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Gestational Diabetes Research Paper

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes 10 Years After The Index Pregnancy In Sri Lankan Women—a Community Based Retrospective Cohort Study

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes 10 Years After The Index Pregnancy In Sri Lankan Women—a Community Based Retrospective Cohort Study

Abstract Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life compared to women with no GDM. This study was aimed to determine the risk of developing T2DM 10 years after GDM in Sri Lankan women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka. 7205 women who delivered a child in 2005 were identified through Public Health Midwives in the field. Women with antenatal records were interviewed and relevant data were extracted from medical records to identify potential participants. One hundred and nineteen women who had GDM and 240 women who did not have GDM were recruited. Current diagnosis of diabetes was based on history, relevant medical records and blood reports within the past 1 year. Results The mean duration of follow up was 10.9 (SD = 0.35) years in the GDM group and 10.8 (SD = 0.31) years in the non-GDM group. The incidence density of diabetes in the GDM group was 56.3 per 1000 person years compared to 5.4 per 1000 person years in non GDM group giving a rate ratio of 10.42 (95% CI: 6.01–19.12). A woman having GDM in the index pregnancy was 10.6 times more likely to develop diabetes within 10 years compared to women with no GDM after controlling for other confounding variables. Delivering a child after 30 years, being treated with insulin during the pregnancy and delivering a baby weighing more than 3.5 Kg were significant predictors of development of T2DM after controlling for family history of diabetes mellitus (DM), GDM in previous pregnancies, parity and gestational age at delivery. Women with GDM had a 10-fold higher risk of developing T2DM during a 10-year follow up period as compared to women with no GDM after controlling for other confounding variab Continue reading >>

A Cohort Study Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Complimentary Qualitative Research: Background, Aims And Design

A Cohort Study Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus And Complimentary Qualitative Research: Background, Aims And Design

A cohort study of gestational diabetes mellitus and complimentary qualitative research: background, aims and design Madhuri S Balaji , Manjula Datta , Rekha Rajendran , Karoline Kragelund Nielsen , Rohini Radhakrishnan , Anil Kapur , and Veerasamy Seshiah Dr. V. Balaji Diabetes Care Centre - Dr. V. Seshiah Diabetes Research Institutes, # 729, P. H. Road, Aminjikarai, Chennai, 600 029 Tamil Nadu India Dr. V. Balaji Diabetes Care Centre - Dr. V. Seshiah Diabetes Research Institutes, # 729, P. H. Road, Aminjikarai, Chennai, 600 029 Tamil Nadu India Dr. V. Balaji Diabetes Care Centre - Dr. V. Seshiah Diabetes Research Institutes, # 729, P. H. Road, Aminjikarai, Chennai, 600 029 Tamil Nadu India Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark World Diabetes Foundation, Gentofte, Denmark Find articles by Karoline Kragelund Nielsen Dr. V. Balaji Diabetes Care Centre - Dr. V. Seshiah Diabetes Research Institutes, # 729, P. H. Road, Aminjikarai, Chennai, 600 029 Tamil Nadu India Dr. V. Balaji Diabetes Care Centre - Dr. V. Seshiah Diabetes Research Institutes, # 729, P. H. Road, Aminjikarai, Chennai, 600 029 Tamil Nadu India Dr. V. Balaji Diabetes Care Centre - Dr. V. Seshiah Diabetes Research Institutes, # 729, P. H. Road, Aminjikarai, Chennai, 600 029 Tamil Nadu India Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark World Diabetes Foundation, Gentofte, Denmark Vijayam Balaji, Email: [email protected] . Received 2013 Nov 20; Accepted 2014 Oct 20. Copyright Balaji et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes - Research Paper Example

