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Glucometer Range

Blood Glucose Monitor Performance: Analytical And Clinical Performance Of Blood Glucose Monitors

Blood Glucose Monitor Performance: Analytical And Clinical Performance Of Blood Glucose Monitors

Analytical and Clinical Performance of Blood Glucose Monitors 1Health Services Research and Development, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, Missouri 2Department of Health Management and Informatics, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 3Center for Health Care Quality, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 1Health Services Research and Development, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, Missouri 2Department of Health Management and Informatics, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 3Center for Health Care Quality, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 4Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia Correspondence to: William L. Clarke, M.D., Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800386, Charlottesville, VA 22908; email address [email protected] Funding: This work was supported in part by NIH Grants R01DK5162, RO1DK28288, and M01 RR00847. Disclosure: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Copyright 2010 Diabetes Technology Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The objective of this study was to understand the level of performance of blood glucose monitors as assessed in the published literature. Medline from January 2000 to October 2009 and reference lists of included articles were searched to identify eligible studies. Key information was abstracted from eligible studies: blood glucose meters tested, blood sample, meter operators, setting, sample of people (number, diabetes type, age, sex, and race), durat Continue reading >>

What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?

What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?

A blood sugar or blood glucose chart identifies ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor blood sugar test results. What is a blood sugar chart? Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management. Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare to target levels. To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes. In the United States, blood sugar charts typically report sugar levels in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). In the United Kingdom and many other countries, blood sugar is reported in millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A1C blood sugar recommendations are frequently included in blood sugar charts. A1C results are often described as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in mg/dL. An A1C test measures the average sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into a person's overall management of their blood sugar levels. Blood sugar chart guidelines Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person. Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals. People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition. These Continue reading >>

Comparing Glucose Meter Accuracy

Comparing Glucose Meter Accuracy

One of the most frequent questions we get from our customers who purchase the iHealth Align Portable Glucometer or the iHealth Smart Wireless Glucometer is: How accurate are iHealths meters compared to other glucose meters on the market? Unfortunately, there is not a straightforward answer to this question, as no two meters will give you the same readings and a difference of even 20-30 points may be in the range of error. iHealth glucometers meet the most up-to-date FDA regulations and ISO standards, which state that over-the-counter home-use meters must be accurate within +/-15% compared to a formal lab measurement. This means that a person with a glucose level of 100 can read as low as 85 or as high as 115 and still be within the range of accuracy. According to the FDA and several clinical studies, many factors can determine the accuracy of your meter, including: interfering substances (Vitamin C, Tylenol, etc.) how well you perform the test. For example, you should wash and dry your hands before testing and closely follow the instructions for operating your meter. altitude, temperature, and humidity (High altitude, low and high temperatures, and humidity can cause unpredictable effects on glucose results). Check the meter manual and test strip package insert for more information. store and handle the meter and strips according to manufacturers instructions. It is important to store test strip vials closed and to make sure that you are not using expired strips to check your blood sugar. Rather than comparing meters to other meters to gauge accuracy, the FDA recommends using the three ways below to ensure that your meter is working properly: Continue reading >>

Fasting Blood Glucose Test

Fasting Blood Glucose Test

Fasting blood sugar levels are self-explanatory to some extent in that they are the blood glucose results you get when undertaking a period of fasting. Fasting is frequently deemed as being at least 8 hours after taking nutrition. This means that blood glucose levels will be taken at a time when your body is less likely to be digesting food. Why measure fasting blood glucose levels? Measuring fasting blood sugar levels can be useful for a number of different reasons including: Diagnosing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes Monitoring the extent of glucose intolerance in people with insulin resistance Setting basal insulin rates in people with type 1 diabetes How is a fasting blood glucose test carried out? A fasting blood glucose test can be carried out either with blood taken from your arm which is tested in a lab, or it can be carried out with a finger prick blood test and a blood glucose meter. A fasting blood glucose involves fasting, not taking food or any non-water drink, for at least 8 hours. A lab tested sample, also known as a fasting plasma glucose test, provides a more accurate result so this method will be used to diagnose or monitor glucose intolerance. When testing to inform basal dose setting of insulin, results from a blood glucose meter will be sufficient. Diagnosis A fasting blood glucose test can be used to diagnose diabetes or Impaired Fasting Glycemia, a condition that has a high risk of developing into type 2 diabetes. Condition indicated Blood glucose level (mg/dl) Normal Under 100 Impaired Fasting Glycemia 100 to 125 Diabetes 126 or more Monitor glucose intolerance If you have a form of glucose intolerance such as pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes, your health team may wish to carry out a fasting plasma glucose test to monitor how well your body copes Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Blood Glucose Readings: What They Mean

