Role Of Metformin In The Management Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Go to: Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disorder affecting 4–12% of women [Diamanti-Kandarakis et al. 1999; Farah et al. 1999; Knochenhauer et al. 1998]. It has also been the most controversial medical condition and every aspect has received a lot of attention from the nomenclature to the management. Several descriptions of similar conditions took place in the 20th century and it was named Stein—Leventhal Syndrome in 1935 after the authors who described polycystic ovarian morphology in patients suffering from hirsutism, amenorrhoea and infertility [Leventhal, 1958; Stein and Leventhal, 1935]. PCOS was also called polycystic ‘ovarian’ syndrome implying that the primary pathology lies in or triggered by the ovary. Others have called it polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), which is the least used term for obvious reasons. Currently, PCOS refers to a disorder with a combination of reproductive and metabolic characteristics. This has evolved over time with controversy over the definition culminating in the latest consensus [ESHRE/ASRM, 2004] which instead of solving the issue created more controversy [Azziz et al. 2006]. In the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ESHRE/ASRM) consensus, at least two of the following features are needed to make the diagnosis; oligo/anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic features on ultrasound scan [ESHRE/ASRM, 2004]. The Androgen Excess Society, however, recommended that androgen excess should remain a constant feature of PCOS irrespective of the ovulatory status and morphological features of the ovaries [Azziz et al. 2006]. For almost three decades, PCOS has been regarded as a life course disease which besides its reproductiv Continue reading >>
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One Of The Most Effective Diabetes Drugs
You may recall that I recently wrote a series on various medicines and how they can affect your diabetes (see "The Ups and Downs of Meds and Diabetes [Part 1]" as well as Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, and Part 5). One kind reader, who happens to be a nurse, asked me to devote a post to metformin with regard to its effects on kidneys and special considerations to keep in mind with this drug. I wrote about metformin back in December 2006 (was it that long ago?) and its link to vitamin B12 deficiency (see “Metformin and Risk For Vitamin B12 Deficiency”). But there are other important facts to know about this very popular diabetes drug. Raise your hand if you take metformin. OK, obviously I can’t see you, but I’ll wager that many of you reading this are on this medication. Metformin is the generic name for Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumetza, Fortamet, and Riomet. It also comes combined with other diabetes medications, including glyburide (in Glucovance), glipizide (in Metaglip), rosiglitazone (in Avandamet), pioglitazone (in Actoplus Met), sitagliptin (in Janumet), and repaglinide (in PrandiMet). I’ve read that approximately 35 million prescriptions were written for metformin in 2006, making this one of the top 10 best selling generic drugs. And you may not be aware that the American Diabetes Association, in its 2006 practice guidelines for health-care professionals, recommended metformin over sulfonylureas as the first drug of choice for people with Type 2 diabetes. This really isn’t surprising. Metformin has a long track record for being safe and causing relatively few serious side effects—plus, it also works! Chances are, if you have Type 2 diabetes and need to start on medication, your health-care provider will recommend you take metformin. How It Works Just a Continue reading >>
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Glumet Dc Tablet - Uses, Side-effects, Reviews, And Precautions - Pharmaniaga Manufacturing Berhad - Tabletwise - Malaysia
Uses, Side-effects, Reviews, and Precautions Glumet Dc Tablet is used for Diabetes type 2 , Obesity in type 2 diabetes patients , Type 2 diabetes and other conditions. Glumet Dc Tablet may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Glumet Dc Tablet contains Metformin Hcl as an active ingredient. Glumet Dc Tablet works by blocking the production of hepatic glucose and enhancing the peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin. Pharmaniaga Manufacturing Berhad manufactures Glumet Dc Tablet. Detailed information related to Glumet Dc Tablet's uses, composition, dosage, side effects and reviews is listed below. Glumet Dc Tablet is used for the treatment, control, prevention, & improvement of the following diseases, conditions and symptoms: Glumet Dc Tablet Working, Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology Glumet Dc Tablet improves the patient's condition by performing the following functions: Glumet Dc Tablet - Composition and Active Ingredients Glumet Dc Tablet is composed of the following active