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Global Importance Of Diabetes

Worldwide Burden Of Diabetes Bhutani J, Bhutani S - Indian J Endocr Metab

Worldwide Burden Of Diabetes Bhutani J, Bhutani S - Indian J Endocr Metab

The Lancet recently published a "superhuman" [1] series of articles describing the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD). Covering all causes of morbidity and mortality, all ages of groups and 197 countries, this landmark epidemiological treatise compares the global burden of disease in 2010 with that prevailing in 1990. This brief communication highlights the global burden of diabetes, with an emphasis on South Asia, using statistics from the GBD reports. [2] , [3] , [4] , [5] These figures provide a complementary picture to that obtain from statistics of prevalence of diabetes, as published by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). While the IDF data does emphasize the importance of diabetes as a global public health problem, it does not place in perspective the ranking of diabetes as compared to other diseases and illnesses. The GBD describes as 13.5% increase in all-cause mortality from 1990-2010 (4,65.11,200-5,27,69,700 deaths). This increase is fuelled by steep rise in deaths due to noncommunicable disease (NCD). The globe has experienced a 30.0% increase in mortality due to NCD, from 2,65,60,300 deaths in 1990 to 3,45,39,900 in 2010. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the biggest endocrine driver for GBD It directly led to 12,81,300 deaths in 2010, a 92.7% rise over the 1990 figure of 6,65,000 for lost lives. This percentage rise is one of the steepest for any disease, with the notable exceptions of Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV), Alzhemier's disease, Parkinson's disease, atrial arrhythmias, and peripheral vascular disease. [2] While diabetes does not account for all NCD mortality, poorly controlled DM is certainly a strong contributor to deaths from other causes such as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD due to Continue reading >>

The International Diabetes Federation And Its Vision

The International Diabetes Federation And Its Vision

WRITTEN BY: Alexi Melvin The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has one vision – to live in a world without diabetes. IDF is a federation of 200+ national diabetes associations, including the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Diabetes Educators. It aims to support and strengthen its membership by promoting diabetes care and prevention through the development and dissemination of high-quality, evidence-based information and resources for health professionals, people with diabetes and policy-makers. Any national or international association that promotes and addresses diabetes related issues may apply for membership of IDF. IDF spans 7 regions and has a pulse of key issues in each region: 165 countries, and 235 total members. IDF strives to promote diabetes awareness in a myriad of ways through advocacy initiatives on both local and global levels. Their main focus areas include: Health professional education Care & prevention Epidemiology & Research Humanitarian support IDF’s most noteworthy initiatives include the IDF Diabetes Atlas, World Diabetes Day (last year’s theme being “Eyes on Diabetes,” a campaign promoting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes), the IDF Congress (the next edition will be held in Abu Dhabi in December 2017), Life for a Child (which focuses on saving the lives of children with diabetes in developing countries), and the Young Leaders in Diabetes programme. Beyond Type 1 sat down for a chat with Lorenzo Piemonte, IDF Communications Manager, to hear more about how IDF is taking action on diabetes and bringing together the diabetes community. BT1: What has been IDF’s experience with regard to government access and funding? Lorenzo: IDF believes that all people with Continue reading >>

Global Pandemic Of Diabetes: An Indian Perspective

Global Pandemic Of Diabetes: An Indian Perspective

Global Pandemic of Diabetes: An Indian Perspective Dr Aravinda Jagadeesha MD, MRCP(London,UK), FRCP(Edinburgh,UK), Consultant Diabetologist, Dr Aravinds Diabetes Centre, Karnataka, India Diabetes mellitus (DM), an increasingly common metabolic disorder, creates a significant public health burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that non-communicable diseases (NCD) are an important global health hazard and DM is one of the four main NCD which immediately demands the global attention.1 This chronic disorder is also a top 10 cause of death globally and has attained pandemic proportions worldwide. In 2015 diabetes killed around 1.6 million people globally (direct cause of death).2 According to the recent Global Burden of Disease Study (2015), diabetes ranked 15th in the global list of leading causes of years of life lost (YLLs).3 Furthermore, the third highest risk factor for global premature mortality is high blood glucose after high blood pressure and tobacco use.4 According to the estimates of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), globally 415 million people are suffering from diabetes (with global prevalence: 8.8%) of which 75% live in low- and middle-income countries. With this trend, by 2040, the world will have 642 million people suffering from diabetes. Type-II DM is the predominant clinical form rather than type-I DM. The majority of the diabetes population (87-91%) in high- income countries have type-II diabetes. Data for relative proportions of type-I and type-II diabetes is not available for low- and middle- income countries,. Globally the type-I diabetes population increases each year by approximately 3 %.4 India is an influential hub for the global diabetes epidemic with the second highest diabetes population in the world (~69 millio Continue reading >>

