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Global Prevalence Of Diabetes 2017

Global Diabetes Epidemic

Global Diabetes Epidemic

Photo: Diabetes screening © 2015 Uttam Kamati, Courtesy of K4Health Photoshare How Badly Are Developing Countries Hit? The World Health Organization (WHO)’s first global report on diabetes underscores how diabetes is no longer a disease of predominantly rich nations but is increasing in all regions, including in developing countries. In 2014, there were 422 million cases of diabetes, or 8.5 percent of the world’s population. In 2012 alone, 3.7 million people died from the disease, 1.5 million directly and 2.2 million indirectly. We ask: In which region is diabetes most prevalent? A. Africa B. Americas C. Eastern Mediterranean D. Europe E. South-East Asia Of the six WHO regions, Africa has the lowest prevalence, with 7.1 percent of its population suffering from diabetes. However, diabetes prevalence in Africa has more than doubled since 1980 and 25 million Africans now suffer from the disease, compared to only 4 million in 1980 and it looks like it will continue on a sharp upward direction. Sixty-two million people suffer from diabetes in the Americas, or 8.3 percent of the total population, which is a 344 percent increase since 1980. About one in twelve Americans today has diabetes, compared with one in twenty a generation ago. Nearly one in seven people in the Eastern Mediterranean, or 13.7 percent, suffer from diabetes. There has been an alarming increase in prevalence in this part of the world, which includes the Arabian Gulf countries, Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. The number of sufferers has risen from 6 million in 1980 to 43 million today, a more than 700 percent increase. The Eastern Mediterranean also has the highest mortality rate from diabetes of all WHO regions, 139.6 per 100,000 people aged 20+. With 7.3 percent of its population suffering from diabe Continue reading >>

Is Global Warming Driving Diabetes?

Is Global Warming Driving Diabetes?

Global warming could be fanning the worldwide diabetes epidemic, according to a study published this week in the journal BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. However, it’s a conclusion that has been questioned by others in the field. The researchers, led by Lisanne Blauw of the Department of Medicine at Leiden University Medical Centre in Germany, found that a 1°C rise in ambient temperature could be responsible for 100,000 annual cases of diabetes in the US alone. Diabetes affects 415 million people across the globe. The condition is a major cause of stroke, kidney disease and heart attack. The World Health Organisation (WHO) predicts it will be the seventh highest cause of death by 2030. To arrive at their unsettling conclusion, Blauw’s team analysed data from the US Diabetes Surveillance System across all US states and territories between 1996 and 2000, and from 190 countries included in the WHO Global Health Observatory. The authors used data on mean annual temperature from the US National Centre for Environmental Information and the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia. They found that for every 1°C rise in temperature the US incidence of diabetes rose by 0.314 cases per 1000 people and the global prevalence of glucose intolerance went up by 0.17%, or 1.7 per 1000 people. The results held after adjusting for the effects of obesity. But how could a warming planet possibly make diabetes worse? The researchers speculate that it might all come down to a little known site of body fat storage called brown adipose tissue (BAT). In cold weather BAT gets active as fat reserves are burned to generate heat. In the process, increasing amounts of free fatty acids, a decent proportion of which we eat as animal fats and vegetable oils, are deposited in it. Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Its Drivers: The Largest Epidemic In Human History?

Diabetes And Its Drivers: The Largest Epidemic In Human History?

Abstract The “Diabesity” epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore “the rise and rise” of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed. To prevent type 2 diabetes, a better understanding of the drivers of the epidemic is needed. While for years, there has been comprehensive attention to the “traditional” risk factors for type 2 diabetes i.e., genes, lifestyle and behavioral change, the spotlight is turning to the impact of the intra-uterine environment and epigenetics on future risk in adult life. It highlights the urgency for discovering novel approaches to prevention focusing on maternal and child health. Diabetes risk through epigenetic changes can be transmitted inter-generationally thus creating a vicious cycle that will continue to feed the diabetes epidemic. History provides important lessons and there are lessons to learn from major catastrophic events such as the Dutch Winter Hunger and Chinese famines. The Chinese famine may have been the trigger for what may be viewed as a diabetes “avalanche” many decades later. The drivers of the epidemic are indeed genes and environment but they are now joined by deleterious early life events. Looking to the future there is the potential scenario of future new “hot spots” for type 2 diabetes in regions e.g., the Horn of Africa, now experiencing droughts and f Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Got To Be The No. 1 Killer In Mexico