ingredients (salts) Please note that this medicine may be available in various strengths for each active ingredient listed above. The following is a list of possible side-effects that may occur from all constituting ingredients of Glumet Dc Tablet . This is not a comprehensive list. These side-effects are possible, but do not always occur. Some of the side-effects may be rare but serious. Consult your doctor if you observe any of the following side-effects, especially if they do not go away. Glumet Dc Tablet may also cause side-effects not listed here. If you notice other side-effects not listed above, contact your doctor for medical advice. You may also report side-effects to your local food and drug administration authority. Glumet Dc Tablet - Precautions & How to Us Continue reading >>
Glumet 500 Mg Tablet
Glumet 500 MG Tablet is an effective first choice medicine used to control high blood glucose levels in patients with type II diabetes. Patients are advised to maintain a strict exercise and diet regimen along with this medicine to get the best possible effect. It helps in minimizing the risk of diabetes-associated complications such as blindness, kidney damage, stroke and heart attack. This medicine is used along with an appropriate diet and exercise regimen to reduce blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Major & minor side effects for Glumet 500 MG Tablet Contact your doctor immediately if any of these symptoms are experienced on a regular basis. Observed in a small fraction of population. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication. Commonly asked questions for Glumet 500 MG Tablet The peak effect of this medicine can be observed within 1-3 hours of administration. The effect of this medicine lasts for an average duration of 4 to 8 hours. Consumption of alcohol is not recommended during treatment with this medicine due to the increased risk of severe adverse effects. No habit-forming tendencies were reported. This medicine is not recommended for use in pregnant women unless absolutely necessary. All the risks and benefits should be discussed with the doctor before taking this medicine. Your doctor may prescribe a safer alternative based on your clinical condition. This medicine is not recommended for use in breastfeeding women unless absolutely necessary. All the risks and benefits should be discussed with the doctor before taking this medicine. Your doctor may advise you to discontinue breastfeeding or to discontinue the drug based on your clinical condition. Lis Continue reading >>
Metformin (glucophage) For Pcos: What Are The Benefits And Side Effects?
Have PCOS or Diabetes? Is Metformin (Glucophage) Your Best Choice? Should you take metformin -- nor not? Is there a better alternative? This page will answer your questions. It's an anti-diabetic drug sometimes used to treat PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), although it is used chiefly to help control Type 2 diabetes. This drug offers both benefits and significant risks. The FDA has approved it only for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Because of this limitation, some physicians don't have much clinical experience using Glucophage to treat PCOS and don't always feel comfortable using it unless you have diabetes. 13 Side Effects of Metformin Your Doctor Didn't Tell You About Did you know that metformin has at least 13 under-recognized side effects? Some of them can be serious. Read more about the side effects . Medical research is now showing that there are natural alternatives to this and other drugs for treating PCOS, diabetes or metabolic syndrome. So if you're uncomfortable with the idea of taking Glucophage for years to come, or you've tried it but can't tolerate its side effects, take a look at the natural alternatives that are just as effective as metformin . Some medical guidelines say it is not the first thing you should try for controlling PCOS. However, it may be helpful IF you have insulin resistance. Read more... Recent research is showing that you will develop a vitamin B12 deficiency if you take this drug for over a year or so. A deficiency in vitamin B12 could have undesirable consequences if for fetal development if you're pregnancy or trying to become pregnant. Read more... As girls and teenagers start to have trouble with their weight, irregular periods, early appearance of public hair, hirsutism, or various indications of insulin resistance, physici Continue reading >>
Glumet From Cipla, Metformin - Matce-g2 To Metanorm | Drugsupdate India
