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Glucose Intolerance Pregnancy

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Postpartum Risk Of Metabolic Syndrome In Young Women

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Postpartum Risk Of Metabolic Syndrome In Young Women

Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy and Postpartum Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Women Ravi Retnakaran , Ying Qi , Philip W. Connelly , Mathew Sermer , Bernard Zinman , and Anthony J. G. Hanley Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes (R.R., Y.Q., B.Z., A.J.G.H.), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada M5T 3L9; Division of Endocrinology (R.R., P.W.C., B.Z., A.J.G.H.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1; Keenan Research Centre in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michaels Hospital (P.W.C.), Toronto, Canada M5B 1W8; Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology (M.S.), Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada M5T 3L9; and Department of Nutritional Sciences (A.J.G.H.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1 Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, 60 Murray Street, Suite L5-039, Toronto, Canada M5T3L9. [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Clin Endocrinol Metab See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and even mild glucose intolerance in pregnancy are both associated with increased risks of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the future. Because the metabolic syndrome also identifies patients at risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that gestational dysglycemia may be associated with an unrecognized latent metabolic syndrome. Thus, we sought to evaluate the relationship between gestational glucose tolerance status and postpartum risk of metabolic syndrome. In this prospective cohort study, 487 women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing in pregnancy and cardiometabolic characterization at 3 months postpartum. The antep Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance And Gestational Diabetes Risk In Relation To Sleep Duration And Snoring During Pregnancy: A Pilot Study

Glucose Intolerance And Gestational Diabetes Risk In Relation To Sleep Duration And Snoring During Pregnancy: A Pilot Study

Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study Qiu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2010 Insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, considered endemic in modern society, are associated with obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Little, however, is known about the consequences of insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality during pregnancy on glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. A cohort of 1,290 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We collected information about sleep duration and snoring during early pregnancy. Results from screening and diagnostic testing for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were abstracted from medical records. Generalized linear models were fitted to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of GDM associated with sleep duration and snoring, respectively. After adjusting for maternal age and race/ethnicity, GDM risk was increased among women sleeping 4 hours compared with those sleeping 9 hours per night (RR = 5.56; 95% CI 1.31-23.69). The corresponding RR for lean women (<25 kg/m2) was 3.23 (95% CI 0.34-30.41) and 9.83 (95% CI 1.12-86.32) for overweight women ( 25 kg/m2). Overall, snoring was associated with a 1.86-fold increased risk of GDM (RR = 1.86; 95% CI 0.88-3.94). The risk of GDM was particularly elevated among overweight women who snored. Compared with lean women who did not snore, those who were overweight and snored had a 6.9-fold increased risk of GDM (95% CI 2.87-16.6). These preliminary findings suggest associations of short sleep duration and snoring with glucose intolerance and GDM. Though consistent with studies of men and non-pregnant women, larger studies that include objective measures of sleep dura Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance After A Recent History Of Gestational Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance After A Recent History Of Gestational Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance after a Recent History of Gestational Diabetes 1Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium 2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, UZ Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium Received 10 June 2014; Revised 17 July 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014; Published 7 August 2014 Copyright 2014 Katrien Benhalima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aim. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of our current screening strategy postpartum and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. Retrospective analysis of files of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria from 01-01-2010 till 31-12-2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results. Of all 231 women with a recent history of GDM, 21.4% (46) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. Of the women tested, 39.1% (66) had glucose intolerance and 5.3% (9) had diabetes. These women were more often overweight (39.7% versus 25.3%, = 0.009), were more often treated with basal-bolus insulin injections (52.0% versus 17.4%, = 0.032), and had a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity, remaining significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and ethnicity (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2) in pregnancy 1.5 0.5 versus 1.7 0.4, = 0.029; ISSI-2 postpartum 1.5 (1.21.9) versus 2.2 (1.82.6), = 0.020; Matsuda index postpartum 3.8 (2.66.2) versus 6.0 (4.38.8), = 0.021). Conclusion. Glucose intolerance is frequent in e Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy - Test, Treatment & Symptoms

Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy - Test, Treatment & Symptoms

