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Growth Hormone Diabetogenic

Human Growth Hormone As A Regulator Of Blood Glucose Concentration And As A Diabetogenic Substance

Human Growth Hormone As A Regulator Of Blood Glucose Concentration And As A Diabetogenic Substance

Human growth hormone as a regulator of blood glucose concentration and as a diabetogenic substance Human growth hormone (HGH) has recently been shown to play a prominent role in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it has long been known that administration of growth hormone in animals can induce a diabetes-like state. In human subjects, exogenous administration of HGH or hypersecretion of the endogenous hormone in acromegaly is accompanied by glucose intolerance in only about 25 per cent of the cases. In this paper, data are presented which give a more diversified picture of the so-called diabetogenic action of HGH. It is suggested that HGH, although decreasing the peripheral utilization of glucose, is not a primary diabetogenic factor, since its insulinogenic action causes a compensatory hyperinsulinism, with normal glucose tolerance as the result. HGH is diabetogenic only in prediabetic subjects whose pancreas is unable to respond to the insulinogenic effect of the hormone. In such subjects, the diabetogenic action of HGH not being counterbalanced by a compensatory hyperinsulinism, glucose intolerance may result. Thus, HGH may be regarded as anadditional factor for the development of diabetes, the major prerequisite being a prexisting prediabetic state. Human growth hormoneGrowth hormoneInsulinDiabetes mellitusExperimental diabetesAcromegalyPathogenesis of diabetes mellitus Presented as an invited lecture at the VI Acta Endocrinologica Congress, Helsinki, Finland, August 8th12th, 1967. L'hormone de croissance humaine en tant que rgulateur de la concentration du glucose sanguin et en tant que substance diabtogne Il a t dmontr rcemment que l'hormone de croissance humaine (HGH) joue un rle prminent dans la rgulation normale de la glycmie. De plus, il Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone And Metabolic Homeostasis

Growth Hormone And Metabolic Homeostasis

Each article is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 License . Pituitary growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted by somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary under the tight control of the hypothalamicpituitary axis and GH secretagogues. GH elicits its effects directly on target organs and cells interacting with GH receptors and through stimulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 production. GH plays critical roles in regulating somatic growth and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. GH increases insulin secretion and glucose uptake. Conversely, a GH deficient state is characterised by enhanced insulin sensitivity. Diabetogenic actions of GH are evident in conditions of GH excess, such as acromegaly or poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In patients with GH deficiency, administration of GH resulted in impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Owing to its multiple and complex effects, the regulation of GH secretion and its function in normal health and metabolic diseases is a major research interest in the field of molecular endocrinology. This review provides an overview of the effects of GH on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, insulin resistance, and metabolic homeostasis. Hormones control several steps of intermediary metabolism, including glucose oxidation, glycogen metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. The importance of hormones from the anterior pituitary, the islets of Langerhans, adrenal glands, and the thyroid in intermediary metabolism is well recognised. Over recent years there has been a significant increase in the understanding of how these hormones regulate metabolic homeostasis. An array of hormones, including insulin, glucagon, Continue reading >>

Effects Of Growth Hormone And Pioglitazone In Viscerally Obese Adults With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Factorial Clinical Trial

Effects Of Growth Hormone And Pioglitazone In Viscerally Obese Adults With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Factorial Clinical Trial

Effects of Growth Hormone and Pioglitazone in Viscerally Obese Adults with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Factorial Clinical Trial Affiliation Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America Affiliation Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America Affiliation Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected] Affiliation Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America Effects of Growth Hormone and Pioglitazone in Viscerally Obese Adults with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Factorial Clinical Trial Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) and pioglitazone (PIO) in abdominally obese adults with impaired glucose tolerance were evaluated under the hypothesis that the combination attenuates GH-induced increases in glucose concentrations, reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and improves insulin sensitivity over time. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 2 factorial design. Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States. 62 abdominally obese adults aged 4075 with impaired glucose tolerance. GH (8 g/kg/d, or placebo) and pioglitazone (30 mg/d, or placebo) for 40 wk. Baseline and after 40 wk of treatment, VAT content was quantified by CT scan, glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and insulin sensitivity was measured using steady-state plasma glucose levels obtained during insulin suppression test. Baseline: body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, and visceral fat content w Continue reading >>

Diabetogenic Hormones (human Choriosomatomammotrophin And Ovine Growth Hormone): Anti-insulin Action In Hypophysectomized Rats

Diabetogenic Hormones (human Choriosomatomammotrophin And Ovine Growth Hormone): Anti-insulin Action In Hypophysectomized Rats

