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Gestational Diabetes Baby Growth Chart

Birth Weight

Birth Weight

Baby weighed as appropriate for gestational age. Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.[1] The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lb), though the range of normal is between 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) and 5 kilograms (11 lb) (all but 5% of newborns will fall into this range). Babies of south Asian and Chinese heritage weigh about 240 grams (0.53 lb) less.[2][3] There have been numerous studies that have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to show links between birth weight and later-life conditions, including diabetes, obesity, tobacco smoking and intelligence. Low birth weight is associated with neonatal infection. Determinants[edit] There are basically two distinct determinants for birth weight: The duration of gestation prior to birth, that is, the gestational age at which the child is born Relation of weight and gestational age[where?]. The prenatal growth rate, generally measured in relation to what weight is expected for any gestational age. The incidence of birth weight being outside what is normal is influenced by the parents in numerous ways, including: Genetics The health of the mother, particularly during the pregnancy. Intercurrent diseases in pregnancy are sometimes associated with decreased birth weight. For example, Celiac disease confers an odds ratio of low birth weight of approximately 1.8.[4] Environmental factors, including exposure of the mother to secondhand smoke[5] Economic status of the parents gives inconsistent study findings according to a review on 2010, and remains speculative as a determinant.[6] Other factors, like multiple births, where each baby is likely to be outside the AGA (appropriate for gestational age), one more so than the other. Abnormalities[edit] A low birth weight c Continue reading >>

Does Gestational Diabetes Always Mean A Big Baby And Induction?

Does Gestational Diabetes Always Mean A Big Baby And Induction?

July 3, 2012 by Rebecca Dekker, PhD, RN, APRN © Copyright Evidence Based Birth®. Please see disclaimer and terms of use. This question was submitted to me by one of my readers, Sarah. “I have a question about gestational diabetes. It seems like everyone I know who has had it has ended up being induced. Does gestational diabetes automatically mean induction? Does it automatically mean big babies? It seems like people get diagnosed and then give up on a natural childbirth and are treated as a sick person.” I talked to Dr. Shannon (a family medicine physician), and she echoed Sarah’s perceptions about gestational diabetes: “I would say that ‘routine care’ in the U.S. is to induce at 38 to 39 weeks for gestational diabetes (leaning towards 39 weeks nowadays) if the mom’s glucose is uncontrolled or if she is controlled on medication. However, women can technically be treated as ‘normal’ if their gestational diabetes is well controlled and baby’s growth looks normal on a 32 week scan. So people just might want to know they will get major push back from their provider if they refuse induction. It’s tough. Many OB’s cite the risk of stillbirth as a reason for induction, because the risk of stillbirth in women with regular diabetes is higher. However, there is no evidence that the risk of stillbirth goes up in gestational diabetes.” Evidence Based Birth® offers an online course on Big Babies and Gestational Diabetes (3 contact hours)! To learn more, click here! Dr. Shannon brings up several good points. First, she is talking about “routine care,” which is very different from “evidence-based care.” Routine care means that this is what everyone is doing—it’s routine, it’s standard. Evidence-based maternity care means offering care that is Continue reading >>

I'm Having A Giant Baby: No More Fruit Salad?

I'm Having A Giant Baby: No More Fruit Salad?

Aware of the risks of gestational diabetes, Roma Kojima talks to her OB/GYN about food choices...but when did fruit become the enemy? Roma Kojima is a soon-to-be mom of a tiny, wriggly girl. Aside from growing a human, she works in business development at Rogers Media, loves to travel and cook, and obsesses about leather purses she can’t afford. Follow along as she shares her pregnancy journey. At 35 weeks now and in the throes of what everyone helpfully calls The Home Stretch. I feel neither at home in my body, nor stretchy. Mostly I feel overcrowded, grumpy and in pain whenever this kid kicks me in the junk from the inside. But whatever, one month (ish) to go. Read more: Is birth weight related to ethnicity? I had my 32-week ultrasound recently. Much fun was had by all, especially when this little diva decided she wasn’t going to entertain any pictures and insisted on covering her face with her hands the entire time. They took all her measurements anyway and off I waddled to see a doctor. The doctor, not my regular OB/GYN, informed me quite enthusiastically that I was having a “Giant Baby.” “What’s a Giant Baby?” I asked nervously. “Oh, your baby is within the 94th percentile in size—we measure the size of the head (ouch says future-me), abdomen and femur. By our estimates, the average weight at this point should be around 3.75 lbs. Yours is around 5.4 lbs.” I looked at my five-foot, four-inch-tall husband and I looked at myself—a towering five-foot-three. “Maybe she’s adopted?” Jokes aside, I would much rather she be bigger than too small. “But wait,” the paranoid side of my brain said. “Doesn’t a bigger fetus often mean gestational diabetes?” I have a family history of diabetes and my mother suffered from GD during more than one Continue reading >>