Gestational Diabetes - Research Paper Example

Fetal and neonatal problems that are linked with GD mainly include amplified risk for miscarriage, stillbirth and macrosomia. A regular check and a good meal plan together with physical activity can help pregnant women with GD to have healthy babies. GESTATIONAL DIABETES INTRODUCTION Gestational Diabetes (GD) as the name suggests refers to the diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. It is a serious problem that can be detrimental for both mother and child if not checked regularly. The high blood sugar during pregnancy is mainly linked to the hormonal changes that inhibit the production of insulin. Statistics suggest that about 4 % of all pregnant women have GD. According to the statistical data, in every 100 pregnancy in US, 3 to 8 women get GD that is type-2 diabetes. It is anticipated that about 135,000 cases of GD take place in the US annually (Diabetesinformationhub.com, 2011). Though it is a common problem it is important to keep a check on the blood glucose level because an increased glucose level can result in deformities in the baby. In general the fetal and neonatal problems that are linked with GD mainly include amplified risk for miscarriage, stillbirth and macrosomia (Big baby). A regular check and a good meal plan together with physical activity and proper medication can help pregnant women with GD to have healthy babies. ... The main hormones that are responsible in development of placenta during pregnancy are involved in blocking the activity of insulin in the body. In other words the insulin become resistant and does not function normally during pregnancy. Additionally, studies point out that during pregnancy the need of insulin production is about 3 times when compared to normal period. For instance, a mother may require up to three times more insulin f Continue reading >>

Adherence To Healthy Lifestyle And Risk Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Prospective Cohort Study

Adherence To Healthy Lifestyle And Risk Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Prospective Cohort Study

Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study BMJ 2014; 349 doi: (Published 30 September 2014) Cite this as: BMJ 2014;349:g5450 Jorge E Chavarro, assistant professor 2 3 , 1Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA 2Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA 3Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Correspondence to: C Zhang zhangcu{at}mail.nih.gov Objective To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Setting Nurses Health Study II, United States. Participants 20 136 singleton live births in 14 437 women without chronic disease. Main outcome measure Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical records in a previous study. Results Incident first time gestational diabetes was reported in 823 pregnancies. Each lifestyle factor measured was independently and significantly associated with risk of gestational diabetes. The combination of three low risk factors (non-smoker, 150 minutes a week of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and healthy eating (top two fifths of Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 adherence score)) was associated with a 41% lower risk of gestational diabetes compared with all other pregnancies (relativ Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: Risks, Management, And Treatment Options

Gestational Diabetes: Risks, Management, And Treatment Options

Gestational diabetes: risks, management, and treatment options Departments of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is commonly defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Diagnostic criteria for GDM have changed over the decades, and several definitions are currently used; recent recommendations may increase the prevalence of GDM to as high as one of five pregnancies. Perinatal complications associated with GDM include hypertensive disorders, preterm delivery, shoulder dystocia, stillbirths, clinical neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and cesarean deliveries. Postpartum complications include obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in the offspring and diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the mothers. Management strategies increasingly emphasize optimal management of fetal growth and weight. Monitoring of glucose, fetal stress, and fetal weight through ultrasound combined with maternal weight management, medical nutritional therapy, physical activity, and pharmacotherapy can decrease comorbidities associated with GDM. Consensus is lacking on ideal glucose targets, degree of caloric restriction and content, algorithms for pharmacotherapy, and in particular, the use of oral medications and insulin analogs in lieu of human insulin. Postpartum glucose screening and initiation of healthy lifestyle behaviors, including exercise, adequate fruit and vegetable intake, breastfeeding, and contraception, are encouraged to decrease rates of future glucose intolerance in mothers and offspring. Keywords: glucose intolerance, pregnancy, perinatal complications This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are avai Continue reading >>

Here Is The Diabetes Research Paper Example You Need

Here Is The Diabetes Research Paper Example You Need

A Basic Research Paper Sample About Diabetes Diabetes (Diabetes mellitus) is a group of diseases that negatively affect the bodys ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin. This results in elevated levels of glucose in the blood because the body cannot metabolize carbohydrates correctly. Over 380 million people are affected by this disease worldwide and the World Health Organization has predicted in 1999 that diabetes will become the seventh cause of death worldwide by 2030. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational. In this paper, we will discuss the causes of this disease and potential cures. Type 1 diabetes means that the immune system is compromised and the cells fail to produce insulin in sufficient amounts. There are no eloquent studies that prove the causes of type 1 diabetes and there are currently no known methods of prevention. Type 2 diabetes means that the cells produce a low quantity of insulin or the body cant use the insulin correctly. This is the most common type of diabetes, thus affecting 90% of persons diagnosed with diabetes. It is caused by both genetic factors and the manner of living. Gestational diabetes appears in pregnant women who suddenly develop high blood sugar. In two thirds of the cases, it will reappear during subsequent pregnancies. There is a great chance that type 1 or type 2 diabetes will occur after a pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes. Genetic factors are the main cause of diabetes. It is caused by at least two mutant genes in the chromosome 6, the chromosome that affects the response of the body to various antigens. Viral infection may also influence the occurrence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown that infection with viruses such as rubella, Coxsackievirus, mumps, hepati Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Research Paper | Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 | Prediabetes

