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Growth Hormone Diabetogenic

Diabetogenic Hormones (human Choriosomatomammotrophin And Ovine Growth Hormone): Anti-insulin Action In Hypophysectomized Rats

Diabetogenic Hormones (human Choriosomatomammotrophin And Ovine Growth Hormone): Anti-insulin Action In Hypophysectomized Rats

Three hormones were tested for effectiveness as diabetogenic, that is antiinsulin, agents: human choriosomatomammotrophin (HCS), ovine GH, and ovine prolactin. Female rats hypophysectomized at 28 days of age were used throughout the study. In a first series of experiments rats were injected once daily for a period of 10 days with HCS (100 g), GH (10 or 100 g) or prolactin (10 or 100 g), each thyroxine (T4, 0.5 g), and then challenged in a glucose tolerance test with glucose plus 0.03 units protamine zinc insulin (PZI) following a 6-h fast. Blood glucose levels (mg/100 ml) 50 min later were: saline control, 74; HCS, 98; prolactin, 85. No prior injections: fasting, 54; glucose only, 159. GH, 10 g, was as effective as HCS; a higher dose, 100 g, was no more effective than prolactin. T4 negated the anti-insulin effects of HCS and of GH. In a second series rats were pre-treated for a period of 22 days, beginning 14 days after hypophysectomy, and then injected with doses of PZI (0.4 units 1.6 units/day) that induced convulsions in unprotected (saline and prolactin-treated) rats run concurrently. HCS (200 g 400 g/day) staved off convulsions over the 10-day challenge period; HCS also stimulated growth of the thymus, markedly in combination with PZI and T4. Neither HCS nor PZI affected skeletal growth. In summary, HCS affords protection in the hypophysectomized rat against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without introducing complications associated with growth. The parent HCS molecule or an active fragment of the diabetogenic hormones, we suggest, should be tested in humans for usefulness in protecting brittle diabetic against insulin hypoglycaemia. Continue reading >>

How Is Growth Hormone Diabetogenic? Do Diabetes Also Mean Low Blood Sugar Level?

How Is Growth Hormone Diabetogenic? Do Diabetes Also Mean Low Blood Sugar Level?

Answered Jan 28, 2019 Author has 926 answers and 38.3k answer views Growth hormone is diabetogenic because it is an insulin antagonist, thereby preventing the action of insulin to bring down high blood sugar levels & promote the passage of sugar from the blood into the cells. Diabetes means a condition of high blood sugar. In latent diabetes, a precursor to diabetes, blood sugar level may be normal. Low blood sugar may occasionally be seen in a diabetic on anti-diabetic medicines due to fall in blood sugar. Answered Jan 30, 2019 Author has 300 answers and 174.4k answer views Growth hormone (GH) counteracts, in general, the effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism but shares protein anabolic properties with insulin. Under physiological circumstances, GH does not affect total glucose turnover directly. There is however evidence that GH acutely decreases glucose oxidation (secondary to an increase in lipid oxidation) and suppresses muscle uptake of glucose, suggesting that GH redistributes glucose fluxes into a non-oxidative pathway, which could be a build up of glycogen depots through gluconeogenesis. Since GH secretion is inhibited in the fed state the... Growth hormone (GH) counteracts, in general, the effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism but shares protein anabolic properties with insulin. Under physiological circumstances, GH does not affect total glucose turnover directly. There is however evidence that GH acutely decreases glucose oxidation (secondary to an increase in lipid oxidation) and suppresses muscle uptake of glucose, suggesting that GH redistributes glucose fluxes into a non-oxidative pathway, which could be a build up of glycogen depots through gluconeogenesis. Since GH secretion is inhibited in the fed state these actions are main Continue reading >>

Payperview: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucose Metabolism - Karger Publishers

Payperview: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucose Metabolism - Karger Publishers

Effects of Growth Hormone on Glucose Metabolism Mller N. Jrgensen J.O.L. Abildgrd N. rskov L. Schmitz O. Christiansen J.S. I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. Growth hormone (GH) counteracts in general the effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism, but shares protein anabolic properties with insulin. Under physiological circumstances GH does not affect total glucose turnover directly. There is however evidence that GH acutely decreases glucose oxidation (secondary to an increase in lipid oxidation) and suppresses muscle uptake of glucose, suggesting that GH redistributes glucose fluxes into a non-oxidative pathway, which could be a build up of glycogen depots through gluconeogenesis. Since GH secretion is inhibited in the fed state these actions are mainly important in the postprandial or fasting state. Under pathological conditions of GH excess (e.g. acromegaly, poorly controlled tp. 1 diabetes or high dose GH treatment) the diabetogenic actions of GH become apparent. In these patients increased endogenous glucose production, decreased muscle glucose uptake and rising blood glucose levels are observed. In patients with intact -cell function these changes are counterbalanced by hyperinsulinemia such hyperinsulinemia may in the long term induce increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (Reavens syndrome X). When stimulated with insulin these patients exhibit insulin resistance at the liver, in adipose tissue and in muscle. Few elaborate studies on the effects of GH on glucose metabolism in GH deficient patients have been conducted. These patients are hypersensitive to the actions of insulin on glucose metabolism and there is some evidence that when GH initially is given to such patients in the GH deprived state, paradox insulin-like ef Continue reading >>