28 Weeks Pregnant

28 Weeks Pregnant

Summary Week 28: your baby is putting on weight rapidly by storing fat under their skin, and their lungs are developed enough that they could breathe air if they were to be born early. Gestational diabetes may be diagnosed in the third trimester. Find out what lifestyle changes might help. Laying down fat in week 28 By the time you’re 28 weeks pregnant, your baby is fully formed and weighs just over 2lbs1. With the majority of their body systems working well, much of their development now centres around growth. Part of this involves laying down the fat stores1 that will keep them warm after birth. Your baby is so well developed at this stage that if they were born now, their lungs would be capable of breathing air, albeit with the help of a ventilator2. Have you heard your baby’s heartbeat recently? As your antenatal appointments become more frequent, your midwife will be checking it more often and you may be able to listen in, either through an ultrasound or a stethoscope. Their heart rate has slowed to around 140 beats per minute at this stage, and your partner may even be able to hear it by putting an ear to your abdomen1. As your baby grows, they have less space in your womb to move around, so you’ll probably feel even the smallest stretch or kick. Gestational diabetes Keeping a balanced diet while you’re pregnant is vital to ensure your baby gets all the nutrients they need to develop healthily. It’s important for your own health too. Some women develop gestational diabetes while they’re pregnant, usually in their third trimester3. There are a number of reasons why some women may be more likely to develop this condition than others, including being overweight and having a body mass index of over 30 before pregnancy4. "Some women develop gestational diab Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: What It Means For You And Your Baby

Gestational Diabetes: What It Means For You And Your Baby

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website. What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a kind of diabetes that starts during pregnancy. (The word gestational means “during pregnancy.”) If you have gestational diabetes, your body isn't able to use the sugar (glucose) in your blood as well as it should, so the level of sugar in your blood gets too high. Gestational diabetes affects about 3% of all pregnant women. It usually starts in the fifth or sixth month of pregnancy (between the 24th and 28th weeks). This kind of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. How can gestational diabetes affect me and my baby? Your baby may grow somewhat larger than a typical baby. This can happen because the extra sugar in your blood “feeds” your baby more. If your baby is very large, you may have a more difficult delivery or need a cesarean section. Gestational diabetes can also cause some problems for your baby at birth, such as a low blood sugar level or jaundice (yellowish skin color). Neither of these problems is very serious. If your baby's blood sugar level is low, he or she will be given extra glucose (sugar water) to bring it back to normal. Jaundice is treated by putting the baby under special lights. Jaundice is common in many newborns and not just those born to mothers with gestational diabetes. What can I do if I have gestational diabetes? Your doctor will probably suggest a special diet for you and may want you to have your blood tested to monitor (check) the sugar level. He or she may also want you to ge Continue reading >>

I Am 31 Weeks, And Have Gestational Diabetes...

I Am 31 Weeks, And Have Gestational Diabetes...

