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Glucose Is Made During Which Of The Following Reactions?

Light & Dark Reactions In Photosynthesis | Wyzant Resources

Light & Dark Reactions In Photosynthesis | Wyzant Resources

Resources / Lessons / Science / Biology / Photosynthesis / Light and Dark Reactions Light and Dark Reactions in Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants absorb light energy from the sun with the assistance of water and carbon dioxide, and transform it into chemical energy to make (synthesize) carbohydrate (specifically glucose) and oxygen. Photosynthesis can be summarized with this formula: 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight (light energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2 If you need a longer review, check out our lesson on photosynthesis before reading on. The "light-independent" or dark reactions happen in the stroma of the chloroplasts. This is also known as the Calvin Cycle. Since these processes can only happen in the chloroplast (a chlorophyll filled plastid in green plants), photosynthesis can only happen in green plants! The first overall principle of photosynthesis is that the light energy from the sun is transformed into chemical energy and stored in the bonds of glucose (the sugar carbohydrate) for later use by the plant and/or organism that eats the plant. The second overall principle of photosynthesis is that carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms are taken from carbon dioxide and water molecules and are broken up and rearranged into new substances: carbohydrate (specifically glucose) and oxygen gas (so we can breathe, whew!). This reaction represents the transfer of matter: carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, water from the soil or atmosphere, into sugar in the plant and oxygen back into the atmosphere. The first part of the process happens in the thylakoids of the chloroplasts and are the "light-dependent" reactions: The photosystems I and II absorb the photons from the sunlight and process them through the membranes of the thylakoids simultaneously. The photons Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

Biology Farr Practice Test 3

Biology Farr Practice Test 3

ATP is required during which of the following reactions? During the light-independent reactions only. The ATP and NADPH synthesized during the light dependent reactions are During photosynthesis when is CO2 is utilized? During the light-independent reactions only. You are conducting an experiment to track what happens to the carbons from CO2 molecules used in the light independent reactions of photosynthesis. You add a radioactive tag to the carbons of the CO2 reactants and then collect the products following the reactions. Which products would then be radioactive? Glucose is made during which of the following reactions? Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in membrane sacs called All of the following are part of the Calvin-Benson cycle EXCEPT Which sequence accurately reflects the follow of electrons in photosynthesis? H20---> Photosystem 2---->Photosystem 1---->NADP A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is Water is required during which of the following reactions? During the light-dependent reactions only. Light-dependent photosynthetic reactions produce During the process of photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis result in which of the following? What is the role of water in Photosynthesis? Carbon Dioxide is required in the light-dependent reaction. True or False? During glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP molecules produced? The main function of cell respiration is to produce In yeast, if the electron transport system is shut down because of a lack of oxygen, glycolysis will probably After fermentation, lactic acid is converted to pyruvic acid in the The anaerobic breakdown of glucose is called As a biker pumps up a hill to finish line of a race, his leg muscles are Continue reading >>

Photosynthetic Cells

Photosynthetic Cells

Cells get nutrients from their environment, but where do those nutrients come from? Virtually all organic material on Earth has been produced by cells that convert energy from the Sun into energy-containing macromolecules. This process, called photosynthesis, is essential to the global carbon cycle and organisms that conduct photosynthesis represent the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1). Plants exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. (A) Coleochaete orbicularis (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 75 (photograph courtesy of L. E. Graham). (B) Chara (Charophyceae) gametophyte; magnification x 1.5 (photograph courtesy of M. Feist). (C) Riccia (liverwort) gametophyte showing sporangia (black) embedded in the thallus; magnification x 5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (D) Anthoceros (hornwort) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes; magnification x 2.5 (photograph courtesy of A. N. Drinnan). (E) Mnium (moss) gametophyte showing unbranched sporophytes with terminal sporangia (capsule); magnification x 4.5 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). (F) Huperzia (clubmoss) sporophyte with leaves showing sessile yellow sporangia; magnification x 0.8. (G) Dicranopteris (fern) sporophyte showing leaves with circinate vernation; magnification x 0.08. (H) Psilotum (whisk fern) sporophyte with reduced leaves and spherical synangia (three fused sporangia); magnification x 0.4. (I) Equisetum (horsetail) sporophyte with whorled branches, reduced leaves, and a terminal cone; magnification x 0.4. (J) Cycas (seed plant) sporophyte showing leaves and terminal cone with seeds; magnification x 0.05 (photograph courtesy of W. Burger). Figure Detail Most living things depend on photosynthetic cells to manufacture the complex organic molecules they require as a source Continue reading >>