World Heart Federation Is Proud To Support World Diabetes Day On 14 November

World Heart Federation Is Proud To Support World Diabetes Day On 14 November

Explore everything from toolkits, videos and infographics, to policy reports, factsheets and more. World Heart Federation is proud to support World Diabetes Day on 14 November Diabetes is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which makes it particularly important for the World Heart Federation to lend our support to the campaign and its objectives and this year, as ever, we are proud to do so. World Diabetes Day was created in 1991 by IDF and the World Health Organization in response to growing concerns about the escalating health threat posed by diabetes. World Diabetes Day became an official United Nations Day in 2006 with the passage of United Nation Resolution 61/225. WDD is the worlds largest diabetes awareness campaign reaching a global audience of over 1 billion people in more than 160 countries. The campaign draws attention to issues of paramount importance to the diabetes world and keeps diabetes firmly in the public and political spotlight. In 2015, World Diabetes Day has become a year-long campaign to reflect the realities of people living with diabetes. The campaign focuses on healthy eating as a key factor in the fight against diabetes and a cornerstone of global health and sustainable development. Find out more about how you can support World Diabetes Day Continue reading >>

Perspective The Importance And Strategy Of Diabetes Prevention

Perspective The Importance And Strategy Of Diabetes Prevention

For nearly half a century, along with the social development and lifestyle changes, chronic metabolic diseases, mainly obesity, type 2 diabetes, abnormal lipid metabolism, and coronary heart disease, have become diseases that threaten human health and are now one of the biggest public health problems. Statistics show that more than 2 billion people are overweight or obese, and nearly 400 million patients currently suffer from diabetes mellitus globally.1,2 In 2010, it was reported by the New England Journal of Medicine that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 9.7% among Chinese individuals over 18 years of age, and the total number of the patients in China was more than 92 million.3 Three years later, the Journal of the American Medical Association published another Chinese diabetes epidemiological study showing that the prevalence rate of diabetes in Chinese adults was as high as 11.6%, with the total number of patients reaching 114 million, accounting for about a third of the total number of patients worldwide.4 However, in 1980, at the initial stage of China's reform and opening up, a census on 300,000 people from 14 provinces and cities in China showed the prevalence rate of diabetes as only 0.67%.5 China is the world's largest developing country and has a large population. Therefore, the prevalence of diabetes in China has the largest impact globally and can be regarded as representative of the general population. Diabetes, the main component of chronic metabolic diseases, not only lowers quality of life and greatly increases medical expenses, but also significantly increases disease-related deaths. Diabetes has become one of the major diseases that result in death. Each year, the number of deaths from diabetes and its complications exceeds 3.8 million.6 In devel Continue reading >>

Preface: Diabetes Education: A Global Perspective

Preface: Diabetes Education: A Global Perspective

From Research to Practice / Global Persepectives Diabetes presents unique challenges to health care providers and patients alike. Because of the chronic nature of the disease and the important role daily activities play in its management, patients are, indeed, the most active and powerful providers of diabetes care. Even the most skillfully devised regimen of care is of absolutely no use in achieving metabolic control unless it is appropriately put into action by a patient. This makes the education and training of people with diabetes extremely important. Recognition of this fact has fueled the growth and development of formalized diabetes education throughout the world, although the developmental timetable varies significantly around the globe. About 6 years ago, I was first given the opportunity to work with educators and other clinicians outside of the United States. The prospect at first seemed daunting. I could not imagine how my U.S. experience would translate to other settings that seemed, at first glance, to be so different from my own. I could see only the things that were different: language, food, politics, health care organization and payment systems, even the training of health care providers. In many countries I was preparing to visit, there were, in fact, no words in the local language for what I am: a diabetes educator. Although I was sure the work would be fascinating and enjoyable, I was not prepared for the deeply engaging growth experience that awaited me. For although many things were different, I found two factors to be universal in their presence and importance. In 25 countries over 5 years, these two factors formed a common ground on which productive sharing and collaboration could be carried out. These common factors are diabetes itself and the Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is A Fast-growing Disease Of The Poor. Heres How We Can Turn The Tide

