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Half Life Of Lantus

Long-acting Insulins

Long-acting Insulins

Rapid-Acting Analogues Short-Acting Insulins Intermediate-Acting Insulins Long-Acting Insulins Combination Insulins Drug UPDATES: TRESIBA ®- insulin degludec injection [Drug information / PDF] Click link for the latest monograph Dosing: Click (+) next to Dosage and Administration section (drug info link) Initial U.S. Approval: 2015 Mechanism of Action: The primary activity of insulin, including TRESIBA, is regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin and its analogs lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin also inhibits lipolysis and proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis. TRESIBA forms multi-hexamers when injected into the subcutaneous tissue resulting in a subcutaneous insulin degludec depot. The protracted time action profile of TRESIBA is predominantly due to delayed absorption of insulin degludec from the subcutaneous tissue to the systemic circulation and to a lesser extent due to binding of insulin-degludec to circulating albumin. INDICATIONS AND USAGE: TRESIBA is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus. Limitations of Use TRESIBA is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Dosing: Individualize dose based on type of diabetes, metabolic needs, blood glucose monitoring results and glycemic control goal. Rotate injection sites to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy. Do not dilute or mix with any other insulin or solution. Administer subcutaneously once daily at any time of day. Do NOT perform dose conversion when using the TRESIBA U-100 or U-200 FlexTouch pens. The TRESIBA U-100 and U-200 FlexTouch pens dose window shows the number of insulin units to be delivered and NO conversion is needed. HOW SUPPLIE Continue reading >>

Lantus And Levemir: What’s The Difference?

Lantus And Levemir: What’s The Difference?

Lantus and Levemir have a lot in common. Both are basal insulin formulas, which means that they last for a long time in the body and act as background insulin, with a slow feed that mimics the constant low output of insulin produced by a healthy pancreas. Both are insulin analogues, which means that their insulin molecules are analogous to human insulin, but engineered, or recombined, with slight differences that slow their absorption. Lantus is a clear formula made with glargine, a genetically modified form of human insulin, dissolved in a special solution. Levemir is also a clear formula, but it contains dissolved detemir, a different form of genetically modified insulin. Human insulin is made of two amino acid chains, called A and B, that have two disulfide bonds between them. In glargine, one amino acid has been switched out, and two extra amino acids have been added to one end of the B chain. The modifications make glargine soluble at an acidic pH, but much less soluble at the neutral pH that’s found in the body To make Lantus, first the glargine is produced by a vat of E. coli bacteria. Then it’s purified and added to a watery solution containing a little zinc and some glycerol; a dash of hydrochloric acid is also added to make it acidic, bringing its pH down to about 4. At that degree of acidity, glargine completely dissolves into the watery solution, which is why the vial is clear. After you inject it into your subcutaneous tissue, the acidic solution is neutralized by your body to a neutral pH. Because glargine is not soluble at a neutral pH, it precipitates out into a form that’s not soluble in subcutaneous fat, and there forms a relatively insoluble depot. From that pool, or depot, of precipitated glargine in the tissues, small amounts slowly move back Continue reading >>

Selected Important Safety Information

Selected Important Safety Information

Tresiba® is contraindicated during episodes of hypoglycemia and in patients with hypersensitivity to Tresiba® or one of its excipients Never Share a Tresiba® FlexTouch® Pen Between Patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Changes in insulin may affect glycemic control. These changes should be made cautiously and under medical supervision. Adjustments in concomitant oral anti-diabetic treatment may be needed Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin, including Tresiba®, and may be life-threatening Tresiba® (insulin degludec injection) is indicated to improve glycemic control in patients 1 year of age and older with diabetes mellitus. Tresiba® is not recommended for treating diabetic ketoacidosis or for pediatric patients requiring less than 5 units of Tresiba®. Tresiba® is contraindicated during episodes of hypoglycemia and in patients with hypersensitivity to Tresiba® or one of its excipients Never Share a Tresiba® FlexTouch® Pen Between Patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Changes in insulin may affect glycemic control. These changes should be made cautiously and under medical supervision. Adjustments in concomitant oral anti-diabetic treatment may be needed Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin, including Tresiba®, and may be life-threatening. Increase monitoring with changes to: insulin dose, co-administered glucose lowering medications, meal pattern, physical activity; and in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness or renal or hepatic impairment Accidental mix-ups betwe Continue reading >>