Three hormones were tested for effectiveness as diabetogenic, that is antiinsulin, agents: human choriosomatomammotrophin (HCS), ovine GH, and ovine prolactin. Female rats hypophysectomized at 28 days of age were used throughout the study. In a first series of experiments rats were injected once daily for a period of 10 days with HCS (100 g), GH (10 or 100 g) or prolactin (10 or 100 g), each thyroxine (T4, 0.5 g), and then challenged in a glucose tolerance test with glucose plus 0.03 units protamine zinc insulin (PZI) following a 6-h fast. Blood glucose levels (mg/100 ml) 50 min later were: saline control, 74; HCS, 98; prolactin, 85. No prior injections: fasting, 54; glucose only, 159. GH, 10 g, was as effective as HCS; a higher dose, 100 g, was no more effective than prolactin. T4 negated the anti-insulin effects of HCS and of GH. In a second series rats were pre-treated for a period of 22 days, beginning 14 days after hypophysectomy, and then injected with doses of PZI (0.4 units 1.6 units/day) that induced convulsions in unprotected (saline and prolactin-treated) rats run concurrently. HCS (200 g 400 g/day) staved off convulsions over the 10-day challenge period; HCS also stimulated growth of the thymus, markedly in combination with PZI and T4. Neither HCS nor PZI affected skeletal growth. In summary, HCS affords protection in the hypophysectomized rat against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without introducing complications associated with growth. The parent HCS molecule or an active fragment of the diabetogenic hormones, we suggest, should be tested in humans for usefulness in protecting brittle diabetic against insulin hypoglycaemia. Continue reading >>

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucagon And Insulin Secretion

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucagon And Insulin Secretion

Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by the anterior part of the pituitary gland and plays a critical role in cell growth, development, and metabolism throughout the body. GH can not only directly influence human oocytes and cumulus cells but also indirectly improve oocyte quality through activating synthesis of insulin-like growth factor-I or promoting follicle-stimulating hormone-induced ovarian steroidogenesis. Since GH can regulate female and male infertility, it has been applied in the management of infertility for many years, especially in patients with poor ovarian response or poor prognosis. During ovarian stimulation, GH administration might improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) probably through the beneficial effects of GH on oocyte quality as indicated by a higher number of mature oocytes and embryos arriving at the transfer stage and a higher fertility rate in GH-treated patients. However, there is still great controversy in the application of GH in IVF. While some researchers showed that pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates could be increased by ovarian pretreatment with GH, others did not support GH as an effective adjuvant for infertility treatment because the live birth rate was not increased. This study reviewed and summarized recent advancements and benefits in clinical application of GH, trying to reach a just unbiased conclusion regarding the effect of GH therapy in IVF. The aim of the study was to increase the number of human islet beta-cells after transplantation with injections of human growth hormone (hGH).Human islets and fetal rat islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule and under the right kidney capsule, respectively in nude normoglycemic mice which were then given a daily injectio Continue reading >>

Studies Show Benefits Of Growth Hormone Therapy For Adults With Pws

Studies Show Benefits Of Growth Hormone Therapy For Adults With Pws

Studies Show Benefits Of Growth Hormone Therapy For Adults With PWS Studies Show Benefits Of Growth Hormone Therapy For Adults With PWS Children with PWS typically have growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and treating them with growth hormone has been shown to have beneficial effects on growth, body composition, motor function, and possibly cognitive development. What many people don't know is that studies show promising results for growth hormone therapy for adults with PWS. Testing for Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adulthood While growth hormone therapy for children with PWS has been approved by the FDA since 2000 without the need for prior laboratory confirmation of GHD, the picture is somewhat different once PWS children attain adult height. Guidelines recommend that adults with PWS should have an evaluation of thegrowth hormone/ IGF axis to confirm GHD prior togrowth hormone therapy. Unlike in children, where lack of linear growth is a good indicator of potential problems in the growth hormone/ IGF-1 axis, adult GHD is harder to diagnose because a low growth hormone level is also part of the normal aging process. GHD is usually diagnosed using provocative agents that stimulategrowth hormone secretion, but this method isnt perfect. Especially in the case of PWS, underlying obesity and the frequent presence of other hormonal imbalances can influence test results. Therefore, relying on provocative testing alone has the potential to exclude PWS patients who, based on these criteria may not be GHD, but may still benefit fromgrowth hormone therapy in adulthood. Not surprisingly, there is a wide variation in GHD diagnosis in adult PWS patients previous studies have shown that anywhere between 8-55% of PWS adults met criteria for severe GHD. Clinical Picture of Growth Hormone Continue reading >>