Source: Web exclusive: June 2011 When you have diabetes, perhaps the most important thing you need to know is the level of your blood glucose, also known as your blood sugar. Since many factors can raise or lower your blood glucose, you may have to check it several times a day. But once you obtain a blood glucose reading, what exactly does it mean? Crunch those numbers When you test a drop of your blood with a glucose meter, the big number that pops onto the screen refers to the number of millimoles (mmol) of glucose per litre (L) of your blood. A millimole (mmol) is one-thousandth of a mole, which is a standard unit for measuring the mass of molecules. And if that’s not already confusing enough, the United States uses a completely different system than Canadians for measuring blood glucose. South of the border, blood glucose is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL). This can sometimes be rather bewildering, especially if you’re brand new to diabetes and researching your disease on the Internet. “I tell people to go to a Canadian site first,” says Tabitha Palmer, a certified diabetes educator at the Centre for Clinical Research in Halifax. Know your targets So what numbers should you be looking for? Your target reading before meals should be between 4 and 7. Your blood sugar normally spikes two hours after a meal, so between 5 and 10 is a good range after you eat. Besides food, other factors that can cause your blood sugar to go up or down include exercise, illness, medications and stress. Your blood glucose readings are hands-down the best way to monitor whether or not your diabetes is generally well managed. "They really help the physicians and educators if we’re trying to look at whether you need to have your medication, insulin or mealtime adjusted, Continue reading >>

Self-monitoring Blood Glucose | Accu-chek

Self-monitoring Blood Glucose | Accu-chek

In general, the American Diabetes Association's (ADA) recommended blood sugar levels are: Your range is yours alonebased on your health, age, level of activity and other factors. And remember that your target is a range you'd like to stay within, not a single number. But what if you're out of range? These results provide valuable information, too. You can review your numbers over time to find patterns in highs and lows. Then you can work with your healthcare team to make adjustments to your diabetes management plan that will bring you closer to your target range. Day-to-day blood sugar checksalso known as routine testingcan give you a good idea of how you're doing at this moment, and they can be reviewed overall to see trends. They can help answer questions such as: Are your medications working as they should? How does the type or amount of food you eat affect your blood sugar? How does activity or stress affect your blood sugar? Your healthcare team will probably recommend a schedule of routine or daily testing to help you manage your blood sugar. Recognizing patterns with structured testing You can take self-monitoring a step further with structured testing checking your blood sugar at specific times over a short period to see how the things you do may affect your blood sugar. For example, if you're interested in insights into your overall blood glucose control, you can identify patterns with the Accu-Chek 360 View tool . If you'd like to look at one thing, such as a specific meal or activity, try before-and-after testing using the Accu-Chek Testing in Pairs tool . Print one out and take the completed tool to your next appointment. You and your healthcare professional can use the results to fine-tune your diabetes management. 1Polonsky, WH. Diabetes Burnout: What to Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes

Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes

Each time you test your blood sugar, log it in a notebook or online tool or with an app. Note the date, time, results, and any recent activities: What medication and dosage you took What you ate How much and what kind of exercise you were doing That will help you and your doctor see how your treatment is working. Well-managed diabetes can delay or prevent complications that affect your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes doubles your risk for heart disease and stroke, too. Fortunately, controlling your blood sugar will also make these problems less likely. Tight blood sugar control, however, means a greater chance of low blood sugar levels, so your doctor may suggest higher targets. Continue reading >>