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

Insulin Actions Times And Peak Times

A good way to improve your glucose levels is to track the peaks and drops in your glucose , so you can figure out why they happened and how to correct them. Once you identify glucose patterns (they ARE there!), you also want to understand when each of your insulins is active and when they typically stop lowering your glucose. This helps you adjust your doses or food intake to stop unwanted ups and downs in your readings. The table below shows the start, peak, and end times for various insulins with some explanations and typical uses for each. When Does My Insulin Peak and How Long Does It Last? designed to peak, covers meals and lowers high BGs Humalog , Novolog and Apidra insulins currently give the best coverage for meals and help keep the glucose lower afterward. Their glucose lowering activity starts to work about 20 minutes after they are taken, with a gradual rise in activity over the next 1.75 to 2.25 hours. Their activity gradually falls over the next 3 hours with about 5 to 6 hours of activity being common with these insulins.Although insulin action times are often quoted as 3-5 hours, the actual duration of insulin action is typically 5 hours or more. See our article Duration of Insulin Action for more information on this important topic. In general, "rapid" insulins are still too slow for many common meals where the glucose peaks within an hour and digestion is complete within 2-3 hours. The best kept secret on stopping post meal spiking is to eake the injection or bolus earlier before the meal and to eat slower low glycemic carbs. Regular insulin still carries its original name of "fast insulin" but its slower action often works better for people who take Symlin or for those who have gastroparesis (delayed digestion). It is also a great choice for those who Continue reading >>

Insulin Glargine

Insulin Glargine

Insulin glargine, marketed under the names Lantus, among others, is a long-acting basal insulin analogue, given once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes. It consists of microcrystals that slowly release insulin, giving a long duration of action of 18 to 26 hours, with a "peakless" profile (according to the insulin glargine package insert). Pharmacokinetically, it resembles basal insulin secretion of non-diabetic pancreatic beta cells. Sometimes, in type 2 diabetes and in combination with a short acting sulfonylurea (drugs which stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin), it can offer moderate control of serum glucose levels. In the absence of endogenous insulin—type 1 diabetes, depleted type 2 (in some cases) or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults in late stage—insulin glargine needs the support of fast acting insulin taken with food to reduce the effect of prandially derived glucose. Medical uses[edit] The long-acting insulin class, which includes insulin glargine, do not appear much better than neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin but have a significantly greater cost making them, as of 2010, not cost effective.[1] It is unclear if there is a difference in hypoglycemia and not enough data to determine any differences with respect to long term outcomes.[2] Mixing with other insulins[edit] Unlike some other longer-acting insulins, glargine must not be diluted or mixed with other insulin or solution in the same syringe.[3] However, this restriction has been questioned.[4] Adverse effects[edit] Cancer[edit] As of 2012 tentative evidence shows no association between insulin glargine and cancer.[5] Previous studies had raised concerns.[6] Pharmacology[edit] Mechanism of action[edit] Insulin glargine has a substitution of glycine for Continue reading >>

Insulin Glargine

Insulin Glargine

Insulin Glargine. Insulin glargine is a recombinant human insulin analogue that does provide 24-hour duration of action in most, but not all, patients with T1DM. It differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position A21 is replaced by glycine, and two arginines are added to the carboxy (C)-terminus of the B chain. In the injection solution at pH 4, insulin glargine is completely soluble. However, it has low solubility at neutral pH. After injection into the subcutaneous tissue, the acidic solution is neutralized, leading to the formation of microprecipitates from which small amounts of insulin glargine are slowly released; this results in absorption over a period of approximately 24 hours with no pronounced peak. Insulin glargine thus simulates the basal production of insulin. In other respects, its mechanism of action is similar to that of human insulin, and on a molar basis its glucose-lowering effects are similar to those of human insulin when given intravenously. Because this insulin is provided in an acid vehicle, it cannot be mixed with other forms of insulin or intravenous fluids, and some patients have greater discomfort with injection at least some of the time. In general, glargine is less variably absorbed than NPH insulin, and in clinical trials in patients with T1DM it has been associated with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal hypoglycemia. In about 10% of patients, insulin glargine must be taken twice daily to provide 24-hour coverage of basal insulin needs. In a smaller percentage of patients, a modest peak in effect occurs 2 to 6 hours after injection and can result in nocturnal hypoglycemia. Long-Acting Insulin Analogues Lantus (insulin glargine, Sanofi) has been the focus of attention in veterinary medicine for Continue reading >>

Eu Gives Green Light To Toujeo, A Better Insulin Glargine?

Eu Gives Green Light To Toujeo, A Better Insulin Glargine?