Bio Test 3 Flashcards | Quizlet

Bio Test 3 Flashcards | Quizlet

Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis? The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____. What is the purpose of a cuticle on a leaf? where does the oxygen gas produced by a leaf come from? Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere. All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis EXCEPT: The cellular organelle that is responsible for photosynthetic activity is the: _____ has a longer wavelength than _____. You place a plant in a transparent box made of greenish-yellow plastic. How does this affect photosynthesis for the plant? None of the plant pigments will be able to absorb the light. Photosynthesis will stop. The chlorophyll in leaves reflects green light. because O2 is produced as a by-product when the plant creates H+ ions and free electrons from water Where are the electrons used in photosystem II found at the very end of the light reactions? Suppose that you are experimenting with different types of lighting for your indoor green plants. Which of the following colors of light will be most effective? Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from? During the process of photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to: The light reactions of photosynthesis result in which of the following? The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within chloroplasts and mitochondria is used to generate molecules of: Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. You grow your plants in a chamber with a source of water that has a radioactively labeled oxygen atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive? The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed: The primary function of the light reactions of photo Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis | Importance, Process, & Reactions | Britannica.com

Photosynthesis | Importance, Process, & Reactions | Britannica.com

Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy . During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water , carbon dioxide , and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds . plants: photosynthesisThe location, importance, and mechanisms of photosynthesis. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in the maintenance of life on Earth . If photosynthesis ceased, there would soon be little food or other organic matter on Earth. Most organisms would disappear, and in time Earths atmosphere would become nearly devoid of gaseous oxygen. The only organisms able to exist under such conditions would be the chemosynthetic bacteria , which can utilize the chemical energy of certain inorganic compounds and thus are not dependent on the conversion of light energy. Energy produced by photosynthesis carried out by plants millions of years ago is responsible for the fossil fuels (i.e., coal , oil , and gas ) that power industrial society . In past ages, green plants and small organisms that fed on plants increased faster than they were consumed, and their remains were deposited in Earths crust by sedimentation and other geological processes. There, protected from oxidation , these organic remains were slowly converted to fossil fuels. These fuels not only provide much of the energy used in factories, homes, and transportation but also serve as the raw material for plastics and other synthetic products. Unfortunately, modern civilization is using up in a few centuries the excess of photosynthetic production accumulated over millions of years. Consequently, the carbon dioxide that has been removed from the air to make carbohydrates in photo Continue reading >>

Solved: Which Of The Following Is Not Made During The Ligh... | Chegg.com

Solved: Which Of The Following Is Not Made During The Ligh... | Chegg.com

home / study / science / biology / biology questions and answers / Which Of The Following Is NOT Made During The Light Reactions Of Photosynthesis? O_2 NADPH ... Question: Which of the following is NOT made during the light reactions of photosynthesis? O_2 NADPH ATP ... see more Show transcribed image text Which of the following is NOT made during the light reactions of photosynthesis? O_2 NADPH ATP Glucose In Glycolysis, glucose is split to produce two molecules of ____. starch carbon dioxide pyruvate NADPH In the Oxidative Phosphorylation step of cellular respiration, the energy for ATP synthesis comes from: Oxygen the H+ concentration gradient water carbon dioxide Which of the following statements about cellular respiration and photosynthesis is TRUE? Cellular respiration and photosynthesis occur in the same organelle. Both photosynthesis and cellular respiration involve electron transport chains. Photosynthesis stores energy as glucose, while cellular respiration stores it as fatty acids. Cellular respiration occurs only in animals, and photosynthesis occurs only in plants. Which process occurs in both Cellular Respiration and Fermentation? Glycolysis Oxidative Phosphorylation Kerbs Cycle Calvin cycle Which stage of cellular respiration produces the most ATP? Glycolysis Pyruvate oxidation Kerbs Cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Which is the only phase of cellular respiration that does NOT occur inside the mitochondrion? Glycolysis oxidative phosphorylation pyruvate oxidation Kerbs cycle The main product of cellular respiration is: Water Glucose ATP NADH Proteins made for export to other cells are manufactured in the ____ and packed in the ____: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum..Golgi apparatus Rough endoplasmic reticulum..Golgi apparatus Nucleus....rough endoplasmic reti Continue reading >>

Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere. 3) What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air? 4) The vast majority of chloroplasts found in a leaf are in the 5) Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in the membranes of sacs called 6) All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT 7) All of the following compounds are necessary components for photosynthesis EXCEPT 8) The cellular organelle that utilizes sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and 9) Imagine that a scientist discovers a mutant plant seedling that appears to lack stomata. What A) CO2 would not be able to enter the plant as a reactant for photosynthesis. 10) Imagine that a plant in your garden doesn't receive an adequate amount of water. Which of the following would be most affected by this? C) Both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis 11) Albino corn has no chlorophyll. You would expect albino corn seedlings to C) fail to thrive because they cannot capture light energy. 12) The energy required for photosynthesis to occur is 13) In the chloroplast, energy in sunlight is passed around different chlorophyll molecules until it reaches a specific chlorophyll molecule that can transfer energy in sunlight to an energized electron. This chlorophyll molecule is called the D) thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. 15) Pigments that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis include 16) A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is 17) Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll? 18) Suppose that you are experimenting with different types of lighting Continue reading >>

Making Sugar From Carbon Dioxide: The Calvin Cycle

Making Sugar From Carbon Dioxide: The Calvin Cycle

The process of photosynthesis is often described as turning sunlight into sugars, and while that's broadly true, there are two distinct biochemical reactions taking place. The first uses the sunlight to create energy inside the cell and the second takes carbon dioxide and uses it to make sugars. The second is the Calvin cycle although the name is a little unfashionable nowadays. It's politer to refer to it as the Calvin–Benson-Bassham cycle or the reductive pentose phosphate cycle, but with all due apologies to Misters Benson and Bassham, the Calvin Cycle is quicker to write. Turning carbon dioxide into sugar may sound fairly magical, but it becomes a more conceivable when you consider that both carbon dioxide (CO2) and glucose (C6H12O6) contain roughly the same sort of elements. The Calvin cycle just adds on all the extra elements required. Having said that, the 'just' is still a fairly major task, requiring different enzymes all working in the correct order. The carbon dioxide molecules diffuse into the cells through small holes in the underside of the leaf. The first enzyme that picks them up is called Rubisco. Despite sounding like a small corporate venture, Rubisco is actually one of the most important enzymes in the world. Without Rubisco, plants would not be able to make sugars, which means that animals would not be able to survive on plants. Rubisco catalysis the connection of the small molecule ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate phosphate (RuBP) to carbon dioxide - therefore fixing the inorganic CO2 as an organic molecule. RuBP contains 5 carbons as well as oxygen, hydrogen and phosphate and it bonds to the CO2 to create a 6 carbon molecule. This promptly splits into two small 3 carbon molecules as shown in the reaction scheme below: These two 3 carbon molecules then Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis- making Sugar from Sunlight Readings: Ch 6 p 92-95, 98-99, 101,104-105; Warm Up 5 is due Weds Feb 18 at 9:30, and Good For 5 is due Fri Feb 20 at 11:30. See top of notes page for info on Good For Amnesty! We have spent a lot of time talking about carbohydrates ~ sugars ~ but how are those sugars made by cells to become part of the food chain? Plants, protists (like phytoplankton), and cyanobacteria can do what no other organisms on Earth can do: photosynthesize , or make sugar out of water and carbon dioxide, a gas. This sugar gives to the organisms that make the sugar, as well as to all other organisms on Earth*. Photosynthesis also gives us the oxygen that we breathe. (*Except organisms, like those in Domain Archaea, that get their energy from compounds like hydrogen sulfide.) I. "Photosynthesis - making Sugar from Sunlight" - The Chloroplast: hundreds of these organelles can be found in every plant cell that is above ground! Chlorophyll: a pigment that reflects green light, and absorbs red and blue light to start theprocess of photosybthesis. Chlorophyll pigments are clustered in the thylakoid membranes into similar types of pigment complexes: "Photosystems I and II" . Thylakoid membranes: membranes within the chloroplast that contain enzymes involved in the Light Reactions of photosyntehsis (Act 1). Stacks of thylakoid membranes are called Granum. The Stroma: the liquid-y part of the chloroplast that are involved in the Calvin Cycle (Act 2). Plot Summary: During today'sperformance, 6 molecules of the gas Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) will be combined with 12molecules of water (H2 O) to produce 1 molecule of glucose(sugar), and some waste products (oxygen gas and water). 6CO2 + 12H2O + solar energy ------------> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O (PS. Don't understand what Continue reading >>

