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Glucose Intolerance Pregnancy

Effect Of Macronutrient Intake On The Development Of Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy

Effect Of Macronutrient Intake On The Development Of Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy

Effect of macronutrient intake on the development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy From the Departments of Nutrition (TMS, AMS-R, and LSA) and Maternal and Child Health (AMS-R), School of Public Health, and the Carolina Population Center (AMS-R and LSA), University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Search for other works by this author on: From the Departments of Nutrition (TMS, AMS-R, and LSA) and Maternal and Child Health (AMS-R), School of Public Health, and the Carolina Population Center (AMS-R and LSA), University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Reprints not available. Address correspondence to AM Siega-Riz, Carolina Population Center, CB#8120 University Square, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: [email protected] . Search for other works by this author on: From the Departments of Nutrition (TMS, AMS-R, and LSA) and Maternal and Child Health (AMS-R), School of Public Health, and the Carolina Population Center (AMS-R and LSA), University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Search for other works by this author on: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 79, Issue 3, 1 March 2004, Pages 479486, Tina M Saldana, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Linda S Adair; Effect of macronutrient intake on the development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 79, Issue 3, 1 March 2004, Pages 479486, Background: Dietary intake influences glucose tolerance status, yet the relation between macronutrient intake and the development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy has not been adequately examined. Objective: We examined the relation between macronutrient intake early in pregnancy and the development of glucose intolerance. Design: Data are from 1698 women in the Pregnancy, Infectio Continue reading >>

Diet For Prediabetes In Pregnancy

Diet For Prediabetes In Pregnancy

If you are pregnant you will likely be tested during your second trimester for a condition known as gestational diabetes, which is a form of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. However, the test may have borderline results. You may be labeled as prediabetic. Following a healthy diet is one way to prevent prediabetes from developing into diabetes, and also helps maintain the health of you and your baby. Video of the Day A label of prediabetes means someone you are "almost" diabetic. According to the American Diabetes Association, prediabetes is the state in which your blood glucose levels are higher than they should be, but are not consistently high enough to be labeled diabetic. The glucose tolerance test taken during your pregnancy involves drinking a sweet beverage and having blood tested for glucose levels after certain intervals of time. If you have borderline results you may be advised to change your diet to prevent a full case of gestational diabetes from forming. Managing blood sugar levels during pregnancy involves two things: watching what you eat, and watching how much you eat. Portion size is important, according to the American Diabetes Association. However, the types of foods you eat have an impact as well. If you have prediabetes you may need to limit the amount of carbohydrates you eat, and you should focus on foods that are high in nutrition and low in calories. While every woman’s needs are different based on height, weight and general activity level, following a general guideline can help you keep blood glucose levels in check. If you have gestational diabetes you should limit your starchy or sweet carbohydrates to only about half of your daily caloric intake, according to Medline Plus. Carbohydrates include such foods as fruits and vegetable Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Postpartum Risk Of Metabolic Syndrome In Young Women

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Postpartum Risk Of Metabolic Syndrome In Young Women

Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy and Postpartum Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Women Ravi Retnakaran , Ying Qi , Philip W. Connelly , Mathew Sermer , Bernard Zinman , and Anthony J. G. Hanley Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes (R.R., Y.Q., B.Z., A.J.G.H.), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada M5T 3L9; Division of Endocrinology (R.R., P.W.C., B.Z., A.J.G.H.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1; Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michaels Hospital (P.W.C.), Toronto, Canada M5B 1W8; Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology (M.S.), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada M5T 3L9; and Department of Nutritional Sciences (A.J.G.H.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1 Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, 60 Murray Street, Suite L5-039, Toronto, Canada M5T3L9. [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Clin Endocrinol Metab See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and even mild glucose intolerance in pregnancy are both associated with increased risks of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the future. Because the metabolic syndrome also identifies patients at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that gestational dysglycemia may be associated with an unrecognized latent metabolic syndrome. Thus, we sought to evaluate the relationship between gestational glucose tolerance status and postpartum risk of metabolic syndrome. In this prospective cohort study, 487 women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing in pregnancy and cardiometabolic characterization at 3 months postpartum. The antep Continue reading >>

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy May Signal Future Cvd Risk

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy May Signal Future Cvd Risk