Diabetogenic Peptide From Human Growth Hormone: Partial Purification From Peptic

Diabetogenic Peptide From Human Growth Hormone: Partial Purification From Peptic

Studies in female ob/ob mice demonstrated diabetogenic properties ofhuman growth hormone (somatotropin) and of a fragment generatedtherefrom by controlled digestion with pepsin; both the fragment andparent growth hormone produce long-term effects on carbohydratemetabolism; in acute glucose tolerance tests, only the fragment isactive. Two nonacidic diabetogenic fractions have been separated frominactive fractions by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6 followed by ionexchange chromatography at pH 4.3 and gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-2and/or Sephadex G25; these active fractions exhibited multipleNH2-terminal (Lys, Phe, Leu, and Tyr). Fraction CD has thesecharacteristics: (i) It induces glucose intolerance in fasting femaleob/ob mice when injected subcutaneously in a divided dose, 15 min beforeand concurrently with glucose; mice injected with sufficient peptideexhibit elevated fasting glucose levels as long as 7 months after asingle glucose tolerance test. (ii) It is a peptide smaller than thatreported to stimulate body growth, but larger than somatostatin. Thispeptide, as reported earlier, does not crossreact with antiserum tohuman growth hormone in radioimmunoassay. Continue reading >>

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucagon And Insulin Secretion

On The Diabetogenic Effect Of Growth Hormone In Man: Effects Of Growth Hormone On Glucagon And Insulin Secretion

On the diabetogenic effect of growth hormone in man: effects of growth hormone on glucagon and insulin secretion Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden *Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, S104 01 Stockholm, Sweden. Search for more papers by this author Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. View access options below. Logged in as READCUBE_USER. Log out of ReadCube . Abstract. The effects of human growth hormone (GH) on glucose homeostasis and the secretion of insulin and glucagon was investigated in eighteen healthy subjects. GH (40 g/kg) was given as a 30 min i.v. infusion and was followed immediately, or after 60 min, by either a glucose infusion, or an i.v. Larginine infusion or i.v. insulin (005 IU/kg). An insulinlike effect of GH was seen about 15 min after the start of the GH infusion, and became a diabetogenic action 90 min later. Basal and glucose stimulated insulin secretion were suppressed 60 min after the start of the GH infusion, while insulin response to i.v. Larginine, on the whole, was uninfluenced. Basal glucagon as well as glucagon response to arginine or hypoglycaemia were uninfluenced by GH. GH did not alter the degree of hypoglycaemia reached after i.v. insulin, whereas the rapidity of blood glucose fall was significantly decreased. The restitution of blood gluco Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone (somatotropin)

Growth Hormone (somatotropin)

Growth hormone is a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary. It is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism. Growth hormone is also of considerable interest as a drug used in both humans and animals. Physiologic Effects of Growth Hormone A critical concept in understanding growth hormone activity is that it has two distinct types of effects: Direct effects are the result of growth hormone binding its receptor on target cells. Fat cells (adipocytes), for example, have growth hormone receptors, and growth hormone stimulates them to break down triglyceride and supresses their ability to take up and accumulate circulating lipids. Indirect effects are mediated primarily by a insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone that is secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone. A majority of the growth promoting effects of growth hormone is actually due to IGF-I acting on its target cells. Keeping this distinction in mind, we can discuss two major roles of growth hormone and its minion IGF-I in physiology. Effects on Growth Growth is a very complex process, and requires the coordinated action of several hormones. The major role of growth hormone in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-I. IGF-I stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes. IGF-I also appears to be the key player in muscle growth. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and p Continue reading >>

Biosynthetic 20-kilodalton Methionyl-human Growth Hormone Has Diabetogenic And Insulin-like Activities.

Biosynthetic 20-kilodalton Methionyl-human Growth Hormone Has Diabetogenic And Insulin-like Activities.

The anterior pituitary gland produces a 20-kilodalton (kDa) variant of human growth hormone (hGH) that differs from the predominant 22-kDa form of hGH in that amino acid residues 32-46 are deleted. Previous work has suggested that the 20-kDa variant possesses the full growth-promoting and lactogenic activities of 22-kDa hGH but lacks its intrinsic diabetogenic and insulin-like activities. In the present study, recombinant DNA techniques were used to prepare biosynthetic 20-kDa hGH, and some of the biological properties of the purified hGH variant were examined. The biosynthetic 20-kDa hGH variant was found to share the propensity for aggregation exhibited by its native counterpart. Moreover, like the native variant, biosynthetic 20-kDa hGH possessed full growth-promoting activity in the weight gain test in hypophysectomized rats. However, contrary to previous work suggesting that native 20-kDa hGH lacks diabetogenic and insulin-like activities, biosynthetic 20-kDa hGH was found to have substantial diabetogenic activity when administered chronically to ob/ob mice and to possess approximately 20% the in vitro insulin-like activity of biosynthetic 22-kDa hGH on isolated epididymal adipose tissue of hypophysectomized rats. The diabetogenic and insulin-like activities of biosynthetic 20-kDa hGH cannot be ascribed to contamination of the hormone preparation with the 22-kDa form of hGH or with other diabetogenic or insulin-like pituitary peptides. Therefore, the results strongly suggest that diabetogenic and insulin-like activities are also intrinsic properties of the 20-kDa variant of hGH. Continue reading >>