Help Your Patients Get Accurate Blood Glucose Readings

Help Your Patients Get Accurate Blood Glucose Readings

Help Your Patients Get Accurate Blood Glucose Readings Help Your Patients Get Accurate Blood Glucose Readings With over 20 million patientswith diabetes in the UnitedStates, many of these patientsmust rely on monitoring their blood glucoseat home to ensure that they are stayingwithin their target goals. Unfortunately,too often patients receive inaccurate glucosereadings due to a variety of factors.This article will focus on some commoncauses of inaccuracies with glucometerresults, including environmental factors,hematocrit issues, sampling errors, andtesting interferences. Test strips that are stored in vials, asopposed to strips that are individuallywrapped in foil, are susceptible to theeffects of oxygen and moisture. Severalsmall studies that reviewed the effects ofglucose test strips left open in their vial fortimes ranging from 2 to 18 hours showedvariances in blood sugar results from 9%higher to 60% lower than the actualresults. A study in Diabetes by Lilavivat etal, in 2002, reported varying results forone patient between 94 and 307 mg/dLover the course of a few weeks. It wasdetermined that the patient's test stripshad been exposed to moisture. These factorsmust not be overlooked, given thatmany patients will keep their testing suppliesin a bathroom or kitchen environment.Make sure that your patients understandto always keep their test strip vialclosed when not in use. Heat exposure can also be a factor forvials of test strips as well as the individuallyfoil-wrapped test strips. This is particularlya consideration for patients whouse mail order as well as patients living inwarmer, humid climates who may notuse a source of air conditioning in theirhome. Counsel patients to make surethat they do not leave their test strips inthe mailing box for extended periods of Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Tweet Understanding blood glucose level ranges can be a key part of diabetes self-management. This page states 'normal' blood sugar ranges and blood sugar ranges for adults and children with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and blood sugar ranges to determine people with diabetes. If a person with diabetes has a meter, test strips and is testing, it's important to know what the blood glucose level means. Recommended blood glucose levels have a degree of interpretation for every individual and you should discuss this with your healthcare team. In addition, women may be set target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The following ranges are guidelines provided by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) but each individual’s target range should be agreed by their doctor or diabetic consultant. Recommended target blood glucose level ranges The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes. In addition, the International Diabetes Federation's target ranges for people without diabetes is stated. [19] [89] [90] The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for. NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges Target Levels by Type Upon waking Before meals (pre prandial) At least 90 minutes after meals (post prandial) Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy ind Continue reading >>

What Are Satisfactory Blood Glucose Meter Readings?

What Are Satisfactory Blood Glucose Meter Readings?

As of 2007, 7.8 percent of the U.S. population has diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. Although this condition can lead to life-threatening complications if not controlled, monitoring your blood sugar with a blood glucose meter can help you maintain healthy glucose levels and avoid complications. If you have diabetes, consult a health care provider about the glucose meter readings that are ideal for you. Video of the Day If you don't have diabetes, your blood glucose meter readings should be between 70 to 100 mg/dL at all times. Your fasting blood glucose, measured after 8 hours without food, should be less than 100 mg/dL. A glucose level below 70 indicates hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. If your fasting blood glucose level is between 100 to 125 mg/dL, you may have impaired fasting glucose, also called prediabetes. Levels above 126 mg/dL indicate diabetes. Those with diabetes should aim for a fasting blood glucose level of between 70 to 130 mg/dL and less than 180 mg/dL after a meal, advise experts from the American Diabetes Association. The above ranges refer to readings on plasma calibrated meters. Infants and Children Normal, non-diabetic fasting blood glucose ranges are the same as for adults. In children with diabetes, fasting blood glucose levels may be somewhat higher. For children younger than 5 years old, 80 to 200 mg/dL is an acceptable range, note child health experts from Boys Town Pediatrics. From ages 5 to 11, these levels should be 70 to 180 mg/dL and for children ages 12 and older, levels should be 70 to 150 mg/dL. Glucose is the source of energy for all systems in the body; without sufficient glucose, the body and brain can't function normally. Hypoglycemia can cause rapid heartbeat, trembling and dizziness, and severe cases may Continue reading >>