Mild Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy May Signal Future CVD Risk August 24, 2009 (Toronto, Ontario) Mildly abnormal plasma glucose in pregnancy--below the threshold for gestational diabetes--may identify young women at greater risk for future CVD, a study suggests [1]. Pregnant women with mild glucose impairment had a 19% greater risk of CVD in 12 years of follow-up compared with women with normal glucose, in a large population-based study of women in Ontario. Gestational diabetes--diabetes that develops during pregnancy and goes away after delivery--was linked with a 66% increased risk of future CVD, which was expected, Dr Baiju R Shah (Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON) told heartwire . The study now extends the increased CVD risk to pregnant women with milder glucose abnormalities who might in the past have been told, "Don't worry about it, you're fine," Shah said. It suggests that "any glucose abnormalities in pregnancy are importantly linked with cardiovascular disease even in young women, and [clinicians] need to pay attention," he added. "Perhaps these women need more aggressive screening postpregnancy--for diabetes, cholesterol, and blood pressure," although further study is needed to confirm this, he said. The study is published online August 24, 2009 in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. Since cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among Canadian women, it is important to identify predictors of vascular risk in this population, the authors write. Women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk for later type 2 diabetes and CVD, but new evidence suggests that even milder glucose impairment during pregnancy might predict future cardiac risk, Shah said. To test the hypothesis that the CVD risk associated with gest Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy Associated With Postpartum Cardiovascular Risk

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy Associated With Postpartum Cardiovascular Risk

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Glucose intolerance in pregnancy associated with postpartum cardiovascular risk Women who have gestational glucose intolerance (a condition less severe than gestational diabetes) exhibit multiple cardiovascular risk factors as early as three months after birth, according to a new study. Women who have gestational glucose intolerance (a condition less severe than gestational diabetes) exhibit multiple cardiovascular risk factors as early as three months after birth, according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). Researchers in this study sought to evaluate the relationship between gestational glucose intolerance and postpartum risk of metabolic syndrome (defined as the clustering of several cardiometabolic risk factors including obesity, hypertension and low HDL cholesterol). Metabolic syndrome, like gestational diabetes itself, is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Researchers followed 487 women who underwent oral glucose tolerance testing during pregnancy. Each subject was classified as either having normal glucose tolerance, gestational glucose intolerance or gestational diabetes. At three months postpartum, researchers evaluated each subject's cardiometabolic characteristics, such as blood pressure, weight, waist measurement and lipid levels. Findings support that even mild glucose intolerance during pregnancy predicts an increased likelihood of the metabolic syndrome at 3 months postpartum. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors as early as three months postpartum indicates that these risk factors may be longstanding and contribute to the long-ter Continue reading >>

How To Test For Glucose Intolerance

How To Test For Glucose Intolerance

Gestational diabetes represents a serious health risk to both mothers and babies, so early recognition is crucial. Noreen Dunnachie describes the correct way to administer the oral glucose intolerance test. Gestational diabetes represents a serious health risk to both mothers and babies, so early recognition is crucial. Noreen Dunnachie describes the correct way to administer the oral glucose intolerance test. The definition and, therefore, recognition and treatment of gestational diabetes have changed somewhat over the years (McCance et al, 2010). Current literature describes the condition as varying degrees of glucose/carbohydrate intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy, usually resolving after birth. In addition, it is now noted that glucose intolerance in pregnancy may represent undiagnosed type 2 diabetes or, rarely, type 1 diabetes (Bothamley and Boyle, 2009). Since untreated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can increase the risks of fetal macrosomia, birth trauma to mother and baby, the need for induction of labour or CS, perinatal death, transient neonatal morbidity and even childhood obesity and diabetes (NICE, 2008), appropriate diagnosis and timely treatment are paramount. Although controversy remains around the most appropriate techniques for screening and diagnosing GDM, the benefit of using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is acknowledged by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2010), which recognises the significant relationship between maternal glucose levels and pregnancy outcomes. Since the majority of women with GDM are asymptomatic (Robson and Waugh, 2008), it is important to identify and recognise the risk factors as advised by both SIGN (2010) and NICE (2008), which include a booking BMI of greater than 30, Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Complications And Glucose Intolerance In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Pregnancy Complications And Glucose Intolerance In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Endocr J. 2015;62(11):1017-23. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ15-0364. Epub 2015 Sep 11. Pregnancy complications and glucose intolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Science, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. The interaction of these factors might result in increased risks of miscarriage and pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To examine the pregnancy risks in women with PCOS, we compared obstetrical outcomes between patients with and without PCOS. We also studied the differences in maternal characteristics, glucose intolerance and pregnancy complications between PCOS patients with and without GDM, with and without obesity, and between successful pregnancies and miscarriages. We observed a high incidence of GDM and prevalence of GDM diagnosis in the first trimester in PCOS. Patients with GDM had higher body mass index (BMI) and lower homeostasis model assessment of -cell function (HOMA-) at preconception than those without GDM. Obese pregnant women with PCOS demonstrated a high incidence of GDM with severe insulin resistance, including high fasting insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA- at preconception compared with normal-weight patients. BMI was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR or HOMA-, and both indices were lower in PCOS patients with than without GDM for the same BMI. There were no significant differences in maternal characteristics (excluding maternal age) between PCOS patients with successful pregnancy and PCOS patients with miscarriages. Our data suggest that pregnant women Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance After A Recent History Of Gestational Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance After A Recent History Of Gestational Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes 1Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium 2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, UZ Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium Received 10 June 2014; Revised 17 July 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014; Published 7 August 2014 Copyright 2014 Katrien Benhalima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aim. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of our current screening strategy postpartum and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. Retrospective analysis of files of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria from 01-01-2010 till 31-12-2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results. Of all 231 women with a recent history of GDM, 21.4% (46) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. Of the women tested, 39.1% (66) had glucose intolerance and 5.3% (9) had diabetes. These women were more often overweight (39.7% versus 25.3%, = 0.009), were more often treated with basal-bolus insulin injections (52.0% versus 17.4%, = 0.032), and had a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity, remaining significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and ethnicity (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2) in pregnancy 1.5 0.5 versus 1.7 0.4, = 0.029; ISSI-2 postpartum 1.5 (1.21.9) versus 2.2 (1.82.6), = 0.020; Matsuda index postpartum 3.8 (2.66.2) versus 6.0 (4.38.8), = 0.021). Conclusion. Glucose intolerance is frequent in e Continue reading >>