I delivered my son at 39 weeks by emergency c-section. I had gestational diabetes. My doctor told me that my baby was going to be at least a 9lb. or 10lb. baby. When he was born, he weighed 7lbs. 7.6 oz. Talk about a prediction? Doctors do not know everything, they can only speculate, just like us. My advice during pregnancy, THE BEST ADVICE I RECEIVED WAS... forget that you are eating for two, make healthy choices, splurge in moderation, exercise when possible. It did help me control my diabetes. I had gestational diabetes with my son and it also runs in my family to have huge babies. My doctor made me go full term plus a week. She etimated my son to weigh about 8lbs. He weighed 9lbs 12oz and I had him vaginally. I can't help but think maybe if she had induced me a little early it would've save me a few stitches and him a broken collar bone. Trust your instincts. My son felt huge and my doctor wouldn't listen to me. Also did your mother or grandmother have large babies? (my sister weighed 11 lbs 3 oz) Really the best thing you can do for yourself is to control your diet. Which will be extremely hard because diabetes gives you an insatiable hunger. Watch starch nd sugar the last month especially because sugar promotes cellular growth and thats all the baby does the last month. Your doc may want you to have another ultrasound closer to the end to estimate how big the baby is. Hang in there. I'm right there with you at 31 wks with #2 hoping he ends up smaller than his big bro. Please keep in mind that the weight of your baby right now is only an estimate and babies can weigh less or more than what they are estimated to weigh even with the help of an ultrasound. My third child was estimated to be 8 lbs just days before he was born. He was 10lbs and 6 oz, born at 41 weeks a Continue reading >>

Weight Information

Weight Information

At full term, the avarage baby will be about 20 inches (51 cm) long and will weigh approximately 6 to 9 pounds (2700 to 4000 grams). - During a normal pregnancy your baby will grow and develop at about the same rate as any other pregnancy. When you visit your Doctor, midwife or other health care provider for antenatal care they will check you over, your weight, heart rate. They may also measure your abdomen on the outside to check your baby's size and rate of growth. This measurement is taken from the upper edge of the pubic bone to the top of the uterus and is called the fundal height. If there is an unexplained discrepancy between size and dates, your care provider could arrange an ultrasound to determine the cause. But try not to be concerned. The most likely explanation is that everything is quite normal and that there is no need to worry. If the size is greater than dates, it may indicate twins, a large baby, or even mis-measuring. Doctors are more concerned when the fundal height is too small rather than too large, as this could indicate that the baby is not growing properly. This can be confirmed with a series of ultrasounds that monitor how quickly the fetus is growing. In some cases, fetal growth can be improved by treating any condition in the mother (such as high blood pressure) that may be a contributing factor. Birth weight and gestational age At any ultrasound scans you have, measurments of baby will be taken and compared to Fetus Growth Charts. These measurments are used to see that your baby's growth rate is normal and you have the correct estimated Due Date. You may be told, or see on your antenatal records, your baby is Large for gestational age (LGA) or Small for gestational age (SGA). But what does this mean? See below... Large for gestational age (L Continue reading >>

Macrosomia: Altered Fetal Growth In Gestational Diabetes

Macrosomia: Altered Fetal Growth In Gestational Diabetes

Early onset and speedy rise to levels that need professional intervention Normally newborns achieve calcium homeostasis within 72 hours of birth. In IDM, parathyroid hormone response is delayed, the process of which is yet not precisely established. The delay in appropriate parathyroid hormone control is Not the influence of hypoxia experienced by IDM. Following factors are believed to contribute to this delay - ....1. Low fetal parathyroid hormone levels during final phase of gestation. ....2. Persistent high levels of fetal Calcitonin. 1. Long standing diabetes impairs mother's kidney. Consequently, large quantity of magnesium in lost in urine, and its supply to the fetus is decreased. 2. Probably also a consequence of compromised parathyroid gland as mentioned above under hypocalcemia. 3. Clinical presentation is similar to that ofhypocalcemia and hypoglycemia; jitteriness, sweating, tachyponea, irritability and neonatal seizures. Cardiovascular risk factors - cardiomyopathy, septal defects, transposition of great arteries Iron deficiency may be without signs of clinical anemia. Autism, ADHD, cerebral palsy, stroke, myopathies Increased rates of newborn intensive care admissions Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

What Is Gestational Diabetes? Gestational diabetes sometimes develops when a woman is pregnant. It’s when the blood glucose level (blood sugar level) of the mother goes too high during pregnancy. Having an elevated blood glucose level during pregnancy can cause problems for your baby—if it’s left untreated. Fortunately, doctors are vigilant about checking for gestational diabetes so that it can be identified and effectively managed. A pro-active treatment plan helps you have a good pregnancy and protects the health of your baby. Gestational Diabetes Symptoms Gestational diabetes doesn’t often cause noticeable symptoms for the mother. Other types of diabetes (eg, type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes) do cause symptoms such as increased thirst, but that is hardly ever noticed in gestational diabetes. Because there aren’t often symptoms, it’s very important to be tested for a high blood glucose level when you’re pregnant. (Your doctor will most likely test you for gestational diabetes sometime between the 24th and 28th week. You can learn more about the diagnostic process here.) Then your doctor will know if you need to be treated for gestational diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Causes and Risk Factors Gestational diabetes develops when your body isn’t able to produce enough of the hormone insulin during pregnancy. Insulin is necessary to transport glucose—what your body uses for energy—into the cells. Without enough insulin, you can build up too much glucose in your blood, leading to a higher-than-normal blood glucose level and perhaps gestational diabetes. The elevated blood glucose level in gestational diabetes is caused by hormones released by the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta produces a hormone called the human placental lactogen (HPL), also Continue reading >>