How Can A Plant Use The Sugars Made In Photosynthesis?

How Can A Plant Use The Sugars Made In Photosynthesis?

How can a plant use the sugars made in photosynthesis? During the process of photosynthesis, plants utilize sunlight and convert it into useful products, according to the following well-balanced chemical equation: `6CO_2 + 6H_2O + sunlight -> C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2` In this reaction, glucose (a common sugar) is produced. These glucose molecules are used by the plant in a number of ways. The most common use is the production of energy (in the form of ATP molecules) through the process of cellular respiration. This process... During the process of photosynthesis, plants utilize sunlight and convert it into useful products, according to the following well-balanced chemical equation: `6CO_2 + 6H_2O + sunlight -> C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2` In this reaction, glucose (a common sugar) is produced. These glucose molecules are used by the plant in a number of ways. The most common use is the production of energy (in the form of ATP molecules) through the process of cellular respiration. This process can be summarized by the following equation: `C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2 -> 6CO_2 + 6H_2O + ATP` Note that most of the processes require energy, including the process of photosynthesis. During the daytime hours, when photosynthesis is taking place, plants produce more glucose than they can consume. This extra glucose is stored in the plant in the form of starch. Cell walls are made up of starch and that is where much of the extra glucose is used. Sugars are also stored in other parts of the plant. Apart from starch, sugars can be also be stored as fats and oils. Glucose can also be converted to sucrose and stored in fruits, stem, roots, seeds, etc. Glucose can also be used in the formation of amino acids, which are then used for protein synthesis in the plants. Plants are made of eukaryotic cells that con Continue reading >>

What Is Produced As A Result Of Photosynthesis?

What Is Produced As A Result Of Photosynthesis?

What Is Produced As a Result of Photosynthesis? All living things consume energy in order to survive. Animals get their energy from the food they eat, but plants must absorb energy in a different way. Though plants use their roots to pull water and some nutrients from soil, the majority of plants' energy comes from the sun. Plants are able to convert sunlight into usable energy, in the form of glucose, due to the structure of their cells and a process called photosynthesis. Plants get most of the energy they need to survive via a two-stage process called photosynthesis. In the first stage, called the light-dependent reaction, sunlight is converted into two molecules. In the second stage, called the light-independent reaction, these molecules work together to form and synthesize glucose. Glucose is a sugar that plants use for energy. The cells of plants and animals differ slightly, in structure. For example, certain plant cells contain organelles called plastids, which help the cells store energy. Chloroplasts are plastids that contain the green pigment chlorophyll. This pigment is responsible for absorbing sunlight during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a two-stage process. The first stage of photosynthesis is called the light-dependent reaction because sunlight must be present in order for the reaction to occur. During this stage, chloroplasts absorb and trap sunlight, converting it into chemical energy. Specifically, the light is converted into two molecules to be used during the second stage of photosynthesis. These two molecules are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The second stage of photosynthesis is called the light-independent reaction because sunlight is not necessary for it to occur. In thi Continue reading >>