Diabetes Is A Fast-growing Disease Of The Poor. Heres How We Can Turn The Tide

Diabetes is a fast-growing disease of the poor. Heres how we can turn the tide Out of 400 million people with diabetes worldwide, over 300 million live in developing countries. Bent Lautrup-Nielsen Senior Programme Manager, World Diabetes Foundation Explore the latest strategic trends, research and analysis For many years, diabetes was considered a disease of the rich, mostly found among elderly people in developed countries. Diabetes was never part of any development programme, nor was it given much attention by governments or healthcare providers in developing countries. It was almost impossible to find a diabetes clinic in Tanzania or a doctor or nurse trained in diabetes care in Bangladesh. If you were a citizen of Kenya or Fiji, Haiti or Ivory Coast, your chances of getting treatment for diabetes were low, and your risk of living a life severely affected by diabetes was high. Until recently, diabetes was not considered an important public health concern by any international development organization, bank, or national government, and often not even by medical experts. Most support for healthcare in poorer countries focused on malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis, or acute outbreaks of disease. In recent years, the disease situation has changed dramatically in developing countries. Today it is known that out of 400 million people with diabetes worldwide, over 300 million live in developing countries. By 2035, or even before, these numbers will have gone up by at least another 100 million if the necessary action is not taken. The fact is that diabetes is a big problem to a poor person and his/her family: diabetes is a chronic disease that requires long-term care and medication. If care is not available, diabetes and its complications (such as stroke, high blood pressure, b Continue reading >>

Diabetes: A Challenge That's Global, Complicated, And Devastating

Diabetes: A Challenge That's Global, Complicated, And Devastating

Diabetes: A Challenge That's Global, Complicated, And Devastating Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Logo for the World Diabetes Day (Photo credit: Wikipedia) November 14 is World Diabetes Day an annual reminder that diabetes remains a major, global epidemic that today affects 382 million people. According to figures released today by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of people with diabetes worldwide is projected to rise to nearly 600 million by 2035. Nearly 5 million people died last year as a result of diabetes half of them under age 60. The economic cost is also devastating: $548 billion worldwide in 2013 alone. Its not just the scope but also the complexity of diabetes that makes medical research and treatment so urgent and so challenging. Just as weve learned that cancer is not one disease but more than 200, so weve come to understand diabetes is an enormously complex and heterogeneous condition that involves many genes, molecules, and organ systems. The risk and course of the disease in an individual is affected by a range of genetic and environmental factors, and it can result in a variety of complications, including blindness, nerve damage, kidney failure, heart disease, peripheral artery disease resulting in amputations, and stroke. Co-morbidities, including depression and cognitive decline, are also prevalent. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that attacks cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone required for blood glucose to be converted into energy throughout the body. The discovery of insulin in the 1920s was a huge breakthrough literally a life-saver but still not a cure. Type 2 diabetes, which comprises 95 percent of all diabetes cases, is a chronic, progressive disease. It is usually linke Continue reading >>

The Importance Of Diabetes Mellitus In The Global Epidemic Of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case Of The State Of Qatar

The Importance Of Diabetes Mellitus In The Global Epidemic Of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case Of The State Of Qatar

The Importance of Diabetes Mellitus in the Global Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: The Case of the State of Qatar Alvin I. Mushlin , MD, ScM, (by invitation) Paul J. Christos , DrPH, MS, Laith Abu-Raddad , PhD, Hiam Chemaitelly , MSc, Dirk Deleu , MD, PhD, and Abdul Razak Gehani , MD Correspondence and reprint requests: Alvin I. Mushlin, MD, ScM, Professor and Chair, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical Center, 402 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10065, Phone: 646-962-8009, Fax: 646-962-0281, [email protected] Copyright 2012 The American Clinical and Climatological Association As a manifestation of the epidemiologic transition being experienced throughout the developing world, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing. However, whether an individual's risk of cardiovascular diseases as a consequence of DM is also higher in these countries is unknown. We conducted a case-control study at the medical center in the state of Qatar comparing the prevalence of DM in 512 patients who were admitted with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) and 262 cases of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) to 382 hospital and outpatient controls to calculate the odds ratios (OR) associated with DM for MI and CVA. The OR for MI was estimated to be 4.01 compared to 2.92 for other countries in the Middle East and 1.75 for North America. The OR was even higher for Qatari natives. Understanding the reasons for this increase, including genetic differences, lifestyle, and medical management issues, is critical for the design and prioritization of effective interventions. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated CVD mortality to be 17.1 million people in 2004 with 42% of these deaths attributed to Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a severe and neglected threat to maternal and child health. Many women with GDM experience pregnancy related complications including high blood pressure, large birth weight babies and obstructed labour. A significant number of women with GDM also go on to develop type 2 diabetes resulting in further healthcare complications and costs. GDM facts: In 2015, there were an estimated 199,5 million women with diabetes. By 2030, this number is expected to rise to 313,3 million. Two out of every five women with diabetes are of reproductive age, accounting for over 60 million women worldwide. IDF estimates that 20.9 million or 16.2% of live births to women in 2015 had some form of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. An estimated 85.1% were due to gestational diabetes, 7.4% due to other types of diabetes first detected in pregnancy and 7.5$ due to diabetes detected prior to pregnancy. One in seven births is affected by gestational diabetes. The prevalence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy increases rapidly with age and is highest in women over the age of 45. Continue reading >>