Checking Blood Sugar: Blood Glucose Meter Accuracy

Checking Blood Sugar: Blood Glucose Meter Accuracy

How is accuracy tested? Accuracy means how close the meter's results are to the results from a big, expensive, carefully calibrated lab analyzer. ISO requires manufacturers to test their meters with blood samples from at least 100 people, preferably at a diabetes clinic or hospital, and each sample must be tested with two meters as well as the lab analyzer. Blood samples from below 50 mg/dl to above 400 mg/dl must be tested. To get samples that are far outside the healthy range, blood can be altered. For example, glucose can be added to blood to get samples in the 400s. Minimum Acceptable Meter Accuracy The ISO figures, based on device testing, do not guarantee results or protect against common user errors. When glucose range of blood sample is Lower than 75 mg/dl: 95 percent of the results must fall within +/- 15 mg/dl When glucose range of blood sample is 75 mg/dl or Higher: 95 percent of the results must fall with +/- 20 percent Examples of Acceptable Accuracy: If the lab result is 70 mg/dl: The meter reading must be within 55-85 mg/dl If the lab result is 100 mg/dl: The meter reading must be within 80-120 mg/dl If the lab result is 200 mg/dl: The meter reading must be within 160-240 mg/dl Close enough? People talk about good and bad blood glucose results. To people with diabetes (PWDs), the term "good" means within their goal range; "bad" means way outside the range. Diabetes educators say all results are good because they provide information that helps you manage your diabetes. That is assuming the results are accurate. When talking about meter accuracy, a good result is one that prompts you to take a correct action. A bad result is so far off that it leads a person to immediately act on an incorrect decision, such as correcting a false high with too much insulin, Continue reading >>

Testing Your Blood Glucose

Testing Your Blood Glucose

Testing your blood glucose, also known as Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), is a method of checking how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood using a glucose meter -- anywhere, anytime. Here, you'll learn some basics about: Blood sugar targets for adults How your doctor tests your blood The importance of self-testing When to test and what to look for How to share results with your doctor Blood glucose targets for non-pregnant adults* Before meal After meal 80-120 mg/dL Less than 180 mg/dL How your doctor tests your blood -- the A1C test† Your doctor uses what is called an A1C (Glycosylated Hemoglobin) test to see what your average blood glucose level has been over the last two to three months. Used for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, it gives you and your doctor an indication on how well you are responding to your treatment regimen, and if any adjustments are necessary. The goal is to keep your level below seven percent (7%).* The A1C test is sometimes referred to as the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin test. The connection between A1C and average blood sugar levels.† Your A1C test result will not show the daily effects of food choices and your activity. A blood glucose meter is the best way to observe and track the immediate effects of food choices and activity on your blood glucose levels. This allows you to take immediate action to bring your glucose levels within range if needed. Your doctor will also rely upon your blood glucose meter results to assess and adjust your treatment regimen. When to test and what to look for – a practical guide Use this simple chart to remind you when to test and what to observe to help you manage your blood glucose level on a daily basis. When to test What to look for First thing in the morning, before you eat How Continue reading >>