Guide to Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy Glucose intolerance during pregnancy is actually referred to as Gestational Diabetes. It is what women experience while they are pregnant whether they had prior diabetes issues or not. It is fairly common. For those that are not aware of what glucose intolerance means during pregnancy, well it's pretty much a sign of high blood sugars that starts or is initially found while you are pregnant. The cause of glucose intolerance during pregnancy is basically your pregnancy hormones which can at time block the hormone insulin from performing its duties. As a results, when this happens, glucose levels can increase in your blood. Not everyone is at risk, but here are some of the risk factors that may improve the chances of you developing gestational diabetes. If you are over the age of twenty-five or have a family history of diabetes you are at great risk. Also, if you have previously given birth to a baby that weighed 9lbs or more at birth, have high sugar levels in your urine, deal with high blood pressure, contain too much amniotic fluids or you yourself were overweight during or before pregnancy. In most cases, there are very mild or even no symptoms of glucose intolerance and tend not to be life threatening to women. Most women go through their pregnancy without even knowing they have gestational diabetes unless their doctors finds it during a test. Also, after birth the blood sugars levels of the mothers goes back to normal shortly. Symptoms of glucose intolerance may be found on our site using the left hand menu. Treatment of glucose intolerance during pregnancy revolves around the goal of keeping your blood sugar levels within the required limits for the duration of the pregnancy. This ensure that the baby is growing health Continue reading >>

I've Been Told I Have Glucose Intolerance, Not Diabetes At 30 Wks. Anyone Know About This Condition?

I've Been Told I Have Glucose Intolerance, Not Diabetes At 30 Wks. Anyone Know About This Condition?

I've been told I have glucose intolerance, not diabetes at 30 wks. Anyone know about this condition? My 3 hour glucose tolerance test showed one reading with a slightly elevated result and the rest of the readings were normal. My doctor told me today that I don't have gestational diabetes, but that I'm glucose intolerant. She's having me meet with a dietitian and monitor my blood sugar as though I were diabetic. I'm just confused as to what the difference is and how it will affect my baby. Has anyone else had this happen and if so, what do you know about it? Thank you! There are ranges of blood sugar levels. You don't just go from normal to diabetic overnight, there is a path through the hazy area known as gloucose intolerance. It basically means your body is starting to not utilize insulin as well and your blood sugar is slightly elevated, but you have not reached the diabetic stage yet. I had gestational diabetes with my first child, then developed glucose intolerance about a year after she ws born, now at 10 weeks with my second I am already having to monitor like a diabetic and carefully watch my diet. So basically, glucose intolerance is a pre-cursor to diabetes and with careful attention to diet, exercise and sugars can generally be prevented from developing further, although with preganancy that may be a bit more challenging. I just received the same diagnosis, although they don't want to monitor me like a diabetic. I've been told to watch my carb intake though, so less pastas, rice and bread and more proteins and veggies. I was also diagnosed with"borderline" glucose intolerance with my first baby and will probably be same with my second as you have a good chance of having the same results if you have had them once. I have a great Doctor fortunately a Continue reading >>

Pregnancy And Subsequent Glucose Intolerance In Women Of Childbearing Ageheeding The Early Warning Signs For Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease In Women

Pregnancy And Subsequent Glucose Intolerance In Women Of Childbearing Ageheeding The Early Warning Signs For Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease In Women

The increased physiologic and metabolic demands of pregnancy act as a stress test that may reveal underlying subclinical disease or provide insight into future chronic disease. Pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes (GD) and hypertensive disorders, are early warning signs for chronic disease in women decades before the menopausal transition. More than 50 years ago, OSullivan and Mahan 1 developed criteria for the diagnosis of GD, glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy, based solely on observed higher rates of progression to diabetes in women many years postdelivery. A history of GD confers a 7-fold higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 3-fold higher cardiometabolic risk for women. In 2011, the American Heart Association added GD history to its CVD risk assessment for women based on the strong link to overt diabetes. 2 Until recently, evidence was insufficient to determine whether a history of GD elevated CVD risk independent of its association with overt diabetes and metabolic disease. Continue reading >>

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-based Cohort Study

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-based Cohort Study

Mild glucose intolerance in pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based cohort study Ravi Retnakaran , MD and Baiju R. Shah , MD PhD From the Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital (Retnakaran); the Department of Medicine, University of Toronto (Retnakaran, Shah); the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (Shah); and the Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (Shah), Toronto, Ont Correspondence to: Dr. Baiju R. Shah, 2075 Bayview Ave., Toronto ON M4N 3M5; fax: 416 480-6048; [email protected] This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Pregnant women commonly receive screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by use of a 50 g glucose challenge test, followed by a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test for those whose glucose challenge test result is abnormal. Although women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it is not known whether mild glucose intolerance during pregnancy is also associated with cardiovascular disease. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnant women with an abnormal glucose challenge test result but without gestational diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study that included all women in Ontario aged 2049 years with live deliveries between April 1994 and March 1998. We excluded women with pregestational diabetes. The population was stratified into 3 cohorts: women with gestational diabetes (n = 13 888); women who received an antepartum oral glucose tolerance test (suggestive of an abnormal result of the glucose challenge test) but who did not have gestational diabetes (n = 71 831); and women who did not receive an oral glucose tolerance test (suggestive of Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Future Risk Of Pre-diabetes Or Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy And Future Risk Of Pre-diabetes Or Diabetes

Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy and Future Risk of Pre-Diabetes or Diabetes 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 3Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Corresponding author: Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, [email protected] Received 2008 May 28; Accepted 2008 Jun 25. Copyright 2008, American Diabetes Association Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that any degree of abnormal glucose homeostasis detected on antepartum screening for gestat Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy.

Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy.

I know that other helpful members have said this already, but I will too. Ask your doctor for a referral to see either a Registered Dietitian or a Certified Diabetes Educator in your area for menu planning. This health professional will help set up a plan for appropriate weekly weight gain for the remaining weeks of your pregnancy; but this eating plan will also include the correct amount of carbohydrates each day and these carbs will be distributed into meals and snacks correctly. Usually the dietitian will try to get you scheduled for an appointment in 1 week or so. Until this meeting, reset your SP program for weight maintenance; then the dietitian can adjust your calorie needs as necessary. Turn on your SP meal plans--for these are designed with a healthy amount of carbohydrates, fat and protein. And the food is distributed correctly into meals and snaks. Let me know if you need the steps to do this. You may also want to join our sister site: Your doctor should give you a list of mix-and-match foods, if you ask for one. Also consider joining Spark's sister site BabyFit. The nutrition advice given on SP isn't tailored for pregnant women, so you're safer using that site for the next few months. Since you have the added complication of diabetes, you want to be *really* careful and not enact any dietary changes that haven't been approved by a trusted professional. However, some things are fairly universal. Look at the macronutrients in the foods you eat and mix and match them until you create meals that satisfy all your needs. For most people, a good meal is made up of high-quality carbs, lean protein and some quality fats. This is true whether or not you have diabetes, but diabetics have to be particularly careful with portion sizes. Invest in a food scale and plenty Continue reading >>

Association Between Insulin Resistance, Glucose Intolerance, And Hypertension In Pregnancy

Association Between Insulin Resistance, Glucose Intolerance, And Hypertension In Pregnancy

Association Between Insulin Resistance, Glucose Intolerance, and Hypertension in Pregnancy There is an association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and essential hypertension, but the relation between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hypertension diagnosed during pregnancy is not well understood. Transient hypertension of pregnancy, the new-onset nonproteinuric hypertension of late pregnancy, is associated with a high risk of later essential hypertension and glucose intolerance; thus, these conditions may have a similar pathophysiology. To assess the association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, essential hypertension, and subsequent development of proteinuric and nonproteinuric hypertension in pregnancy in women without underlying essential hypertension, we performed a prospective study comparing glucose (fasting, 1 and 2 hours postglucose load), insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides levels on routine screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Women who developed hypertension in pregnancy (n = 37) had higher glycemic levels (fasting, 1 and 2 hours postglucose load) on a 100-gram oral glucose loading test, although only the fasting values showed a statistical significance (p < 0.05), and a significantly higher frequency of abnormal glucose loading tests, two hours after glucose load (140 mg/dL) (p < 0.05) than women who remained normotensive (n = 180). Glucose intolerance was common in women who developed both subtypes of hypertension, particularly preeclampsia. Women who developed hypertension had greater prepregnancy body mass index (p < 0.0001), higher frequency and intensity of acanthosis nigricans (p < 0.0001), and higher baseline systolic and diastolic Continue reading >>

Risk Of Glucose Intolerance And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In Relation To Maternal Habitual Snoring During Early Pregnancy

Risk Of Glucose Intolerance And Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In Relation To Maternal Habitual Snoring During Early Pregnancy

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Risk of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal habitual snoring during early pregnancy Affiliation Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Roles Formal analysis, Software, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Roles Formal analysis, Software, Visualization, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Roles Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America Roles Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing review & editing Affiliation Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Roles Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America Roles Investigation, Project administration, Supervision, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing Affiliation Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America Continue reading >>

Pgdc59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-induced Glucose Intolerance

Pgdc59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-induced Glucose Intolerance

pGDC59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-Induced Glucose Intolerance pGDC59 Biomarker Identifies Pregnancy-Induced Glucose Intolerance One biomarker measurement during pregnancy can identify glucose intolerance with high sensitivity and specificity. HealthDay News One measurement of plasma glycated CD59 (pGCD59) in pregnancy can predict glucose intolerance, according to a study published online in Diabetes Care. Pamela Ghosh, PhD, from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and colleagues conducted a case-control study of 1,000 plasma samples from women receiving standard prenatal care. Five hundred women had a normal glucose challenge test (GCT) for screening of gestational diabetes (GDM), and 500 had a failed GCT and had a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test (control subjects and case patients, respectively). The researchers found that the median pGCD59 value was 8.5-fold higher in case patients and 10-fold higher in GDM patients compared with controls: 0.33, 2.79, and 3.23, respectively (P <.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92. The prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) was 4.3% and 13.5^ in the lowest and highest quartiles of pGCD59, respectively. "One pGCD59 measurement during weeks 24 to 28 identifies pregnancy-induced glucose intolerance with high sensitivity and specificity and can potentially identify the risk for LGA," the authors write. Two authors disclosed a financial interest in Mellitus, which is developing diagnostic tools for diabetes. Continue reading >>