Below are some of the details of Metformin(generic) Metformin (originally sold as Glucophage) is an oral anti-diabetic drug. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function. Evidence is also mounting for its efficacy in gestational diabetes, although safety concerns still preclude its widespread use in this setting. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome and has been investigated for other diseases where insulin resistance may be an important factor. When prescribed appropriately, metformin causes few adverse effectsthe most common is gastrointestinal upsetand, unlike many other anti-diabetic drugs, does not cause hypoglycemia if used alone. Lactic acidosis (a buildup of lactate in the blood) can be a serious concern in overdose and when it is prescribed to people with contraindications, but otherwise, there is no significant risk. Metformin helps reduce LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels and is not associated with weight gain, and is the only anti-diabetic drug that has been conclusively shown to prevent the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. As of 2009, metformin is one of only two oral anti-diabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (the other being glibenclamide). Continue reading >>
Metformin, Oral Tablet
Metformin oral tablet is available as both a generic and brand-name drug. Brand names: Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fortamet, and Glumetza. Metformin is also available as an oral solution but only in the brand-name drug Riomet. Metformin is used to treat high blood sugar levels caused by type 2 diabetes. FDA warning: Lactic acidosis warning This drug has a Black Box Warning. This is the most serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A black box warning alerts doctors and patients to potentially dangerous effects. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious side effect of this drug. In this condition, lactic acid builds up in your blood. This is a medical emergency that requires treatment in the hospital. Lactic acidosis is fatal in about half of people who develop it. You should stop taking this drug and call your doctor right away or go to the emergency room if you have signs of lactic acidosis. Symptoms include tiredness, weakness, unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, unusual sleepiness, stomach pains, nausea (or vomiting), dizziness (or lightheadedness), and slow or irregular heart rate. Alcohol use warning: You shouldn’t drink alcohol while taking this drug. Alcohol can affect your blood sugar levels unpredictably and increase your risk of lactic acidosis. Kidney problems warning: If you have moderate to severe kidney problems, you have a higher risk of lactic acidosis. You shouldn’t take this drug. Liver problems warning: Liver disease is a risk factor for lactic acidosis. You shouldn’t take this drug if you have liver problems. Metformin oral tablet is a prescription drug that’s available as the brand name drugs Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fortamet, and Glumetza. Glucophage is an immediate-release tablet. All of the other brands are extended-r Continue reading >>
Metformin Hcl Er
Uses Metformin is used with a proper diet and exercise program and possibly with other medications to control high blood sugar. It is used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlling high blood sugar helps prevent kidney damage, blindness, nerve problems, loss of limbs, and sexual function problems. Proper control of diabetes may also lessen your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Metformin works by helping to restore your body's proper response to the insulin you naturally produce. It also decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes and that your stomach/intestines absorb. How to use Metformin HCL ER Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking metformin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually once daily with the evening meal. Drink plenty of fluids while taking this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Do not crush or chew this medication. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, do not split the tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing. The dosage is based on your medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products). To reduce your risk of side effects (such as upset stomach), your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully. Take this medication regula Continue reading >>
Glumet 500 Mg Tablet
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required Glumet 500 MG Tablet is a drug that helps maintain balanced blood sugar levels in the body. It is used to treat Type 2 diabetes, heart disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome. Glumet 500 MG Tablet works by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by the liver. It suppresses the quantity of glucose that the liver releases in the body. Thus, it lowers the blood sugar levels in the body of a patient suffering from Type 2 diabetes. Glumet 500 MG Tablet also increases your sensitivity to insulin, enabling your body to absorb larger quantities of glucose. This drug is available in oral solution or even tablet form. Glumet 500 MG Tablet is an oral drug that is used to control and balance blood sugar levels. This medication is used in the treatment of conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity , cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and polycystic ovarian syndrome. If you do not manage the condition of diabetes , it can result in kidney failure , obesity and heart disorders. Therefore, Glumet 500 MG Tablet helps keep your blood sugar levels low and your diabetes in check. Glumet 500 MG Tablet does not increase the amount of insulin in the body; instead, it decreases the production of sugar. The liver of patients, who suffer from type 2 diabetes, produces thrice the amount of glucose and their bodies do not have the capacity to absorb these large amounts of glucose. Glumet 500 MG Tablet is effective in lowering the amount of glucose that the liver releases. It also decreases your appetite and increases your bodys sensitivity to insulin, thus, reducing the amount of glucose that is absorbed by your blood. An increased sensitivity to insulin also lowers your levels of cholesterol and helps you to lose weight. Glumet 500 MG Ta Continue reading >>
Glucophage, Glucophage Xr (metformin) Dosing, Indications, Interactions, Adverse Effects, And More
Initial: 500 mg PO q12hr or 850 mg PO qDay with meals; increase q2Weeks Maintenance: 1500-2550 mg/day PO divided q8-12hr with meal Glucophage XR: 500 mg PO qDay with dinner; titrate by 500 mg/day qWeek; not to exceed 2000 mg/day Fortamet: 500-1000 mg PO qDay; titrate by 500 mg/day qWeek; not to exceed 2500 mg/day Glumetza: 1000 mg PO qDay; titrate by 500 mg/day qWeek; not to exceed 2000 mg/day Hepatic impairment: Avoid use; risk of lactic acidosis eGFR 30-45 mL/min/1.73 m: Not recommended to initiate treatment Monitor eGFR at least annually or more often for those at risk for renal impairment (eg, elderly) If eGFR falls below 45mL/min/1.73 m while taking metformin, risks and benefits of continuing therapy should be evaluated If eGFR falls below 30 mL/min/1.73 m: while taking metformin, discontinue the drug Orphan designation for treatment of pediatric polycystic ovary syndrome EffRx Pharmaceuticals SA; Wolleraustrass 41 B; 8807 Freienbach (SZ); SWITZERLAND Orphan designation for treatment of progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 2 (Lafora disease) Consorcio Centro de Investigacin Biomdica en Red, M.P. (CIBER); Monforte de Lemos, 3-5 Pabellon 11; Madrid, Spain Maintenance: Titrate qWeek by 500 mg; no more than 2000 mg/day in divided doses Initial: 500 mg PO q12hr or 850 mg PO qDay with meals; increase q2Weeks Maintenance: 1500-2550 mg/day PO divided q8-12hr with meal Glucophage XR: 500 mg PO qDay with dinner; titrate by 500 mg/day qWeek; not to exceed 2000 mg/day Fortamet: 500-1000 mg PO qDay; titrate by 500 mg/day qWeek; not to exceed 2500 mg/day eGFR 30-45 mL/min/1.73 m: Initiating not recommended Obtain GFR at least annually in all patients taking metformin; assess eGFR more frequently in patients at increased risk for renal impairment (eg, elderly) If eGFR falls to <4 Continue reading >>
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Fertility Treatment With Metformin (glucophage)
How Metformin Is Used for Polycystic Ovaries Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common cause of anovulation and infertility in women. These women do not ovulate (release eggs) regularly and therefore have irregular menstrual periods. The ovaries have many small cysts (2-7 mm diameter) called antral follicles, giving the ovaries a characteristic "polycystic" (many cysts) appearance on ultrasound. A relatively new method of treating ovulation problems in women with polycystic ovarian disease is to use an oral medication called metformin (brand name is Glucophage). Metformin has traditionally been used as an oral drug to help control diabetes. Then, some smart doctor figured out that polycystic ovarian syndrome treatment with metformin can be very effective. If Glucophage alone does not result in ovulation and pregnancy, we often use: If the combination therapy is not effective, we can try: Metformin Use with IVF Treatment We also use Glucophage in women going through in vitro fertilization for PCOS, and for those with very high antral follicle counts - if their ovaries are "polycystic" by ultrasound. We find that some women with polycystic ovaries respond with a "smoother" response to the injectable FSH medication if they have been taking Glucophage. Risks and Side Effects of Metformin / Glucophage In about 25% of women Glucophage causes side effects which may include abdominal discomfort, cramping, diarrhea and nausea. The side effects may be severe enough to make the woman stop the Glucophage medication. We are not aware of any serious complications resulting from Glucophage treatment. Another oral medication used for diabetes called Troglitazone has been associated with liver failure and death in rare cases. This has been publicized on television shows, in newspapers, et Continue reading >>
- Type 1 Diabetes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Diabetes
- Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE)
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