How Diabetes Got To Be The No. 1 Killer In Mexico

Mario Alberto Maciel Tinajero looks like a fairly healthy 68-year-old. He has a few extra pounds on his chest but he's relatively fit. Yet he's suffered for the last 20 years from what he calls a "terrible" condition: diabetes. "I've never gotten used to this disease," he says. Maciel runs a stall in the Lagunilla market in downtown Mexico City. This market is famous for its custom-made quinceañera dresses and hand-tailored suits. Diabetes has come to dominate Maciel's life. It claimed the life of his mother. He has to take pills and injections every day to keep it under control. And because of the disease he's supposed to eat a diet heavy in vegetables that he views as inconvenient and bland. "Imagine not being able to eat a carnitas taco!" he says with indignation. His doctors have told him to stop eating the steaming hot street food that's for sale all around the market — tacos, tamales, quesadillas, fat sandwiches called tortas. His eyes light up when talks about the roast pork taquitos and simmering beef barbacoa that he's supposed to stay away from. "A person who has to work 8 or 10 hours has to eat what's at hand, what's available," he says. "It's difficult to follow a diabetic diet. The truth is it's very difficult." Diabetes is the leading cause of death in Mexico, according to the World Health Organization. The disease claims nearly 80,000 lives each year, and forecasters say the health problem is expected to get worse in the decades to come. By contrast, in the U.S. it's the sixth leading cause of death, with heart disease and cancer claiming 10 times more Americans each year than diabetes. Rising rates of obesity combined with a genetic predisposition for Type 2 diabetes has caused a slow steady rise in the condition in Mexico over the last 40 years. Now Continue reading >>

Global Epidemiology Of Diabetic Foot Ulceration: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis†

Global Epidemiology Of Diabetic Foot Ulceration: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis†

Diabetic foot is a severe public health issue, yet rare studies investigated its global epidemiology. Here we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis through searching PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of science, and Cochrane database. We found that that global diabetic foot ulcer prevalence was 6.3% (95%CI: 5.4–7.3%), which was higher in males (4.5%, 95%CI: 3.7–5.2%) than in females (3.5%, 95%CI: 2.8–4.2%), and higher in type 2 diabetic patients (6.4%, 95%CI: 4.6–8.1%) than in type 1 diabetics (5.5%, 95%CI: 3.2–7.7%). North America had the highest prevalence (13.0%, 95%CI: 10.0–15.9%), Oceania had the lowest (3.0%, 95% CI: 0.9–5.0%), and the prevalence in Asia, Europe, and Africa were 5.5% (95%CI: 4.6–6.4%), 5.1% (95%CI: 4.1–6.0%), and 7.2% (95%CI: 5.1–9.3%), respectively. Australia has the lowest (1.5%, 95%CI: 0.7–2.4%) and Belgium has the highest prevalence (16.6%, 95%CI: 10.7–22.4%), followed by Canada (14.8%, 95%CI: 9.4–20.1%) and USA (13.0%, 95%CI: 8.3–17.7%). The patients with diabetic foot ulcer were older, had a lower body mass index, longer diabetic duration, and had more hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, and smoking history than patients without diabetic foot ulceration. Our results provide suggestions for policy makers in deciding preventing strategy of diabetic foot ulceration in the future. Global prevalence of diabetic foot is 6.3% (95%CI: 5.4–7.3%), and the prevalence in North America, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania was 13.0% (95%CI: 10.0–15.9%), 5.5% (95%CI: 4.6–6.4%), 5.1% (95%CI: 4.1–6.0%), 7.2% (95%CI: 5.1–9.3%), and 3.0% (95% CI: 0.9–5.0%). Diabetic foot was more prevalent in males than in females, and more prevalent in type 2 diabetic foot patients than in type 1 diabetic foot patients. The patients with d Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Pre-diabetes In Oke-ogun Region Of Oyo State, Nigeria