EU Gives Green Light to Toujeo, a Better Insulin Glargine? The European Union has given the nod to a new formulation of insulin glargine (Toujeo, Sanofi), which is a higher-strength insulin (300 units/mL) than the existing insulin glargine product on the market (100 units/mL); the latter was first authorized in the European Union as Lantus and Optisulin (both Sanofi) in June 2000. The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) issued its positive opinion on Toujeo for the treatment of adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes just a day after the US FDA approved the product for the same indication. As well as containing three times the concentration of insulin glargine, Toujeo is designed to release the insulin more gradually; thus, the product has been labeled an ultralong-acting insulin (U300), or "a next-generation insulin," as Sanofi is calling it. When Lantus was first launched, it was marketed as a "24-hour-insulin," but, with a half-life of 12 hours, insulin glargine always struggled to live up to that promise and has found itself eclipsed by the long-acting insulin degludec (Tresiba, Novo Nordisk), which has been available in the European Union since January 2013. Insulin degludec is not approved in the United States, however. Another extremely long-acting basal insulin, peglispro, has just suffered a setback ; its manufacturer, Lilly, has said it will have to postpone the marketing application by at least 2 years to evaluate why some patients developed excess liver fat in late-stage studies. Toujeo Likely Available Within EU Within 2 Months EU approval is normally a formality 2 months after a positive CHMP opinion, and Sanofi says once approved , its new product will be available in the Toujeo SoloSTAR, a disposab Continue reading >>

Lantus

Lantus

What is Lantus? Lantus is a brand name medication marketed by Sanofi-Aventis consisting of insulin glargine. This is a prescription diabetes medication, and it is a long-acting form of insulin. This type of insulin is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, as short-acting and intravenous insulin is preferred for the treatment of that condition. There are presently no generic forms of this drug approved within the US. Lantus is thought to be a ‘biologic’ medicine, and regulations and rules keep manufacturers from making generic biologics. Plus, patents presently prohibit generic Lantus from becoming manufactured. It’ll work by decreasing glucose levels in your blood. Lantus consists of micro crystals that are thought to slowly release insulin, and it can have a long duration of action between 18 and 26 hours. This profile is also considered to be peak less. Lantus Uses Lantus is used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It works by lowering the amount of sugar within the blood, and since it is long-acting insulin, it is usually only taken once per day. It is used in injection form, and it is important that directions should be followed properly. It can be taken at any time during the day, but it needs to be taken consistently at the same time. Patients should also not take any more or less of the medication than prescribed, and the appearance should always be checked before using it. Lantus is usually prescribed as part of a full treatment program which also may involve exercise, diet, weight control, as well as testing the blood sugar. Follow your medication, diet and exercise regimen extremely closely. Altering any of these could affect your level of blood sugar. How Lantus is used Lantus will be injected underneath your skin. You might be sh Continue reading >>

Lantus 100 Units/ml Solution For Injection In A Cartridge

Lantus 100 Units/ml Solution For Injection In A Cartridge

Lantus 100 units/ml solution for injection in a cartridge This information is intended for use by health professionals Lantus 100 units/ml solution for injection in a vial Lantus 100 units/ml solution for injection in a cartridge Lantus SoloStar 100 units/ml solution for injection in a pre-filled pen 2. Qualitative and quantitative composition Each ml contains 100 units insulin glargine* (equivalent to 3.64 mg). Each vial contains 5 ml of solution for injection, equivalent to 500 units, or 10 ml of solution for injection, equivalent to 1000 units. Each cartridge or pen contains 3 ml of solution for injection, equivalent to 300 units. *Insulin glargine is produced by recombinant DNA technology in Escherichia coli. For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1. Treatment of diabetes mellitus in adults, adolescents and children aged 2 years and above. 4.2 Posology and method of administration Lantus contains insulin glargine, an insulin analogue, and has a prolonged duration of action. Lantus should be administered once daily at any time but at the same time each day. The dose regimen (dose and timing) should be individually adjusted. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Lantus can also be given together with orally active antidiabetic medicinal products. The potency of this medicinal product is stated in units. These units are exclusive to Lantus and are not the same as IU or the units used to express the potency of other insulin analogues (see section 5.1). In the elderly, progressive deterioration of renal function may lead to a steady decrease in insulin requirements. In patients with renal impairment, insulin requirements may be diminished due to reduced insulin metabolism. In patients with hepatic impairment, insulin requirements may be diminished due to re Continue reading >>

Lantus® Can Still Be Your Choice For A Product With Demonstrated Efficacy And Safety

Lantus® Can Still Be Your Choice For A Product With Demonstrated Efficacy And Safety