The Importance Of World Diabetes Day

The Importance Of World Diabetes Day

Today we celebrate World Diabetes Day to raise global awareness of a disease that affects an estimated 382 million people worldwide. The theme for 2014 is Healthy Living and Diabetes, so we asked Jill Weisenberger, MS, RDN, CDE, FAND, a nutrition counselor and diabetes expert, to join me today so we could learn more about diabetes. Jill has written 21 Things You Need to Know About Diabetes and Your Heart, which will be available in February. Jill is also a member of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the American Diabetes Association (ADA). What is the difference between the two types of diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin, the hormone that ushers glucose out of the blood and into the cell where it is used for energy or stored for later use. Insulin has many other roles as well and even affects protein and fat metabolism. Only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Though it can occur at any age, it is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. The underlying cause of type 2 diabetes is inuslin resistance, the condition in which the body does not use insulin properly. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to keep blood glucose within normal levels. Eventually, if insulin resistance continues, the pancreas cannot keep up with the demand. Blood glucose first rises to the level of prediabetes and then to the level of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, about 8 million of them don’t even know it. What’s also very worrisome is that 86 million Americans over age 20 have prediabetes and are at very high risk for developing type 2 diabetes and associated heart disease. That’ Continue reading >>

Prevention Through Awareness Raising Global Awareness Of Diabetes And Its Complications

Prevention Through Awareness Raising Global Awareness Of Diabetes And Its Complications

Prevention through Awareness Raising Global Awareness of Diabetes and Its Complications European Endocrinology, 2006(2):24-8; DOI: Citation European Endocrinology, 2006(2):24-8; DOI: The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has recently concluded its World Diabetes Day campaign. This year-long awareness campaign, run by the IDF with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO), aims at informing the public of the causes, symptoms, complications and treatments associated with the condition. The year reaches its zenith on the World Diabetes Day itself, 14 November, when stakeholders from the global diabetes community join in what is both a celebration of the lives of people with diabetes and the worlds largest diabetes awareness-raising event. In 2005, there has been a focus on diabetes and foot care. The IDF has received significant help from its Consultative Section on the Diabetic Foot and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot both of which are chaired by Karel Bakker. The aim of the campaign has been to convey and promote the message that it is possible to reduce amputation rates through prevention, aggressive management of existing diabetes and the provision of appropriate education for people with diabetes and healthcare professionals. World Diabetes Day serves as an important reminder of the increasing global incidence and prevalence of diabetes and the significant human, social and economic costs that this brings. It is crucial to alert the public worldwide to the fact that diabetes is a serious condition that is currently underestimated in terms of its frequency, cost and impact on quality of life. Each year, more than three million deaths worldwide are attributable to diabetes-related causes. The IDF estimates that approximately 194 mill Continue reading >>

Why Is Diabetes Important?

Why Is Diabetes Important?

Diabetes is a chronic disorder of glucose metabolism and is a major cause of heart disease and end-stage renal disease in European populations, the single biggest cause of preventable blindness, the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation and major cause of premature mortality. The secular trend and geographical variation of type 2 diabetes suggest that genes and lifestyles interact in their influence on glucose metabolism and the development of diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is rising worldwide. In Europe, between 35-40% of people will develop diabetes mellitus over their lifetime, accounting for up to 10% of all funds spent on healthcare. The need to understand its aetiology and to develop preventive strategies is, therefore, key to improving the health of the public and to reducing the burden on the health care system. Further information on the global burden of Diabetes can be found via the International Diabetes Federation publications, including the IDF Diabetes Atlas: Back Continue reading >>

Globalization Of Diabetes

Globalization Of Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the “normal-weight metabolically obese” phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority. THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF TYPE Continue reading >>

Overview

Overview

The importance of both diabetes and these comorbidities will continue to increase as the population ages. Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide. Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level. Several studies have suggested that process indicators such as foot exams, eye exams, and measurement of A1c may not be sensitive enough to capture all aspects of quality of care that ultimately result in reduced morbidity. New diabetes quality-of-care indicators are currently under development and may help determine whether appropriate, timely, evidence-based care is linked to risk factor reduction. In addition, the scientific evid Continue reading >>

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