Gestational Diabetes Research Paper | Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 | Prediabetes

Most of the studies reviewed included retrospective cohort studies and . Almost all subjects were recruited in hospitals in Canada, India, Germany, and the U.S. Participants were recruited and given a OGTT in a hospital setting. After recruitment, follow-ups were scheduled either once or intermittently in the future. Most studies measured outcomes by performing OGTT, blood work, or questionnaires and measuring height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, and skin folds. Most studies revealed association between GDM and higher risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing T2DM, T1DM, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular problems. Overall the studies provided supporting evidence to suggest that intrauterine exposure of maternal diabetes correlates with higher risks of developing diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular risks in offspring. Identifying risk groups gives the opportunity for lifestyle or nutrition What are the effects of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on offspring? 3 intervention, hopefully avoiding or reducing GDM,T2DM, obesity, and pre-diabetes in future generations. The increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in children is a major burden for the individual, but also for the economy. There is an increasing epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and T2DM among children and adolescents. Early detection is essential in preventing progression towards cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. Identifying the risk factors of these issues is essential in providing the appropriate nutrition and lifestyle interventions to avoid or decrease the prevalence of T2DM, pre-diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems. In order to develop preventive strategies, it is useful to identify individuals at high risk and factors that influence them . It is know Continue reading >>

A Selection Of Excellent Topic Ideas For A Research Paper On Diabetes Mellitus

A Selection Of Excellent Topic Ideas For A Research Paper On Diabetes Mellitus

You will have to collect the information, digest it, and set out your thoughts in written form when composing a research paper on diabetes mellitus. The first thing you should do though is choosing an interesting and relevant topic for your study. Worthy Research Paper Topics on Diabetes An overview of the symptoms of diabetes mellitus. What are the complications of diabetes mellitus and is it possible to avoid them? Are lifestyle factors and genetics the only causes of diabetes? An overview of the preventive measures for diabetes mellitus. Could education about this disease lower diabetes rates? Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus. Sedentary lifestyle: the main cause of diabetes in the West? On the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Proximal diabetic neuropathy as the main cause of muscle wasting and weakness. Stress and poor diet as the main causes of type 2 diabetes. Is there a link between hearing loss and diabetes? What are the lifelong risks of gestational diabetes? What are the main hypoglycemia prevention strategies? What kind of support do people with diabetes have? How does diabetes change a person’s life? On the importance of nutritional education in schools. On the effects of diabetes on the socioeconomic status of the person. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. On the prevention of diabetes in women. You may also narrow down your diabetes topics a little bit to make it sound original. “Sedentary lifestyle and fast food as the main causes of rising diabetes rates in America” is a good example of a narrow topic. If you need more information or help, you can check here. APA format is very popular for such studies, so you should carefully read its guidelines before writing. In your APA research paper on diabetes, you will have to use active voice Continue reading >>