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-based Cohort Study

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-based Cohort Study

Mild glucose intolerance in pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based cohort study Ravi Retnakaran , MD and Baiju R. Shah , MD PhD From the Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital (Retnakaran); the Department of Medicine, University of Toronto (Retnakaran, Shah); the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (Shah); and the Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Shah), Toronto, Ont Correspondence to: Dr. Baiju R. Shah, 2075 Bayview Ave., Toronto ON M4N 3M5; fax: 416 480-6048; [email protected] This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Pregnant women commonly receive screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by use of a 50 g glucose challenge test, followed by a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test for those whose glucose challenge test result is abnormal. Although women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it is not known whether mild glucose intolerance during pregnancy is also associated with cardiovascular disease. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnant women with an abnormal glucose challenge test result but without gestational diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study that included all women in Ontario aged 2049 years with live deliveries between April 1994 and March 1998. We excluded women with pregestational diabetes. The population was stratified into 3 cohorts: women with gestational diabetes (n = 13 888); women who received an antepartum oral glucose tolerance test (suggestive of an abnormal result of the glucose challenge test) but who did not have gestational diabetes (n = 71 831); and women who did not receive an oral glucose tolerance test (suggestive of Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance

Glucose Intolerance

Tweet Glucose intolerance is term for metabolic conditions which result in high blood glucose levels. Pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are all conditions which fall under the term glucose intolerant. Glucose intolerance is defined by the World Health Organisation as: A blood sugar level of 6.0 mmol/l or above whilst fasting A blood glucose level of over 7.8 mmol/l 2 hours after consuming 75g of glucose The figures above are based on the assumption that people are not taking blood glucose lowering medication. The symptoms of glucose intolerance may not be so easy to spot. The symptoms may include: Feeling thirsty Being tired or lethargic Needing to urinate more than usual Itchiness around the genitals People with impaired glucose tolerance are more likely to notice symptoms after meals. Whereas people with impaired fasting glucose will notice the symptoms through other parts of the day including during the night. Glucose intolerance will often be diagnosed by a fasting plasma glucose test or by a glucose tolerance test. A plasma glucose test is when a blood sample is taken, usually from your arm, and the blood glucose levels measured. A glucose tolerance test involves taking a set amount of glucose orally, usually 75g of glucose, and then taking your blood glucose levels over regular periods of time over the next few hours. Glucose intolerance can be treated through diet and lifestyle changes or with assistance from anti-diabetic medication, such as tablets and/or insulin. Your doctor will measure your long term blood glucose control via an HbA1c test. Your doctor may also prescribe you with blood glucose testing supplies to allow you to make diet choices and to indentify and prevent high or low blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

Pregnancy And Subsequent Glucose Intolerance In Women Of Childbearing Ageheeding The Early Warning Signs For Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease In Women