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy May Signal Future Cvd Risk

Mild Glucose Intolerance In Pregnancy May Signal Future Cvd Risk

Mild Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy May Signal Future CVD Risk August 24, 2009 (Toronto, Ontario) Mildly abnormal plasma glucose in pregnancy--below the threshold for gestational diabetes--may identify young women at greater risk for future CVD, a study suggests [1]. Pregnant women with mild glucose impairment had a 19% greater risk of CVD in 12 years of follow-up compared with women with normal glucose, in a large population-based study of women in Ontario. Gestational diabetes--diabetes that develops during pregnancy and goes away after delivery--was linked with a 66% increased risk of future CVD, which was expected, Dr Baiju R Shah (Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON) told heartwire . The study now extends the increased CVD risk to pregnant women with milder glucose abnormalities who might in the past have been told, "Don't worry about it, you're fine," Shah said. It suggests that "any glucose abnormalities in pregnancy are importantly linked with cardiovascular disease even in young women, and [clinicians] need to pay attention," he added. "Perhaps these women need more aggressive screening postpregnancy--for diabetes, cholesterol, and blood pressure," although further study is needed to confirm this, he said. The study is published online August 24, 2009 in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. Since cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among Canadian women, it is important to identify predictors of vascular risk in this population, the authors write. Women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk for later type 2 diabetes and CVD, but new evidence suggests that even milder glucose impairment during pregnancy might predict future cardiac risk, Shah said. To test the hypothesis that the CVD risk associated with gest Continue reading >>

How To Test For Glucose Intolerance

How To Test For Glucose Intolerance

Gestational diabetes represents a serious health risk to both mothers and babies, so early recognition is crucial. Noreen Dunnachie describes the correct way to administer the oral glucose intolerance test. Gestational diabetes represents a serious health risk to both mothers and babies, so early recognition is crucial. Noreen Dunnachie describes the correct way to administer the oral glucose intolerance test. The definition and, therefore, recognition and treatment of gestational diabetes have changed somewhat over the years (McCance et al, 2010). Current literature describes the condition as varying degrees of glucose/carbohydrate intolerance that is first diagnosed during pregnancy, usually resolving after birth. In addition, it is now noted that glucose intolerance in pregnancy may represent undiagnosed type 2 diabetes or, rarely, type 1 diabetes (Bothamley and Boyle, 2009). Since untreated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can increase the risks of fetal macrosomia, birth trauma to mother and baby, the need for induction of labour or CS, perinatal death, transient neonatal morbidity and even childhood obesity and diabetes (NICE, 2008), appropriate diagnosis and timely treatment are paramount. Although controversy remains around the most appropriate techniques for screening and diagnosing GDM, the benefit of using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is acknowledged by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2010), which recognises the significant relationship between maternal glucose levels and pregnancy outcomes. Since the majority of women with GDM are asymptomatic (Robson and Waugh, 2008), it is important to identify and recognise the risk factors as advised by both SIGN (2010) and NICE (2008), which include a booking BMI of greater than 30, Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Complications And Glucose Intolerance In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Pregnancy Complications And Glucose Intolerance In Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Endocr J. 2015;62(11):1017-23. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ15-0364. Epub 2015 Sep 11. Pregnancy complications and glucose intolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Science, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. The interaction of these factors might result in increased risks of miscarriage and pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To examine the pregnancy risks in women with PCOS, we compared obstetrical outcomes between patients with and without PCOS. We also studied the differences in maternal characteristics, glucose intolerance and pregnancy complications between PCOS patients with and without GDM, with and without obesity, and between successful pregnancies and miscarriages. We observed a high incidence of GDM and prevalence of GDM diagnosis in the first trimester in PCOS. Patients with GDM had higher body mass index (BMI) and lower homeostasis model assessment of -cell function (HOMA-) at preconception than those without GDM. Obese pregnant women with PCOS demonstrated a high incidence of GDM with severe insulin resistance, including high fasting insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and HOMA- at preconception compared with normal-weight patients. BMI was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR or HOMA-, and both indices were lower in PCOS patients with than without GDM for the same BMI. There were no significant differences in maternal characteristics (excluding maternal age) between PCOS patients with successful pregnancy and PCOS patients with miscarriages. Our data suggest that pregnant women Continue reading >>

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