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone Of Glucagon And Insulin Secretion.

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone Of Glucagon And Insulin Secretion.

Eur J Clin Invest. 1981 Apr;11(2 Suppl 1):115-9. On the diabetogenic effect of growth hormone in man: effects of growth hormone of glucagon and insulin secretion. The effects of human growth hormone (GH) on glucose homeostasis and the secretion of insulin and glucagon was investigated in eighteen healthy subjects. GH (40 microgram/kg) was given as a 30 min i.v. infusion and was followed immediately, or after 60 min, by either a glucose infusion, or an i.v. L-arginine infusion or i.v. insulin (0.05 IU/kg). An insulin-like effect of GH was seen about 15 min after the start of the GH infusion, and became a diabetogenic action 90 min later. Basal and glucose stimulated insulin secretion were suppressed 60 min after the start of the GH infusion, while insulin response to i.v. L-arginine, on the whole, was uninfluenced. Basal glucagon as well as glucagon response to arginine or hypoglycaemia were uninfluenced by GH. GH did not alter the degree of hypoglycaemia reached after i.v. insulin, whereas the rapidity of blood glucose fall was significantly decreased. The restitution of blood glucose after its nadir was not modified by the hormone. These results demonstrate that the diabetogenic action of GH is not mediated by GH effects on glucagon secretion, and that GH is of little importance in the acute counter-regulation of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone And Metabolic Homeostasis

Growth Hormone And Metabolic Homeostasis

Each article is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 License . Pituitary growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted by somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary under the tight control of the hypothalamicpituitary axis and GH secretagogues. GH elicits its effects directly on target organs and cells interacting with GH receptors and through stimulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 production. GH plays critical roles in regulating somatic growth and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. GH increases insulin secretion and glucose uptake. Conversely, a GH deficient state is characterised by enhanced insulin sensitivity. Diabetogenic actions of GH are evident in conditions of GH excess, such as acromegaly or poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In patients with GH deficiency, administration of GH resulted in impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Owing to its multiple and complex effects, the regulation of GH secretion and its function in normal health and metabolic diseases is a major research interest in the field of molecular endocrinology. This review provides an overview of the effects of GH on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, insulin resistance, and metabolic homeostasis. Hormones control several steps of intermediary metabolism, including glucose oxidation, glycogen metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. The importance of hormones from the anterior pituitary, the islets of Langerhans, adrenal glands, and the thyroid in intermediary metabolism is well recognised. Over recent years there has been a significant increase in the understanding of how these hormones regulate metabolic homeostasis. An array of hormones, including insulin, glucagon, Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone Flashcards | Quizlet

Growth Hormone Flashcards | Quizlet

Insulin-like-growth-factor (IGF). stimulates GH. secreted by liver synthesized in anterior pituitary cells called somatotrophs (make up 40-50% of cells in anterior pituitary). Hormone is stored in large granules within somatotrphic cells. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) induces synthesis and stims secretion of GH. Somatostatin inhibits synthesis and secretion. Pulsatile release of GHRH causes similar pulsatile release of GH. Somatostatin inhibits effect of GHRH on somatotrophic cells. GHRH, Ghrelin (secreted in fasting situations by cells in stomach. tells hypothalamus to release GHRH), Protein Nutritional Deficiency, Decrease in FFA and glucose, fasting or caloric restriction, puberty, exercise, stage IV sleep, physiologic stress, estrogens and androgens somatostatin, increased blood glucose, increased blood FFA, administration of exogenous GH, obesity, senescence, somatomedins plasma levels GH greatest in children and peak in puberty, lowestest in senescence Variations in secretion: Circadian Rhythm GH secretion varies within the 24 hour sleep-wake cycle. Peak secretion ~ 1 hr after onset of deep sleep secretion greater in females, estradiol stims GH secretion with a peak just before ovulation, testosterone stims GH secretion in males is GH the magic pill, the fountain of youth? GH supplements to middle aged males did not enhance muscle mass and strength gains over placebo effect when both groups preformed weight training exercises. (so no.) Actions of GH & Somatomedins (IGF): Metabolic Effects 1. Increase protein synthesis (synergistic action with insulin): 2. mobilization of fatty acids and utilization of fatty acids: -stims release of fatty acids from adipose cells and therefore see increase in plasma FFA and ketoacids -increases oxidation of fatty acids b Continue reading >>