Glucose Meter

Glucose Meter

Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. 1993–2005. Sample sizes vary from 30 to 0.3 μl. Test times vary from 5 seconds to 2 minutes (modern meters typically provide results in 5 seconds). A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It can also be a strip of glucose paper dipped into a substance and measured to the glucose chart. It is a key element of home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) by people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia. A small drop of blood, obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet, is placed on a disposable test strip that the meter reads and uses to calculate the blood glucose level. The meter then displays the level in units of mg/dl or mmol/l. Since approximately 1980, a primary goal of the management of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been achieving closer-to-normal levels of glucose in the blood for as much of the time as possible, guided by HBGM several times a day. The benefits include a reduction in the occurrence rate and severity of long-term complications from hyperglycemia as well as a reduction in the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia. History[edit] Leland Clark presented his first paper about the oxygen electrode, later named the Clark electrode, on 15 April 1956, at a meeting of the American Society for Artificial Organs during the annual meetings of the Federated Societies for Experimental Biology.[1][2] In 1962, Clark and Ann Lyons from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital developed the first glucose enzyme electrode. This biosensor was based on a thin layer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an oxygen electrode. Thus, the readout was the amount of oxygen consumed by GOx during the enzymatic reaction with the substra Continue reading >>

High? What Your Glucose Meter May Know, But Isn't Sharing

High? What Your Glucose Meter May Know, But Isn't Sharing

Your glucose meter might be keeping secrets from you. If and when you see a message on the screen alerting you to a "High" blood sugar, the meter probably knows more than it's telling you, as in the exact numerical value associated with that warning. But the device makers decided that we don't need that information... This came to light (in our brains, at least) following the March 25 announcement that almost two million LifeScan OneTouch VerioIQ meters were being recalled across the globe. LifeScan issued warnings on three brands of its OneTouch meters, totaling over 1.8 million meters worldwide! About 90,000 of its popular VerioIQ meters here in the U.S., part of the 1.2 million of those meters sold globally, and two brands sold outside the States: the OneTouch® Verio®Pro consumer meter and VerioPro+ professional meter. The reason for the recall? The meter software isn't properly registering extremely high blood sugars. At a certain point the meter shuts down with no warning and without alerting you to the hyperglycemic danger. The number you have to reach for this to happen: 1024 mg/dL (or 56.8 mmol to those outside the U.S.)! Geez, the number 1024 is oddly specific... Like many meters, LifeScan's units only show a numerical value for anything between 20-600, while anything outside that range just displays an "Extreme Low Glucose (below 20 mg/dL)" or "Extreme High Glucose (above 600 mg/dL)" message. So, who would have thought the meter actually knows when you've tipped past 1023? Maybe our meters are smarter than we give them credit for, despite the fact that they're sometimes a bit off thanks to that pesky +/-20% accuracy standard that we don't think is good enough. Why No Numbers? LifeScan confirmed our suspicions: Yes, their meters can track your blood sugar's n Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Meter Accuracy Comparison (chart)

Blood Glucose Meter Accuracy Comparison (chart)

How accurate is your blood glucose meter? A major study found that almost half of meters do not meet the minimum required standards: For blood sugars over 75 mg (4.2 mmol): Accurate within 20%. For example, if your blood sugar is 200 mg (11 mmol), the meter must read between 160 (8.8 mmol) and 240 (13.3 mmol) at least 95% of the time. For blood sugars under 75 mg (4.2 mmol): Accurate within 15 mg. For example, if your blood sugar is 60 mg (3.3 mmol), the meter must read between 45 (2.5 mmol) and 75 (4.2 mmol) at least 95% of the time. There is a new proposal that would require all results to be within 15%. But how do you know if your meter is meeting this standard? Today, there is no systematic verification of meter accuracy after it gets approved for sale. And as you will see below, many meters are sub-standard. This puts people relying on these tools in unnecessary danger. If you’re going to take a shot of insulin, a number that’s 15% off is a really big deal. Taking too much insulin can result in severe low blood sugars, hospitalization and even death. Comparison of Meter Accuracy The chart below is from System Accuracy Evaluation of 43 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose according to DIN EN ISO 15197 by Dr. Guido Freckmann and others published in Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2012. Between 2009 and 2011, over a hundred people were recruited to test each of the meters listed below. The test strips were taken from at least seven different vials of one manufacturing lot. Over at least ten days, the patients tested their blood sugar with the meter and then a second sample was taken for analysis in a lab. Before using this data, it is important to know the limitations: The study only looked Continue reading >>

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