Prevalence Of Diabetes And Pre-diabetes In Oke-ogun Region Of Oyo State, Nigeria

Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Oke-Ogun Region of Oyo State, Nigeria Rasaki Olatunji Shittu * , Fakorede O Kasali, Sikiru A Biliaminu, Louis O Odeigah, Abdullateef G Sule and Yusuf Musah University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria. Received Date: March 21, 2017; Accepted Date: March 30, 2017; Published Date: April 05, 2017 Citation: Shittu RO, Kasali FO, Biliaminu SA, et al. Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Oke- Ogun Region of Oyo State, Nigeria. J Med Res Health Educ. 2017, 1:1. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Medical Research and Health Education Background: Oke-Ogun consists of 10 Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria. Although literature abounds on prevalence of diabetes in Nigeria, there is none in this geo-political zone. There appears to be a high genetic predisposition as well as socio-cultural factors responsible for the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in this zone. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and associated socio-demographic characteristics among indigenes of Oke-Ogun. Method: Of the 10,000 respondents who participated in the study, 6,915 had completed data. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) was measured using calibrated glucometers and classified thus; normal ( 6 mmol/l), pre-diabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/l), and diabetes ( 7 mmol/l). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and binary logistic regression tests at value of p<0.05. Results: There was a female preponderance for diabetes and pre-diabetes. Majority, 63.4% had no formal education, 82.9% earned less than NGN 18,000 ($50) per monthly income. The mean FPG was 5.50 2.20 mmol/l. The overall prevalence of Continue reading >>

Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes And Risk Of Progression To Type 2 Diabetes: A Global Perspective

Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes And Risk Of Progression To Type 2 Diabetes: A Global Perspective

Abstract Despite the increasing epidemic of diabetes mellitus affecting populations at different life stages, the global burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not well assessed. Systematically synthesized data on global prevalence estimates of GDM are lacking, particularly among developing countries. The hyperglycemic intrauterine environment as exemplified in pregnancies complicated by GDM might not only reflect but also fuel the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We comprehensively reviewed available data in the past decade in an attempt to estimate the contemporary global prevalence of GDM by country and region. We reviewed the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM as well. Synthesized data demonstrate wide variations in both prevalence estimates of GDM and the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Direct comparisons of GDM burden across countries or regions are challenging given the great heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and underlying population characteristics. In this regard, collaborative efforts to estimate global GDM prevalence would be a large but important leap forward. Such efforts may have substantial public health implications in terms of informing health policy makers and healthcare providers for disease burden and for developing more targeted and effective diabetes prevention and management strategies globally. Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes And Complications Among Adults In The Republic Of Ireland 1998-2015: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis. Marsha L. Tracey University College Cork

Epidemiology Of Diabetes And Complications Among Adults In The Republic Of Ireland 1998-2015: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis. Marsha L. Tracey University College Cork

Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland [email protected] Medicine Articles Department of Medicine Michael Gilmartin Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Kate O'Neill University College Cork Anthony P. Fitzgerald University College Cork Sheena M. McHugh University College Cork See next page for additional authors This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Department of Medicine at [email protected] It has been accepted for inclusion in Medicine Articles by an authorized administrator of [email protected] For more information, please contact [email protected] Citation Tracey ML, Gilmartin M, O'Neill K, Fitzgerald AP, McHugh SM, Buckley CM, Canavan RJ, Kearney PM. Epidemiology of diabetes and complications among adults in the Republic of Ireland 1998-2015: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):132 Authors Marsha L. Tracey, Michael Gilmartin, Kate O'Neill, Anthony P. Fitzgerald, Sheena M. McHugh, Claire M. Buckley, Ronan J. Canavan, and Patricia M. Kearney This article is available at [email protected]: RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Epidemiology of diabetes and complications among adults in the Republic of Ireland 1998-2015: a systematic review and meta-analysis Marsha L. Tracey1*, Michael Gilmartin2, Kate O’Neill1, Anthony P. Fitzgerald1, Sheena M. McHugh1, Claire M. Buckley1,3, Ronan J. Canavan4 and Patricia M. Kearney1 Abstract Background: Accurate estimates of the burden of diabetes are essential for future planning and evaluation of services. In Ireland, there is no diabetes register and prevalence estimates vary. The aim of this review was to systematically identify and review studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes and complications among adults in Ireland between 1998 and 2015 and to examine trends i Continue reading >>

International Surgery Journal

International Surgery Journal

International Surgery Journal | September 2017 | Vol 4 | Issue 9 Page 2983 Chandrashekar S et al. Int Surg J. 2017 Sep;4(9):2983-2986 pISSN 2349-3305 | eISSN 2349-2902 Original Research Article A study on the prevalence of risk factors and presence of diabetic foot ulcers in T2DM patients in K. R. Hospital, Mysuru Chandrashekar S., Suraj Muralidhar* INTRODUCTION Top 10 countries in the prevalence of diabetes are India, China, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil, Italy, Bangladesh.1 One of the major complications of DM is the development of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU).2 International working group on diabetic foot (IWGDF) has proposed neuropathy and angiopathy as the main risk factors for development of DFU.3 Role of these risk factors has been explained biomechanically and biologically.4,5 In general, neuropathy is determined by demography factors, while the development of DFU is mainly related to trauma, neuropathy and deformity.6,7 The main complications of DM in India are neuropathy (13%- 78%), microvascular complications (16%-53%) and DFU (7.3% - 24%).8,9 Foot infections are the most common problems in persons with diabetes. These individuals are predisposed to foot infections because of a compromised vascular supply secondary to diabetes. Local trauma and/or pressure (often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy), in addition to microvascular disease, may result in various diabetic foot infections that run the spectrum from simple, superficial cellulitis to chronic osteomyelitis. Compromise of the blood supply from microvascular disease, often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy, predisposes persons with diabetes mellitus to foot infections. These infections span the ABSTRACT Background: India is one of the top Continue reading >>