Payperview: Growth Hormone And Diabetes Mellitus - Karger Publishers

Payperview: Growth Hormone And Diabetes Mellitus - Karger Publishers

A Review of Sixty-Three Years of Medical Research and a Glimpse into the Future? Snksen P.H. Russell-Jones D. Jones R.H. I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. The diabetogenic action of pituitary extracts containing growth hormone has been recognised for more than 60 years and the importance of growth hormone in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy for more than 30 years. Hypophysectomy was the first effective treatment for retinopathy but was discontinued because of the risk of severe hypoglycaemia that it produced and the development of an alternative, less dangerous therapy -photocoagulation. The precise role and significance of growth hormone in diabetes care, however, remains to this day a mystery. The fact that modern, highly purified biosynthetic preparations of growth hormone still retain full diabetogenic potency and the fact that diabetes develops in up to 25% of patients with acromegaly indicate growth hormones potential for involvement in the aetiology of diabetes mellitus, although most will agree that this is not likely to be an important factor in the large majority of idiopathic cases. There is strong evidence to indicate a substantial hypersecretion of growth hormone in idiopathic diabetes mellitus (particularly insulin-dependent cases and those with retinopathy), which appears to be more related to residual pancreatic insulin secretion than to metabolic control. Since the advent of biosynthetic growth hormone in sufficient quantity to perform trials in adults, we are more aware of growth hormones considerable potency in the regulation of body composition, growth factor production and intermediary metabolism. In this article, we review the literature and, from this and our own work, propose a new hypothesis which lin Continue reading >>

Growth Hormone: Isoforms, Clinical Aspects And Assays Interference

Growth Hormone: Isoforms, Clinical Aspects And Assays Interference

Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology volume4, Articlenumber:18 (2018) Cite this article The measurement of circulating concentrations of growth hormone (GH) is an indispensable tool in the diagnosis of both GH deficiency and GH excess. GH is a heterogeneous protein composed of several molecular isoforms, but the physiological role of these different isoforms has not yet been fully understood. The 22KD GH (22K-GH) is the main isoform in circulation, followed by 20KD GH (20K-GH) and other rare isoforms. Studies have been performed to better understand the biological actions of the different isoforms as well as their importance in pathological conditions. Generally, the non-22K- and 20K-GH isoforms are secreted in parallel to 22K-GH, and only very moderate changes in the ratio between isoforms have been described in some pituitary tumors or during exercise. Therefore, in a diagnostic approach, concentrations of 22K-GH accurately reflect total GH secretion. On the other hand, the differential recognition of GH isoforms by different GH immunoassays used in clinical routine contributes to the known discrepancy in results from different GH assays. This makes the application of uniform decision limits problematic. Therefore, the worldwide efforts to standardize GH assays include the recommendation to use 22K-GH specific GH assays calibrated against the pure 22K-GH reference preparation 98/574. Adoption of this recommendation might lead to improvement in diagnosis and follow-up of pathological conditions, and facilitate the comparison of results from different laboratories. The measurement of circulating concentrations of growth hormone (GH) is an indispensable tool in the diagnosis of both GH deficiency and GH excess. GH is a heterogeneous protein composed of several molecular Continue reading >>

Diabetogenic Hormones (human Choriosomatomammotrophin And Ovine Growth Hormone): Anti-insulin Action In Hypophysectomized Rats

Diabetogenic Hormones (human Choriosomatomammotrophin And Ovine Growth Hormone): Anti-insulin Action In Hypophysectomized Rats