Lantus® is a long-acting insulin analog indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lantus® should be administered once a day at the same time every day. Limitations of Use: Lantus® is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Contraindications Lantus® is contraindicated during episodes of hypoglycemia and in patients hypersensitive to insulin glargine or one of its excipients. Warnings and Precautions Insulin pens, needles, or syringes must never be shared between patients. Do NOT reuse needles. Monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin. Modify insulin regimen cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in insulin dose or an adjustment in concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment. Do not dilute or mix Lantus® with any other insulin or solution. If mixed or diluted, the solution may become cloudy, and the onset of action/time to peak effect may be altered in an unpredictable manner. Do not administer Lantus® via an insulin pump or intravenously because severe hypoglycemia can occur. Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin therapy, including Lantus®, and may be life-threatening. Medication errors, such as accidental mix-ups between basal insulin products and other insulins, particularly rapid-acting insulins, have been reported. Patients should be instructed to always verify the insulin label before each injection. Severe life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur. Discontinue Lantus®, treat and monitor until symptoms resolve. A reduction in the Lantus® dose may be re Continue reading >>

Toujeo Vs Lantus, Toujeo Costs, Insulin Glargine

Toujeo Vs Lantus, Toujeo Costs, Insulin Glargine

Toujeo vs Lantus, Toujeo Costs, Insulin Glargine Doctablet Diabetes , Endocrinology , Everything About Insulin , Medicine Its understandable if you are wondering about the difference between Lantusand Toujeo. After all, both Lantus and Toujeo contain the same insulin , called insulin glargine. Insulin glargine was introduced in the year 2000. This was a huge advancement because it was the first long-acting basal insulin. Before the development of insulin glargine, doctors did not have many types of insulins to choose from. Glargine (the insulin in both Lantus and Toujeo) is an insulin analoguemeaning it has been modified from regular insulin to change its structure and the way it is absorbed. Insulin glargine is still available in its original formulation as Lantus, most commonly prescribed as the Lantus Solostar pen. Insulin is classically prescribed at a very specific concentration called U-100. The U stands for units. The 100 stands for the number of units present in the liquid (1 milliliter ). U-100 insulin has 100 units in 1 milliliter. U-100 is also referred to as regular insulin, but this can be confusing since many different types of insulin come in this concentration. Fast forward a decade and a half later, and insulin glargine (originally Lantus) has reinvented itself. Toujeo (U-300) insulin glargine was approved by the FDA in late February of 2015, making it the first long-acting concentrated insulin available on the market. It is available in insulin pen form only as the Toujeo SoloStar. What researchers discovered was that if they made glargine more concentrated, it lasts slightly longer in the body. Thats right, Toujeo IS GLARGINE, just in the concentrated form of U-300. This means Toujeo is three times more concentrated than Lantus. Some people think Tou Continue reading >>

Lantus

Lantus

Lantus glargine by Aventis long-acting analog U100 Special, pH 4 Line new molecular entity Also known as Glargine (generic) Similar to Levemir, PZI[1] ultralente, Ultratard (duration) Action in cats varies by animal onset variable, asymmetric peak 5-14h (4-20 h as per Nelson)[2] duration 9-24h (10-16 h as per Nelson)[3] Action in dogs onset inconsistent, peak 0.5 to 6 hours, inconsistent, duration about 13hr but inconsistent-beef/pork PZI has longer duration (10-16 h as per Nelson)[4][5][6] Use and Handling Type clear Shelf Life refrigerate, until date on package When opened 28 days at room temp, up to 6 months when stored in the refrigerator (2C to 8C)[7] In pen 28 days at room temp Notes protect from light and heat do not mix with other insulins do not dilute do not prefill syringe discard if precipitate or cloudiness discard if frozen Do not use intravenously[8] Do not use intramuscularly[9] Lantus is the brand name for insulin glargine, an insulin analog made by Aventis[10]. Lantus is a very long-acting insulin (lasting up to 24 hours in humans) that uses pH reactions to form micro-precipitates under the skin, which create a time-release action. Because of cats' faster metabolism, long-acting insulins like Lantus (and perhaps Levemir) are gaining a good reputation in veterinary research for regulating cats for a full 12 hours at a time, often better than some of their shorter-acting cousins. Proponents of Lantus in feline use point out that it lasts a full 12 hours in many cats, has a very gentle onset, a negligible peak, and (some claim) less chance of triggering hypo or rebound than faster-acting insulins. The famous Queensland University studies[11] showed that a simple protocol (in a 24-hour monitored, veterinary environment, with a Low-carb diet) could bring ma Continue reading >>