Countries With The Lowest Rates Of Diabetes

Countries With The Lowest Rates Of Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder diagnosed when someone has abnormally high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia). This is due to insufficient secretion of insulin, or insensitivity to this hormone, as insulin is the hormone that takes up and stores sugar from the blood into muscle . High levels of blood sugar can lead to consequences as severe as organ failure, blindness, paralysis, neuropathy, coma, and even death. Stress, inactivity, nutritionally-poor and energy-dense diets, and being obese are not only correlated with one another, but can also work either independently or interdependently to decrease the human body’s ability to secrete insulin and its sensitivity to its blood sugar-lowering actions. With increasingly sedentary lifestyles and global incidence of obesity, diabetes is a worldwide health problem now more than ever before. As you will see, despite having some of the lowest rates of the disease in the world, many of the countries listed below are still vulnerable to increased rates of the disease in the future. Furthermore, lack of diagnostic tools may mean that their actual rates are far higher still, and a lack of access to medical care and financial resources makes those who suffer from the disease in these countries susceptible to the very worst of diabetes' effects. Sub-Saharan African and former Soviet Socialist Republics dominate this list. 10. Angola (2.6%) Many nations in Africa are rapidly developing economically and socially and, as a result, medical services are often struggling to keep up. Diabetes in Angola, for example, remains relatively low, but changes in lifestyle will likely lead to an increase in the chronic disease over the next few years. People are more likely to have sedentary jobs and eat more processed food, which is often pa Continue reading >>

Global Prevalence And Future Of Diabetes Mellitus

Global Prevalence And Future Of Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract This chapter addresses the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in various countries according to geographic regions, as designated in an atlas published by the International Diabetes Federation in 2011.1 These include countries and territories in Europe, Africa, Middle East, North Africa, North America and Caribbean islands, South and Central America, South-East Asia and the Western Pacific Islands. Actual prevalence of DM (cases per 100 population) is expressed not only specifically for each individual country (national value) but more importantly, corrected by the population, age structure (comparative value) and also as an estimate of DM trend in 2030. It can be seen that in all countries (Tables 1–5) the prevalence of DM is on rise. A substantial contributing factor to the rise is the steady increase in body weight and obesity in many parts of the world. Economic stability and technological progress promote obesity in European countries, the USA and in oil producing countries such as Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. Also environmental factors, social trends toward higher energy intake and reduced energy expenditure also have a decisive role to play in the pathogenesis of overweight and DM. Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Continue reading >>

Idf Diabetes Atlas: Global Estimates Of Diabetes Prevalence For 2017 And Projections For 2045

Idf Diabetes Atlas: Global Estimates Of Diabetes Prevalence For 2017 And Projections For 2045

IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045 Author links open overlay panel N.H.Choac Since the year 2000, IDF has been measuring the prevalence of diabetes nationally, regionally and globally. To produce estimates of the global burden of diabetes and its impact for 2017 and projections for 2045. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify published studies on the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in the period from 1990 to 2016. The highest quality studies on diabetes prevalence were selected for each country. A logistic regression model was used to generate age-specific prevalence estimates or each country. Estimates for countries without data were extrapolated from similar countries. It was estimated that in 2017 there are 451 million (age 1899years) people with diabetes worldwide. These figures were expected to increase to 693 million) by 2045. It was estimated that almost half of all people (49.7%) living with diabetes are undiagnosed. Moreover, there was an estimated 374 million people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and it was projected that almost 21.3 million live births to women were affected by some form of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. In 2017, approximately 5 million deaths worldwide were attributable to diabetes in the 2099years age range. The global healthcare expenditure on people with diabetes was estimated to be USD 850 billion in 2017. The new estimates of diabetes prevalence, deaths attributable to diabetes and healthcare expenditure due to diabetes present a large social, financial and health system burden across the world. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Prevalence In Ireland