Three hormones were tested for effectiveness as diabetogenic, that is antiinsulin, agents: human choriosomatomammotrophin (HCS), ovine GH, and ovine prolactin. Female rats hypophysectomized at 28 days of age were used throughout the study. In a first series of experiments rats were injected once daily for a period of 10 days with HCS (100 g), GH (10 or 100 g) or prolactin (10 or 100 g), each thyroxine (T4, 0.5 g), and then challenged in a glucose tolerance test with glucose plus 0.03 units protamine zinc insulin (PZI) following a 6-h fast. Blood glucose levels (mg/100 ml) 50 min later were: saline control, 74; HCS, 98; prolactin, 85. No prior injections: fasting, 54; glucose only, 159. GH, 10 g, was as effective as HCS; a higher dose, 100 g, was no more effective than prolactin. T4 negated the anti-insulin effects of HCS and of GH. In a second series rats were pre-treated for a period of 22 days, beginning 14 days after hypophysectomy, and then injected with doses of PZI (0.4 units 1.6 units/day) that induced convulsions in unprotected (saline and prolactin-treated) rats run concurrently. HCS (200 g 400 g/day) staved off convulsions over the 10-day challenge period; HCS also stimulated growth of the thymus, markedly in combination with PZI and T4. Neither HCS nor PZI affected skeletal growth. In summary, HCS affords protection in the hypophysectomized rat against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without introducing complications associated with growth. The parent HCS molecule or an active fragment of the diabetogenic hormones, we suggest, should be tested in humans for usefulness in protecting brittle diabetic against insulin hypoglycaemia. Continue reading >>

Not Breakdown Into Glucose Diabetogenic Effect Of Human Growth Hormone Excess

Not Breakdown Into Glucose Diabetogenic Effect Of Human Growth Hormone Excess

not breakdown into glucose Diabetogenic Effect of Human Growth Hormone Excess Not breakdown into glucose diabetogenic effect of 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 23 - 30 out of 61 pages. not breakdown into glucoseDiabetogenic Effect of Human Growth HormoneExcess of growth hormoneraises blood glucose concentrationpancreas releases insulin continuouslybeta-cell malfunctionCan cause diabetes mellitis due to a lack of insulin activity. Pituitary Gland DisordersHyposecretion during childhood = pituitary dwarfism (proportional, childlike body)Hypersecretion during childhood = giantismvery tall, normal proportionsHypersecretion in adults = acromegalygrowth of hands, feet, facial features and thickening of skin Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e24Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)Hypothalamus regulates the thyrotroph cells to secrete thyroyropic releasing hormone (TSH)Thyrotropic cells produce Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)TSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, T3 (triiodothyroronine-3I) and T4(thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine-4I) by the thyroid gland. Stimulates metabolic rate Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e25Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)Gonadotropin Releasing hormone from hypothalamus controls gonadotrophsGonadotrophs release follicle stimulating hormoneFSH functions initiates the formation of follicles within the ovarystimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogenstimulates the production of spermatoza in the testes 26Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Gonadotropin releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate gonadotrophsGonadotrophs produce LHIn females, LH stimulatessecretion of estrogenovulation of secondary oocyte from ovaryformation of corpus luteumsecretion of progesteroneIn Continue reading >>

Metabolic Basis For The Diabetogenic Action Of Growth Hormone In The Obese (ob/ob) Mouse.

Metabolic Basis For The Diabetogenic Action Of Growth Hormone In The Obese (ob/ob) Mouse.

Metabolic basis for the diabetogenic action of growth hormone in the obese (ob/ob) mouse. Cameron CM , Kostyo JL , Adamafio NA , Dunbar JC . The ob/ob mouse responds predictably to chronic treatment with large doses of pituitary GH with marked hyperglycemia and decreased glucose tolerance. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the metabolic alterations produced by GH that lead to this diabetogenic response in the ob/ob mouse in order to determine whether this animal might serve as a useful model for the study of the cellular mechanisms involved in the diabetogenic action of GH. Female ob/ob mice were treated sc for 3 days with either saline or 200 micrograms/day S-carboxymethylated human GH (RCM-hGH), a diabetogenic GH derivative lacking significant growth-promoting or insulin-like activities. Six hours before the start of the experiment, the animals were given a sc injection of 2 micrograms dexamethasone and deprived of food. RCM-hGH treatment produced marked increases in fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, but had no effect on plasma glucagon or serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. It had no effect on liver glycogen level or in vitro hepatic glucose production in the absence or presence of pyruvate and lactate added to the incubation medium. By contrast, the in vitro stimulatory effects of insulin on [14C] glucose oxidation by isolated soleus muscle or segments of parametrial fat were greatly attenuated by RCM-hGH treatment, without changes in rates of basal glucose oxidation. This change in peripheral tissue responsiveness to insulin does not appear to involve glucose transport, since the in vitro stimulation by insulin of 3-O-[14C]methylglucose transport into isolated diaphragm muscle was not altered by RCM-hGH treatment. M Continue reading >>

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