Diabetogenic Peptide From Human Growth Hormone: Partial Purification From Peptic

Diabetogenic Peptide From Human Growth Hormone: Partial Purification From Peptic

Studies in female ob/ob mice demonstrated diabetogenic properties ofhuman growth hormone (somatotropin) and of a fragment generatedtherefrom by controlled digestion with pepsin; both the fragment andparent growth hormone produce long-term effects on carbohydratemetabolism; in acute glucose tolerance tests, only the fragment isactive. Two nonacidic diabetogenic fractions have been separated frominactive fractions by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6 followed by ionexchange chromatography at pH 4.3 and gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-2and/or Sephadex G25; these active fractions exhibited multipleNH2-terminal (Lys, Phe, Leu, and Tyr). Fraction CD has thesecharacteristics: (i) It induces glucose intolerance in fasting femaleob/ob mice when injected subcutaneously in a divided dose, 15 min beforeand concurrently with glucose; mice injected with sufficient peptideexhibit elevated fasting glucose levels as long as 7 months after asingle glucose tolerance test. (ii) It is a peptide smaller than thatreported to stimulate body growth, but larger than somatostatin. Thispeptide, as reported earlier, does not crossreact with antiserum tohuman growth hormone in radioimmunoassay. Continue reading >>

Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucose Metabolism.

Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucose Metabolism.

Abstract Growth hormone (GH) counteracts in general the effects of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolism, but shares protein anabolic properties with insulin. Under physiological circumstances GH does not affect total glucose turnover directly. There is however evidence that GH acutely decreases glucose oxidation (secondary to an increase in lipid oxidation) and suppresses muscle uptake of glucose, suggesting that GH redistributes glucose fluxes into a non-oxidative pathway, which could be a build up of glycogen depots through gluconeogenesis. Since GH secretion is inhibited in the fed state these actions are mainly important in the postprandial or fasting state. Under pathological conditions of GH excess (e.g. acromegaly, poorly controlled tp. 1 diabetes or high dose GH treatment) the diabetogenic actions of GH become apparent. In these patients increased endogenous glucose production, decreased muscle glucose uptake and rising blood glucose levels are observed. In patients with intact beta-cell function these changes are counterbalanced by hyperinsulinemia--such hyperinsulinemia may in the long term induce increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ('Reavens syndrome X'). When stimulated with insulin these patients exhibit insulin resistance at the liver, in adipose tissue and in muscle. Few elaborate studies on the effects of GH on glucose metabolism in GH deficient patients have been conducted. These patients are hypersensitive to the actions of insulin on glucose metabolism and there is some evidence that when GH initially is given to such patients in the GH deprived state, paradox insulin-like effects of GH may be observed. Whether this may relate to increased activity of insulin-like growth factors is unsettled. Continue reading >>

Human Growth Hormone As A Regulator Of Blood Glucose Concentration And As A Diabetogenic Substance

Human Growth Hormone As A Regulator Of Blood Glucose Concentration And As A Diabetogenic Substance

Human growth hormone as a regulator of blood glucose concentration and as a diabetogenic substance Human growth hormone (HGH) has recently been shown to play a prominent role in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it has long been known that administration of growth hormone in animals can induce a diabetes-like state. In human subjects, exogenous administration of HGH or hypersecretion of the endogenous hormone in acromegaly is accompanied by glucose intolerance in only about 25 per cent of the cases. In this paper, data are presented which give a more diversified picture of the so-called diabetogenic action of HGH. It is suggested that HGH, although decreasing the peripheral utilization of glucose, is not a primary diabetogenic factor, since its insulinogenic action causes a compensatory hyperinsulinism, with normal glucose tolerance as the result. HGH is diabetogenic only in prediabetic subjects whose pancreas is unable to respond to the insulinogenic effect of the hormone. In such subjects, the diabetogenic action of HGH not being counterbalanced by a compensatory hyperinsulinism, glucose intolerance may result. Thus, HGH may be regarded as anadditional factor for the development of diabetes, the major prerequisite being a prexisting prediabetic state. Human growth hormoneGrowth hormoneInsulinDiabetes mellitusExperimental diabetesAcromegalyPathogenesis of diabetes mellitus Presented as an invited lecture at the VI Acta Endocrinologica Congress, Helsinki, Finland, August 8th12th, 1967. L'hormone de croissance humaine en tant que rgulateur de la concentration du glucose sanguin et en tant que substance diabtogne Il a t dmontr rcemment que l'hormone de croissance humaine (HGH) joue un rle prminent dans la rgulation normale de la glycmie. De plus, il Continue reading >>