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

Long-acting Insulin: How It Works

When you eat, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin moves sugar (glucose) from your blood to your cells for energy or storage. If you take insulin, you may need some at mealtime to help lower your blood sugar after you eat. But even between meals, you need insulin in small amounts to help keep blood sugar stable. This is where long-acting insulin comes in. If you have diabetes, either your pancreas can’t produce enough (or any) insulin, or your cells can’t use it efficiently. To control your blood sugar, you need to replace or supplement the normal function of your pancreas with regular insulin injections. Insulin comes in many types. Each type differs in three ways: onset: how quickly it starts working to lower your blood sugar peak: when its effects on your blood sugar are strongest duration: how long it lowers your blood sugar According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the five types of insulin are: Rapid-acting insulin: This type starts to work just 15 minutes after you take it. It peaks within 30 to 90 minutes, and its effects last for three to five hours. Short-acting insulin: This type takes about 30 to 60 minutes to become active in your bloodstream. It peaks in two to four hours, and its effects can last for five to eight hours. It is sometimes called regular-acting insulin. Intermediate-acting insulin: The intermediate type takes one to three hours to start working. It peaks in eight hours and works for 12 to 16 hours. Long-acting insulin: This type takes the longest amount of time to start working. The insulin can take up to 4 hours to get into your bloodstream. Pre-mixed: This is a combination of two different types of insulin: one that controls blood sugar at meals and another that controls blood sugar between meals. Lo Continue reading >>

Insulin Glargine Overdose

Insulin Glargine Overdose

Go to: CASE REPORT A 76-year-old male presented to our Emergency Department (ED) after an intentional overdose of insulin glargine (LANTUS®). He was found by his friend diaphoretic and anxious, but responsive. He reported that he attempted to suicide by injecting himself 500 units insulin glargine subcutaneously. There was no information about blood glucose level at the time of ambulance arrival. On initial ED evaluation, he was conscious, Glasgow Coma Score was 15/15; and vital signs were as follows: Blood pressure 120/70 mmHg, pulse rate 98 bpm, body temperature 36 °C; and respiratory rate 18 pm. Diaphoresis was still continuing and physical examination revealed nothing pathological but tachycardia. Finger-stick glucose was 30 mg/dl (Reference range: 70-106 mg/dl). Simultaneous chemistry revealed 41 mg/dl. He was started 50 cc 50 % dextrose IV and continued on 10 % dextrose at 50 cc/h. Over the next 96 h he received a 10 % dextrose infusion at 50 cc/h and he was needed to administer extra glucose boluses for several times because of hypoglycemia periods [Figure 1]. Serum potassium level was 3.11 meq/l (Reference range: 3.5 – 5.2 meq/l). Other parameters such as sodium, phosphate, calcium and liver function tests were in the normal range. Oral potassium chloride was started since serum level was found as low as 3.17 meq/l. Oral potassium chloride was arranged as needed during follow up period. In his past medical history, he emphasized insulin-dependent diabetes for 25 years, hypertension, parkinson disease, panic disorder; and dementia. Current medications included insulin glargine 14 units twice daily, Losartan plus, levodopa+carbidopa+entacapone and piracetam. After 96 h, he was transferred to Internal Medicine ward for close monitoring; then consulted to psychi Continue reading >>

Comparison Of Insulin Therapies

Comparison Of Insulin Therapies

BACKGROUND: Insulin is a common therapy in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. With the advent of intermediate-acting and long-acting insulin products, basal insulin therapy has become a common practice usually utilized to reduce the number of injections needed to administer or in combination with a short-acting insulin product in the basal–bolus insulin regimens. The original insulins created to have longer durations of action were the NPH insulins which utilized a crystalline complex between the insulin and protamine.2 In more recent years, newer basal insulins such as Levemir and Lantus have come onto the market which do not rely on the use of protamine-insulin complexes and also claim to last longer (possibly up to single dose a day administration) with no peak activity. The lack of peak activity promises to reduce hypoglycemia risk and to provide a more basal-like dosing.1,3 The original insulins used as bolus insulin therapy were isolated from either animal or human sources. Today, the standard of isolated insulin therapies is regular human insulin. Like the long acting insulin products, recent years have seen the emergence of rapid acting insulin analogues. These rapid insulins promise to have higher efficacy and safety due to rapid onset (for meal time administration) and shorter duration of action.1,4,5 While the newer insulin products claim to have benefits of duration of action and less risk of hypoglycemia, they come at a higher cost than the regular human insulin and NPH insulin products. The average patient admitted to hospice care usually does not have insulin therapy related to the terminal diagnosis — with some obvious exceptions such as pancreatic cancer. The following is an analysis of the benefits and claimed convenience of the newer Continue reading >>

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