’s office or at a hospital. There are home HbA1c test kits available that cost about $15 per test. The home tests are less accurate but can give you a strong estimate. What is a normal HbA1c? In people without diabetes, the HbA1c is usually between 4% and 6%. From the Wikipedia page on glycated hemoglobin, here’s a chart showing how your HbA1c compares to your estimated average blood glucose during the prior months: HbA1c eAG (estimated average glucose) (%) (mmol/mol) (mmol/L) (mg/dL) 5 31 5.4 (4.2–6.7) 97 (76–120) 6 42 7.0 (5.5–8.5) 126 (100–152) 7 53 8.6 (6.8–10.3) 154 (123–185) 8 64 10.2 (8.1–12.1) 183 (147–217) 9 75 11.8 (9.4–13.9) 212 (170–249) 10 86 13.4 (10.7–15.7) 240 (193–282) 11 97 14.9 (12.0–17.5) 269 (217–314) 12 108 16.5 (13.3–19.3) 298 (240–347 What is a good HbA1c? Below are the 2011 guidelines for the major American standards bodies: The guidelines are based in part on the two largest s Continue reading >>

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Test Id: Hba1c Hemoglobin A1c, Blood

Evaluating the long-term control of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients Diagnosing diabetes Identifying patients at increased risk for diabetes (prediabetes) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States. Long-term treatment of the disease emphasizes control of blood glucose levels to prevent the acute complications of ketosis and hyperglycemia. In addition, long-term complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease can be minimized if blood glucose levels are effectively controlled. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a result of the nonenzymatic attachment of a hexose molecule to the N-terminal amino acid of the hemoglobin molecule. The attachment of the hexose molecule occurs continually over the entire life span of the erythrocyte and is dependent on blood glucose concentration and the duration of exposure of the erythrocyte to blood glucose. Therefore, the HbA1c level reflects the mean glucose concentration over the previous period (approximately 8-12 weeks, depending on the individual) and provides a much better indication of long-term glycemic control than blood and urinary glucose determinations. Diabetic patients with very high blood concentrations of glucose have from 2 to 3 times more HbA1c than normal individuals. Diagnosis of diabetes includes 1 of the following: -Fasting plasma glucose > or =126 mg/dL -Symptoms of hyperglycemia and random plasma glucose >or =200 mg/dL -Two-hour glucose > or =200 mg/dL during oral glucose tolerance test unless there is unequivocal hyperglycemia, confirmatory testing should be Continue reading >>

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