Diabetes Prevalence In Ireland

There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. The differences and similarities between the two conditions are outlined here. In the absence of a register of people who have diabetes no-one can be entirely sure how many people in Ireland live with diabetes. Overview The total number of people living with diabetes in Ireland is estimated to be 225,840. The International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas (2013) estimate that there are 207,490 people with diabetes in Ireland in the 20 – 79 age group (prevalence of 6.5% in the population) which is in line with previous estimates that by 2020 there would be 233,000 people with the condition, and by 2030 there would be 278,850 people with the condition. Type 1 Diabetes The prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes, an auto-immune condition, is on the rise and is typically diagnosed in childhood. People with type 1 diabetes account for approximately 14,000 – 16,000 of the total diabetes population in Ireland i.e. 10-15% of the population of people living with diabetes. It is estimated there are 2,750 people under 16 years of age living with Type 1 diabetes (based on the Irish Paediatric Diabetes Audit 2012) results and other young adults under 20 years attending transition clinics). Type 2 Diabetes According to the Healthy Ireland survey, 854,165 adults over 40 in the Republic of Ireland are at increased risk of developing (or have) Type 2 diabetes. More alarmingly, there are a further 304,382 in the 30 – 39 year age group that are overweight and not taking the weekly 150 minutes recommended physical activity, leaving them at an increased risk of chronic ill-health. This means that there are 1,158,547 adults in Ireland that need to consider making changes to their daily behaviours in terms of eating healthily Continue reading >>

Diabetes Continues To Spread Around The World

Diabetes Continues To Spread Around The World

On World Diabetes Day, news about the disease's global impact is dire. An estimated 382 million people worldwide have diabetes, according to a new report from the International Diabetes Federation. The IDF expects that number to rise to 592 million by 2035, when one in every 10 people will have the disease. "Diabetes in all its forms imposes unacceptably high human, social and economic costs on countries at all income levels," the report authors begin in the executive summary. They go on to say that this latest edition of the Diabetes Atlas "carries a bitter but unavoidable message: despite the array of tools at our disposal to tackle the disease... the battle to protect people from diabetes and its disabling, life-threatening complications is being lost." Epidemiologist Leonor Guariguata, project coordinator for IDF's Diabetes Atlas, wasn't surprised by the report's findings. In fact, she says the estimates are conservative, and that diabetes may be a much bigger problem than we think. "The thing that strikes me is that we keep saying the same thing again," she said. "Every time we produce new estimates, they are above and beyond what we had projected from past estimates." There are three types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes. People who have Type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin, a hormone the body needs to convert sugar and starches into energy. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile onset diabetes because it is usually diagnosed in adolescence. Around 5% of the diabetic population in the United States has Type 1 diabetes. People with Type 2 diabetes have developed a resistance to the insulin their body produces. Most people who develop Type 2 diabetes are adults, although experts worry about the increasing number of young people being diagn Continue reading >>

371 Million People Have Diabetes Globally, About Half Undiagnosed

371 Million People Have Diabetes Globally, About Half Undiagnosed

Diabetes is now a disease that affects 371 million people worldwide, and 187 million of them do not even know they have the disease, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). That represents an increase from last year's estimate, which showed 366 million people had the disease. While 4 million people died from the diabetes in 2011, estimates show that 4.8 million people will die this year from complications from the disease -- with people under 60 accounting for half the deaths. The results were released on Nov. 14, World Diabetes Day 2012, in order to bring awareness to the global problem. Researchers estimate that the diabetes dilemma will only increase. By 2030, they expect 552 million people will have the disease. "As millions of undiagnosed people develop diabetes complications, we can expect to see the mortality rate climb," Jean Claude Mbanya, President of the IDF, said in a press release. "On World Diabetes Day, we want to raise awareness that this disease can be controlled and in some cases prevented." The seventh leading cause of death in the U.S., diabetes is a problem that occurs when blood glucose levels are above normal, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports. Glucose is the sugar that is processed from the food we eat, and our pancreas is supposed to make a hormone called insulin which helps the glucose get into our cells to give them energy. Having diabetes indicates that your body is not making enough insulin or isn't utilizing insulin as it should be. There are many types of diabetes, but the most common are Type 1 diabetes (5 percent of diagnosed cases), Type 2 diabetes (about 90 to 95 percent of diagnosed cases) and gestational diabetes (about 2 to 10 percent of diagnosed cases). Type 2 diabetes risk factors include ag Continue reading >>

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