Effects Of Treatment In Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Effects Of Treatment In Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Effects of treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis Effects of treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis BMJ 2010; 340 doi: (Published 01 April 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340:c1395 Karl Horvath, project manager EBM review center 1 , head of outpatient facility diabetes and metabolism 2 , Ralf Bender, head of department of medical biometry 3 , Hilda Bastian, head of department of health information 3 , Andrea Siebenhofer, professor for chronic care and health services research 4 , project manager 1 1EBM Review Center, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria 2Division of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15 3Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), Dillenburger Str. 27, 51105 Cologne, Germany 4Institute of General Practice, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany Correspondence to: K Horvath Karl.Horvath{at}medunigraz.at Objective To summarise the benefits and harms of treatments for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Embase, Medline, AMED, BIOSIS, CCMed, CDMS, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, DARE, HTA, NHS EED, Heclinet, SciSearch, several publishers databases, and reference lists of relevant secondary literature up to October 2009. Review methods Included studies were randomised controlled trials of specific treatment for gestational diabetes compared with usual care or intensified compared with less intensified specific treatment. Results Five randomised controlled trials matched the inclusion criteria for specific versus usual treatment. All studies used a tw Continue reading >>

Women With Gestational Diabetes '20 Times' More Likely To Develop Type 2 Condition

Women With Gestational Diabetes '20 Times' More Likely To Develop Type 2 Condition

Women with gestational diabetes '20 times' more likely to develop type 2 condition By Gary Scattergood Women who have gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease later in life, according to a new cohort study penned by a New Zealand academic. The study compared long-term cardio-metabolic outcomes in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and randomly matched pregnant women not diagnosed with GDM using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large database of anonymised electronic medical records collected at primary care clinics throughout the UK. The database included 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM between January 1990 and May 2016, and compared them with 37,281 expectant women of the same age group over a similar time period, but who did not develop the condition. Their mean age at the time of delivery was 33 years, and ranged from 14 to 47 years. Compared to the controls, a significantly greater proportion of women with GDM were economically deprived, overweight with a BMI of above 25, and had been diagnosed with hypertension. Of the women diagnosed with GDM, 280 (3.2%) developed hypertension and 14 (0.2%) ischaemic heart disease (IHD) compared with 1.3% and 0.06% of the controls, respectively. "This was the first large population-based study in the UK that reports on the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women diagnosed with GDM, and quantifies the high incidence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in the postpartum period," said lead authorDr Barbara Daly, from the University of Auckland's School of Nursing. "Women diagnosed with GDM were over 20 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, had almost twice the risk of developing hypertension, and were two-and-half tim Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Basic Ketone Engine and Booster Glucose Engine for Energy Production Recently, hyperketonemia induced by fasting or ketogenic diet calls attention because of the possibilities for various clinical applications. Animal species comparisons and biochemical data show that all fetuses can develop by using... more Recently, hyperketonemia induced by fasting or ketogenic diet calls attention because of the possibilities for various clinical applications. Animal species comparisons and biochemical data show that all fetuses can develop by using ketogenic energy through a pathway which seems to have been maintained. We hypothesized that 3--hydroxybutyrate (-HB) could be the fuel for the basic engine that produces energy in all terrestrial species. However, ATP production from glucose-pyruvic acid pathway seems to be added as a dominant system in human. We hypothesize the establishment of TCA cycle in mitochondria and enough oxygen supply since two billion years ago would be the key events to promote this change. The efficacy of ATP production from -oxidation product is 10 ATP molecules, while it is 12.5 molecules from pyruvic acid. So, evolution should select glucose burning system as a booster engine for energy production. The liver and kidney are major ketone producing organs which contain abundant glycogen particles. So, a close relationship between ketone and glucose burning system may be present. This explains why certain level of glucose is steadily maintained even in the hyperketogenic state. Ketogenic diets efficiently treat with gestational diabetes. Placenta is the ketogenic tissue which reflects high concentration of ketones in umbilical cord blood. In addition to the role of energy source, -HB shows various pharmacological effects on disease prevention, such as card Continue reading >>

Essay About Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm)

Essay About Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm)