Complications Of Gestational Diabetes

Complications Of Gestational Diabetes

Is my baby at risk of complications now I have gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a serious condition which can cause many complications. The advice given by your diabetes health care professionals should be taken seriously as uncontrolled or poorly controlled gestational diabetes can lead to severe complications. Having gestational diabetes itself automatically causes higher risk of certain complications during pregnancy, although the risk of complications is greatly reduced if gestational diabetes is diagnosed and managed properly throughout your pregnancy. Gestational diabetes only causes bigger babies - expelling the myth! The most well known complication and general cause of concern of gestational diabetes is 'large babies' - the excessive growth caused by excess sugars in the mother's bloodstream. HOWEVER, if gestational diabetes is controlled and managed well, babies are rarely born 'big', but they may suffer other complications which are related to the condition. We often hear new members of our support group say that they are not worried as baby isn't measuring big, but monitoring for other complications which gestational diabetes can cause or be related to is extremely important. Unfortunately there are many more complications which can be related to gestational diabetes and poor glucose control than 'just a big baby'. If you have family and friends that are struggling to understand gestational diabetes, then you may want to refer them to this page and our page on gestational diabetes and the family to have a look. Possible complications if blood glucose levels are not controlled or poorly controlled If gestational diabetes is not managed properly, or goes undetected/undiagnosed, it could cause a range of serious complications for both you and your Continue reading >>

How Gestational Diabetes Affects You & Your Baby

How Gestational Diabetes Affects You & Your Baby

When you're pregnant, hormone changes can make your blood sugar level rise. Gestational diabetes will raise the odds of pregnancy complications. After you're diagnosed, your doctor or midwife will want to watch your health and your baby's health closely for the rest of your pregnancy. Most women with gestational diabetes have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. Getting good treatment makes all the difference. How Will It Affect My Baby? Your higher blood sugar affects your baby, too, since they gets nutrients from your blood. Your baby stores that extra sugar as fat, which can make them grow larger than normal. They're more likely to have certain complications: Injuries during delivery because of their size Low blood sugar and mineral levels when they're born Jaundice, a treatable condition that makes the skin yellowish Pre-term birth Later in life, your baby might have a greater chance of obesity and diabetes. So help your child live a healthy lifestyle -- it can lower their odds for these problems. How Will It Affect Me? You might have: A higher chance of needing a C-section Pre-term birth Your blood sugar will probably return to normal after you give birth. But you'll have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later or gestational diabetes again with another pregnancy. A healthy lifestyle can lower the odds of that happening. Just as you can help your child, you can lower your own chances of obesity and diabetes. Although you may need a C-section, many women with gestational diabetes have regular vaginal births. Talk to your doctor or midwife about your delivery options: Does my baby need to be delivered by C-section? How accurate are birth-weight estimates? Could my baby be smaller than you think? What are the risks to my baby and I if I don’t have a C-s Continue reading >>