Diabetogenic | Definition Of Diabetogenic By Medical Dictionary

Diabetogenic | Definition Of Diabetogenic By Medical Dictionary

Diabetogenic | definition of diabetogenic by Medical dictionary /diabetogenic/ (-betah-jenik) producing diabetes. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us , add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content . Some of the risk factors predate transplant and could be used to risk-stratify patients and apply risk-reduction strategies such as lifestyle modification and use of less diabetogenic immunosuppressive protocols. Maternal and foetal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, and reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide or hydroxyl radicals) (Sjostrand and Eriksson 2009; Tiganis 2011), should also be investigated (through immunoblots, immunohistochemical methods, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction) to pinpoint the exact mechanisms of the diabetogenic effects of noise exposure. Screening of free carnitine and acylcarnitine status in children with familial Mediterranean fever The onset of arterial hypertension due to disturbed circadian rhythm of blood pressure and diabetogenic profile potentiates atherosclerosis and can cause a cardiovascular disease (CVD) [31]. Giardiasis in streptozotocin--induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice 26-29] The different type of ADRs associated are hyperglycemic and diabetogenic, [30-32] adipogenic, [33-35] hyperlipidemia, [19,36,37] dyslipidemia, [38] spontaneous bleeding episodes, [39,40] dermatologic and sensitive reaction, [41-44] hepatic effect, [28,29,45-47] lactic acidosis and steatosis, [48-51] gastrointestinal symptoms, [6,15,19] teratogenic effect, [52] nervous system effect, [18,53-56] peripheral neuropathy, [56-58] hematologic effect, [59] immune reconstitution syndrome, [60,61] cardiovascular effect, [62] sulfonamide sens Continue reading >>

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucagon And Insulin Secretion

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucagon And Insulin Secretion

Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by the anterior part of the pituitary gland and plays a critical role in cell growth, development, and metabolism throughout the body. GH can not only directly influence human oocytes and cumulus cells but also indirectly improve oocyte quality through activating synthesis of insulin-like growth factor-I or promoting follicle-stimulating hormone-induced ovarian steroidogenesis. Since GH can regulate female and male infertility, it has been applied in the management of infertility for many years, especially in patients with poor ovarian response or poor prognosis. During ovarian stimulation, GH administration might improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) probably through the beneficial effects of GH on oocyte quality as indicated by a higher number of mature oocytes and embryos arriving at the transfer stage and a higher fertility rate in GH-treated patients. However, there is still great controversy in the application of GH in IVF. While some researchers showed that pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates could be increased by ovarian pretreatment with GH, others did not support GH as an effective adjuvant for infertility treatment because the live birth rate was not increased. This study reviewed and summarized recent advancements and benefits in clinical application of GH, trying to reach a just unbiased conclusion regarding the effect of GH therapy in IVF. Over 20 years ago, our laboratory showed that growth hormone (GH) signals through the GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. We showed that GH binding to its membrane-bound receptor enhances binding of JAK2 to the GHR, activates JAK2, and stimulates tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR. The activated JAK2/GHR complex recru Continue reading >>

Insulin-like And Diabetogenic Effects Of Growth Hormone In Healthy Subjects, Diabetics, And Low Insulin Responders

Insulin-like And Diabetogenic Effects Of Growth Hormone In Healthy Subjects, Diabetics, And Low Insulin Responders

The effect of two doses of GH (10 and 40 g/kg) on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion was studied in 10 high insulin responders, 10 low insulin responders, and 6 subjects with chemical diabetes. GH was given as an iv infusion over 30min and, after a lag period of 60 min, a standard glucose infusion test (GIT) was performed. The insulin-like effect of GH was demonstrated in all groups under basal conditions but was more prominent in the diabetic than in the high and low insulin responders; it was evident even during the first 30 min of the GIT in the diabetics and low responders but not in the high responders. The insulin-like action of GH shifted to an antiinsulin one rather abruptly and was evident 30 min after discontinuation of the GIT. Hence, the GH-mediated decrease in the glucose disappearance rate, as seen after withdrawal of the GIT, wasof the same magnitude in all groups. The high GH dose seemed to have a more pronounced hypoglycemic effect than the low one, but the difference was not significant. As to the diabetogenic effect, there was no difference between the two GH doses. Both significantly suppressed basal insulin levels in all groups, and glucose stimulated insulin release in the diabetics and low insulin responders. In high insulin responders, the latter effect wasevident only in the presence of the high dose of the hormone, indicating that the diabetogenic effect is predominantly mediated by the peripheral effects of GH and not by the suppression of insulin release. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that the insulin-like effect of GH as well as its inhibitory effect on insulin release were more pronounced in diabetic subjects and low insulin responders, whereas the diabetogenic effect seemed to be of the same magnitude in these two groups Continue reading >>

Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucose Metabolism And Insulin Resistance In Human

Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucose Metabolism And Insulin Resistance In Human

Effects of growth hormone on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in human Shin-Hye Kim , MD, PhD and Mi-Jung Park , MD, PhD Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea Address for correspondence: Mi-Jung Park, MD, PhD , Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, 1342 Dongilro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01767, Korea Tel: +82-2-950-8826 Fax: +82-2-950-1246 E-mail: rk.ca.kiap@JMP Received 2017 Aug 31; Accepted 2017 Sep 11. Copyright 2017 Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( ) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Growth hormone (GH) is important for promotion of somatic growth and the regulation of substrate metabolism. Metabolic action of GH occurs in multiple tissues including the liver, muscle, fat and pancreas either directly or indirectly through insulin-like growth factor 1. The diabetogenic action of GH has been well-described in previous in vivo studies. In this paper, we review the metabolic effects of GH on peripheral tissues focusing on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and discuss results from human studies on the long-term effects of GH administration on insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Keywords: Growth hormone, Glucose, Metabolism, Insulin resistance Glucose balance in circulation is tightly maintained within normal range by dynamic regulation of both glucose production (from liver and kidney) and glucose usage by peripheral tissues including the liver, muscle, fat, and kidney [ 1 ]. Insulin, the primary regulator of glucose balance, lowers postprandial plasma glucos Continue reading >>

Not Breakdown Into Glucose Diabetogenic Effect Of Human Growth Hormone Excess

Not Breakdown Into Glucose Diabetogenic Effect Of Human Growth Hormone Excess

not breakdown into glucose Diabetogenic Effect of Human Growth Hormone Excess Not breakdown into glucose diabetogenic effect of 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 23 - 30 out of 61 pages. not breakdown into glucoseDiabetogenic Effect of Human Growth HormoneExcess of growth hormoneraises blood glucose concentrationpancreas releases insulin continuouslybeta-cell malfunctionCan cause diabetes mellitis due to a lack of insulin activity. Pituitary Gland DisordersHyposecretion during childhood = pituitary dwarfism (proportional, childlike body)Hypersecretion during childhood = giantismvery tall, normal proportionsHypersecretion in adults = acromegalygrowth of hands, feet, facial features and thickening of skin Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e24Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)Hypothalamus regulates the thyrotroph cells to secrete thyroyropic releasing hormone (TSH)Thyrotropic cells produce Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)TSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, T3 (triiodothyroronine-3I) and T4(thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine-4I) by the thyroid gland. Stimulates metabolic rate Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e25Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)Gonadotropin Releasing hormone from hypothalamus controls gonadotrophsGonadotrophs release follicle stimulating hormoneFSH functions initiates the formation of follicles within the ovarystimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogenstimulates the production of spermatoza in the testes 26Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Gonadotropin releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate gonadotrophsGonadotrophs produce LHIn females, LH stimulatessecretion of estrogenovulation of secondary oocyte from ovaryformation of corpus luteumsecretion of progesteroneIn Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone (somatotropin)

Growth Hormone (somatotropin)

Growth hormone is a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary. It is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism. Growth hormone is also of considerable interest as a drug used in both humans and animals. Physiologic Effects of Growth Hormone A critical concept in understanding growth hormone activity is that it has two distinct types of effects: Direct effects are the result of growth hormone binding its receptor on target cells. Fat cells (adipocytes), for example, have growth hormone receptors, and growth hormone stimulates them to break down triglyceride and supresses their ability to take up and accumulate circulating lipids. Indirect effects are mediated primarily by a insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone. A majority of the growth promoting effects of growth hormone is actually due to IGF-I acting on its target cells. Keeping this distinction in mind, we can discuss two major roles of growth hormone and its minion IGF-I in physiology. Effects on Growth Growth is a very complex process, and requires the coordinated action of several hormones. The major role of growth hormone in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-I. IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes. IGF-I also appears to be the key player in muscle growth. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and p Continue reading >>

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