Essay about Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Length: 2099 words (6 double-spaced pages) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an intolerance of glucose documented for the first time during pregnancy. It is usually a short-term type of diabetes and the most common health problem with pregnant women. GBM is caused by the way the hormones in pregnancy affect the mother. GDM accounts for 5-7% of all pregnancies (American Diabetes Association, 2010). During pregnancy the placenta develops and becomes the main bond between the mother and the baby. It is used to make sure the baby has and gets enough nutrients. The placenta makes several hormones which make it hard for insulin to control blood glucose and block the action of the mothers insulin in her body (American Diabetes Association, 2010). Hormonal changes during the pregnancy causes the body to be less sensitive to insulin. Insulin has the job of opening up the cells so that the glucose can get inside regulating the amount of glucose in the blood while glucose is the amount of sugar in the blood stream. In pregnancy, the body needs to make three times more insulin for control of the blood sugar. GDM is usually found within the second trimester of a pregnancy and increases until the end of the pregnancy. Usually within a few hours of delivery the condition resolves itself (American Diabetes Association, 2010). For people with no problems the intestines and stomach digest the carbohydrates that we take in into glucose, which is the bodys main source of energy. After we digest our food the glucose moves to the bloodstream. To get the glucose out of your blood and into the cells of your body the pancreas makes a hormone called insulin (Mayo Clinic, 2010 Continue reading >>

All Gestational Diabetes Articles

All Gestational Diabetes Articles

Researchers find new indicators of gestational diabetes risk It may be possible for doctors to predict a woman's risk of developing gestational diabetes up to seven years before she becomes pregnant through blood sugar testing and body weight assessments, according to a new study out of the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research. Intervention Programs Help Women with Gestational Diabetes Lose More Weight Lifestyle intervention programs that target diet and exercise habits may help women who experience gestational diabetes retain less weight during pregnancy and reduce their future risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a new study from the Kaiser Permanente Foundation. Waistline and cholesterol linked to gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes poses significant risk to women and their babies. However, tests for the condition have traditionally been invasive and unreliable. Results from standard tests may not be available until six months into the pregnancy, which may be too late for women to seek adequate treatment. Insulin Therapy and Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Send me updates for the following endocrine topics to my inbox. Ask questions. Share your opinions. Get advice. This information is not designed to replace a physician's independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions. Vertical Health & EndocrineWeb do not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Use of this website is conditional upon your acceptance of our user agreement. Continue reading >>

Quality Of Life In Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

Quality Of Life In Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

Copyright © 2017 Daniela Marchetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background and Objective. Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) could significantly increase the likelihood of health problems concerning both potential risks for the mother, fetus, and child’s development and negative effects on maternal mental health above all in terms of a diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The current systematic review study is aimed at further contributing to an advancement of knowledge about the clinical link between GDM and QoL. Methods. According to PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies aimed at evaluating and/or improving levels of QoL in women diagnosed with GDM. Results. Fifteen research studies were identified and qualitatively analyzed by summarizing results according to the following two topics: GDM and QoL and interventions on QoL in patients with GDM. Studies showed that, in women with GDM, QoL is significantly worse in both the short term and long term. However, improvements on QoL can be achieved through different intervention programs by enhancing positive diabetes-related self-management behaviors. Conclusion. Future studies are strongly recommended to further examine the impact of integrative programs, including telemedicine and educational interventions, on QoL of GDM patients by promoting their illness acceptance and healthy lifestyle behaviors. 1. Introduction Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as “diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that was not clearly overt d Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Background: There is uncertainty as to the optimal approach for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Based on systematic reviews published in 2003 and 2008, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there was insufficient evidence upon which to make a recommendation regarding routine screening of all pregnant women. Identify properties of screening tests for GDM. Evaluate benefits and harms of screening for GDM. Assess the effects of different screening and diagnostic thresholds on outcomes for mothers and their offspring. Determine the benefits and harms of treatment for a diagnosis of GDM. Data Sources: We searched 15 electronic databases from 1995 to May 2012, including MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (which contains the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group registry); gray literature; Web sites of relevant organizations; trial registries; and reference lists. Methods: Two reviewers independently conducted study selection and quality assessment. One reviewer extracted data, and a second reviewer verified the data. We included published randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective cohort studies that compared any screening or diagnostic test with any other screening or diagnostic test; any screening with no screening; women who met various thresholds for GDM with those who did not meet various criteria, where women in both groups did not receive treatment; any treatment for GDM with no treatment. We conducted a descriptive analysis for all studies and meta-analyses when appropriate. Key outcomes included preeclampsia, maternal weight gain, birth injury, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and long-term metabolic outcomes for the child and mother. Continue reading >>

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