Small For Gestational Age

Small For Gestational Age

Small for gestational age is a term used to describe a baby who is smaller than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. SGA babies usually have birthweights below the 10th percentile for babies of the same gestational age. This means that they are smaller than many other babies of the same gestational age. SGA babies may appear physically and neurologically mature but are smaller than other babies of the same gestational age. SGA babies may be proportionately small (equally small all over) or they may be of normal length and size but have lower weight and body mass. SGA babies may be premature (born before 37 weeks of pregnancy), full term (37 to 41 weeks), or post term (after 42 weeks of pregnancy). Although some babies are small because of genetics (their parents are small), most SGA babies are small because of fetal growth problems that occur during pregnancy. Many babies with SGA have a condition called intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR occurs when the fetus does not receive the necessary nutrients and oxygen needed for proper growth and development of organs and tissues. IUGR can begin at any time in pregnancy. Early-onset IUGR is often due to chromosomal abnormalities, maternal disease, or severe problems with the placenta. Late-onset growth restriction (after 32 weeks) is usually related to other problems. Some factors that may contribute to SGA and/or IUGR include the following: When the fetus does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients during pregnancy, overall body and organ growth is limited, and tissue and organ cells may not grow as large or as numerous. Some of the conditions that cause SGA and IUGR restrict blood flow through the placenta. This can cause the fetus to receive less oxygen than normal, increasing the risks for the Continue reading >>

Large For Gestational Age (lga)

Large For Gestational Age (lga)

What is LGA? Large for gestational age is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing more than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. LGA babies have birthweights greater than the 90th percentile for their gestational age, meaning that they weigh more than 90 percent of all babies of the same gestational age. The average baby weighs about 7 pounds at birth. About 9 percent of all babies weigh more than 4,000 grams (8 pounds, 13 ounces). Rarely do babies weigh over 10 pounds. Although most LGA babies are born at term (37 to 41 weeks of pregnancy), a few premature babies may be LGA. What causes LGA? Some babies are large because their parents are large; genetics does play a part. Birthweight may also be related to the amount of weight a mother gains during pregnancy. Excessive weight gain can translate to increased fetal weight. By far, maternal diabetes is the most common cause of LGA babies. Diabetes during pregnancy causes the mother's increased blood glucose (sugar) to circulate to the baby. In response, the baby's body makes insulin. All the extra sugar and the extra insulin production can lead to excessive growth and deposits of fat, thus, a larger baby. Why is LGA a concern? Because LGA babies are so large, delivery can be difficult. Delivery problems may include the following: Prolonged vaginal delivery time Difficult birth Birth injury Increased risk of cesarean delivery Because many large babies are born to diabetic mothers, many problems of LGA babies are related to problems with glucose regulation. These may include the following: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) of baby after delivery Increased incidence of birth defects Respiratory distress (difficulty breathing) Many babies with LGA also have hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice or yellowing Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: How Will It Affect Me And My Baby?

Gestational Diabetes: How Will It Affect Me And My Baby?

Find out what this type of diabetes could mean for you and your baby, and how you can manage the condition Gestational diabetes (GD) is a type of diabetes that can affect some women during pregnancy. It tends to appear in later pregnancy and usually disappears after your baby is born. You can generally just treat it with changes in the way you eat and exercise but some women with GD may need medication. Most women with GD have healthy babies and have no further complications after the birth. But it is worth knowing that having GD can raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. What is gestational diabetes exactly? Gestational diabetes is caused by having too much glucose (sugar) in your blood (see more about this in So, what causes gestational diabetes?, below). It affects about 1 in 6 of us and a warning sign can be sugar in your wee – but you'd then need a blood test to confirm GD for sure. Finding out that you have gestational diabetes can be a shock but, "the good news is that, with expert care from medical staff, your pregnancy and birth should both go smoothly," says midwife Anne Richley, And that certainly the experience shared by many of the mums on our forum: "I had gestational diabetes and my LO is fine!" says wannababy. "She arrived by herself and I had a normal birth and it went away after she arrived." One of the reasons we all have to pee in those pots before an antenatal appointment is so that our midwife can do dip test to see if there’s sugar in our wee. If there is, that may be a sign that you have GD. To find out if it is GD, you’ll have to have a Glucose Tolerance Test. This is usually done when you're between 24 and 28 weeks pregnant – unless you’ve had gestational diabetes before, when you’ll be offered it at around 16 Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Overview Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant women can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you and your baby healthy. In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood sugar. Symptoms For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms. When to see a doctor If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can evaluate your risk of gestational diabetes as part of your overall childbearing wellness plan. Once you're pregnant, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need more-frequent checkups. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health. Your doctor may refer you to additional health professionals who specialize in diabetes, such as an endocrinologist, a registered dietitian or a diabetes educator. They can help you learn to manage your blood sugar level during your pregnancy. To make sure your blood sugar level has returned to normal after your baby is born, your health care team wil Continue reading >>

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