Section 16.1oxidation Of Glucose And Fatty Acids To Co2

Section 16.1oxidation Of Glucose And Fatty Acids To Co2

The complete aerobic oxidation of glucose is coupled to the synthesis of as many as 36 molecules of ATP: Glycolysis, the initial stage of glucose metabolism, takes place in the cytosol and does not involve molecular O. It produces a small amount of ATP and the three-carbon compound pyruvate. In aerobic cells, pyruvate formed in glycolysis is transported into the mitochondria, where it is oxidized by O to CO. Via chemiosmotic coupling, the oxidation of pyruvate in the mitochondria generates the bulk of the ATP produced during the conversion of glucose to CO. In this section, we discuss the biochemical pathways that oxidize glucose and fatty acids to CO and HO; the fate of the released electrons is described in the next section. Go to: Cytosolic Enzymes Convert Glucose to Pyruvate A set of 10 enzymes catalyze the reactions, constituting the glycolytic pathway, that degrade one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate (Figure 16-3). All the metabolic intermediates between glucose and pyruvate are watersoluble phosphorylated compounds. Four molecules of ATP are formed from ADP in glycolysis (reactions 6 and 9). However, two ATP molecules are consumed during earlier steps of this pathway: the first by the addition of a phosphate residue to glucose in the reaction catalyzed by hexokinase (reaction 1), and the second by the addition of a second phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by phosphofructokinase-1 (reaction 3). Thus there is a net gain of two ATP molecules. The balanced chemical equation for the conversion of glucose to pyruvate shows that four hydrogen atoms (four protons and four electrons) are also formed: (For convenience, we show pyruvate in its un-ionized form, pyruvic acid, although at physiological pH it would be largely dissociat Continue reading >>

Photosynthesis Problem Set 2

Photosynthesis Problem Set 2

Which of the following does NOT occur during the dark reaction of photosynthesis? The "dark reactions" of photosynthesis refer to the carbohydrate biosynthesis reactions that occur in the chloroplast stroma. These reactions are catalyzed by a series of soluble enzymes, known collectively as "The Calvin-Benson Cycle". Carbohydrate biosynthesis can occur in the absence of photosynthetic electron transport. A summary of the events that occur during the dark reactions of photosynthesis is given by the summary equation: This overall equation can be broken down into three major components: Utilization of the NADPH produced during photosynthetic electron transport. Carbohydrate biosynthesis requires a source of electrons to ultimately reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate. The source is the oxidation of the NADPH produced during photosynthetic electron transport. Utilization of ATP produced during photosynthetic electron transport. Carbohydrate biosynthesis from carbon dioxide is an endergonic process. It is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP, a highly exergonic reaction. ATPs produced during photosynthetic electron transport are hydrolyzed during carbohydrate biosynthesis. Utilization of CO2 for the synthesis of glucose. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted to glucose during the Calvin-Benson cycle. This requires the overall reduction of CO2, using the electrons available from the oxidation of NADPH. Thus the dark reactions represent a redox pathway. NADPH is oxidized to NADP+ and CO2 is reduced to glucose. What does not occur during the dark reaction? The reduction of oxygen to produce water, which is actually an event that occurs in the mitochondrial respiratory pathway. Continue reading >>

Chemistry For Biologists: Photosynthesis

Chemistry For Biologists: Photosynthesis

Leaves and leaf structure | The structure of the chloroplast and photosynthetic membranes | Stages of photosynthesis | Non-cyclic phosphorylation (the Z scheme) | Chemiosmosis and ATP synthesis | Cyclic phosphorylation | The light-independent reactions | Summary of stages of photosynthesis | Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis | Test your knowledge Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. This glucose can be converted into pyruvate which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by cellular respiration. Oxygen is also formed. Photosynthesis may be summarised by the word equation: The conversion of usable sunlight energy into chemical energy is associated with the action of the green pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a complex molecule. Several modifications of chlorophyll occur among plants and other photosynthetic organisms. All photosynthetic organisms have chlorophyll a. Accessory pigments absorb energy that chlorophyll a does not absorb. Accessory pigments include chlorophyll b (also c, d, and e in algae and protistans), xanthophylls, and carotenoids (such as beta-carotene). Chlorophyll a absorbs its energy from the violet-blue and reddish orange-red wavelengths, and little from the intermediate (green-yellow-orange) wavelengths. a lipid-soluble hydrocarbon tail (C20H39 -) a flat hydrophilic head with a magnesium ion at its centre; different chlorophylls have different side-groups on the head The tail and head are linked by an ester bond. Plants are the only photosynthetic organisms to have leaves (and not all plants have leaves). A leaf may be viewed as a solar collector crammed full of photosynthetic cells. The raw materials of photosynthe Continue reading >>

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