Pregnancy And Subsequent Glucose Intolerance In Women Of Childbearing Ageheeding The Early Warning Signs For Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease In Women

The increased physiologic and metabolic demands of pregnancy act as a stress test that may reveal underlying subclinical disease or provide insight into future chronic disease. Pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes (GD) and hypertensive disorders, are early warning signs for chronic disease in women decades before the menopausal transition. More than 50 years ago, OSullivan and Mahan 1 developed criteria for the diagnosis of GD, glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy, based solely on observed higher rates of progression to diabetes in women many years postdelivery. A history of GD confers a 7-fold higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 3-fold higher cardiometabolic risk for women. In 2011, the American Heart Association added GD history to its CVD risk assessment for women based on the strong link to overt diabetes. 2 Until recently, evidence was insufficient to determine whether a history of GD elevated CVD risk independent of its association with overt diabetes and metabolic disease. Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy.

Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy.

I know that other helpful members have said this already, but I will too. Ask your doctor for a referral to see either a Registered Dietitian or a Certified Diabetes Educator in your area for menu planning. This health professional will help set up a plan for appropriate weekly weight gain for the remaining weeks of your pregnancy; but this eating plan will also include the correct amount of carbohydrates each day and these carbs will be distributed into meals and snacks correctly. Usually the dietitian will try to get you scheduled for an appointment in 1 week or so. Until this meeting, reset your SP program for weight maintenance; then the dietitian can adjust your calorie needs as necessary. Turn on your SP meal plans--for these are designed with a healthy amount of carbohydrates, fat and protein. And the food is distributed correctly into meals and snaks. Let me know if you need the steps to do this. You may also want to join our sister site: Your doctor should give you a list of mix-and-match foods, if you ask for one. Also consider joining Spark's sister site BabyFit. The nutrition advice given on SP isn't tailored for pregnant women, so you're safer using that site for the next few months. Since you have the added complication of diabetes, you want to be *really* careful and not enact any dietary changes that haven't been approved by a trusted professional. However, some things are fairly universal. Look at the macronutrients in the foods you eat and mix and match them until you create meals that satisfy all your needs. For most people, a good meal is made up of high-quality carbs, lean protein and some quality fats. This is true whether or not you have diabetes, but diabetics have to be particularly careful with portion sizes. Invest in a food scale and plenty Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Future Risk Of Pre-diabetes Or Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Future Risk Of Pre-diabetes Or Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy and Future Risk of Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 3Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Corresponding author: Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, [email protected] Received 2008 May 28; Accepted 2008 Jun 25. Copyright 2008, American Diabetes Association Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that any degree of abnormal glucose homeostasis detected on antepartum screening for gestat Continue reading >>

Pgdc59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-induced Glucose Intolerance

Pgdc59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-induced Glucose Intolerance

pGDC59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-Induced Glucose Intolerance pGDC59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-Induced Glucose Intolerance One biomarker measurement during pregnancy can identify glucose intolerance with high sensitivity and specificity. HealthDay News One measurement of plasma glycated CD59 (pGCD59) in pregnancy can predict glucose intolerance, according to a study published online in Diabetes Care. Pamela Ghosh, PhD, from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and colleagues conducted a case-control study of 1,000 plasma samples from women receiving standard prenatal care. Five hundred women had a normal glucose challenge test (GCT) for screening of gestational diabetes (GDM), and 500 had a failed GCT and had a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test (control subjects and case patients, respectively). The researchers found that the median pGCD59 value was 8.5-fold higher in case patients and 10-fold higher in GDM patients compared with controls: 0.33, 2.79, and 3.23, respectively (P <.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92. The prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) was 4.3% and 13.5^ in the lowest and highest quartiles of pGCD59, respectively. "One pGCD59 measurement during weeks 24 to 28 identifies pregnancy-induced glucose intolerance with high sensitivity and specificity and can potentially identify the risk for LGA," the authors write. Two authors disclosed a financial interest in Mellitus, which is developing diagnostic tools for diabetes. Continue reading >>

Risk Of Glucose Intolerance And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In Relation To Maternal Habitual Snoring During Early Pregnancy

Risk Of Glucose Intolerance And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In Relation To Maternal Habitual Snoring During Early Pregnancy

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Risk of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal habitual snoring during early pregnancy Affiliation Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Roles Formal analysis, Software, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Roles Formal analysis, Software, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Roles Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America Roles Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing review & editing Affiliation Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Roles Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America Roles Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Continue reading >>

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