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Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Diabetes is a complex condition. Several factors must come together for you to develop type 2 diabetes. For example, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle play a role. Genetics can also influence whether you’ll get this disease. If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, there’s a good chance that you’re not the first person with diabetes in your family. According to the American Diabetes Association, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is: 1 in 7 if one of your parents was diagnosed before the age of 50 1 in 13 if one of your parents was diagnosed after the age of 50 1 in 2, or 50 percent, if both your parents have diabetes Several gene mutations have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. These gene mutations can interact with the environment and each other to further increase your risk. Type 2 diabetes is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Scientists have linked several gene mutations to a higher diabetes risk. Not everyone who carries a mutation will get diabetes. But many people with diabetes do have one or more of these mutations. It can be difficult to separate genetic risk from environmental risk. The latter is often influenced by your family members. For example, parents with healthy eating habits are likely to pass them on to the next generation. On the other hand, genetics plays a big part in determining weight. Sometimes behaviors can’t take all the blame. Studies of twins suggest that type 2 diabetes might be linked to genetics. These studies were complicated by the environmental influences that also affect type 2 diabetes risk. To date, numerous mutations have been shown to affect type 2 diabetes risk. The contribution of each gene is generally small. However, each additional mutation you have seems to increase your Continue reading >>

Genetic Risk Profiling For Prediction Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Risk Profiling For Prediction Of Type 2 Diabetes

Legend Table 2 : CLIA, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988; DTC, direct-to-consumer. T2D is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure and limb amputation, and a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. [10] It is estimated that approximately 285 million people worldwide will have diabetes in 2010. This number is expected to increase by more than 50% in the next 20 years if no preventive strategies are implemented. [11] Diabetes is responsible for almost four million deaths worldwide in the 20-79 age group in 2010, representing 6.8% of global all-cause mortality in this age group. [11] Preventive interventions for T2D, including medication, weight loss and increased physical activity, can slow or even reverse the disease process. [12] For example, the United States Diabetes Prevention Program trial investigated the efficacy of intensive lifestyle interventions or metformin treatment compared to standard lifestyle recommendations. [13] Lifestyle intervention resulted in 58% T2D risk reduction compared to the placebo arm, at 2.8 years of follow-up. For the same follow-up, metformin resulted in 31% T2D risk reduction. [13] Genetic tests are claimed by the DTC companies to improve risk prediction and increase adherence to preventive interventions (e.g., Knowledge is self-empowering and it can motivate you towards taking steps that reduce other risk factors, which have been found to contribute to your genetic predisposition risk [14] ), thus helping to improve outcomes and reduce the costs and burden of disease for society (e.g., The conditions included in Navigenics analysis are those that are clinically actionable and th Continue reading >>

A Genetic Test For Diabetes Risk

A Genetic Test For Diabetes Risk

Will it help make people healthier? When I was a destitute graduate student several years ago, I decided to earn a quick $75 by signing up for what sounded like a relatively innocuous clinical study. An I.V. in my left arm would feed precise amounts of glucose and insulin into my bloodstream, while from my right arm a nurse would periodically draw blood to test for glucose. The study would assess how effectively my body responded to sugar, a measure that predicts risk for developing type 2 diabetes. As someone with a family history of the disease, I had long had a shapeless fear of it. A phone call from the nurse a few days later turned that vague anxiety into something much more concrete. The blood tests showed I was “insulin resistant,” meaning that my muscle, fat, and liver cells were not responding to insulin as efficiently as they should–significantly boosting my risk of diabetes. About 20.8 million people in the United States have diabetes, and another 50 million or more are at risk. Although the onset of the disease can be delayed–sometimes even prevented–with diet and exercise, efforts by doctors and public-health agencies to encourage healthy habits are making marginal progress at best. In the last several months, however, a potential new tool for diabetes prevention has come to market. A test developed by the Icelandic genomics company deCode Genetics and marketed to consumers by San Francisco-based DNA Direct determines whether people carry copies of a genetic variation that can greatly increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It’s available for $500 through a website, and DNA Direct’s marketing material suggests that positive results will give people extra motivation to get fit. But critics say there is no evidence that this test will s Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by a disturbance in glucose metabolism. Glucose is the main fuel for the human body. The reason for the appearance of type 2 diabetes mellitus is a decreased effect of insulin on the cells, leading to the decreased transport of glucose from blood to the inside of cells. The result is an increased blood glucose concentration and a lack of glucose in the cells. Why should you have your DNA analysed for predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus? Many genes are involved in this disease. They regulate the sugar metabolism and affect the eating habits. Should your analysis reveal an increased predisposition towards this disease, you will be able to change your nutritional habits early on as well as to increase your level of physical activity. Both measures help the body regulate and decrease the blood glucose. How is type 2 diabetes mellitus prevented or treated? A sugar diet and increased physical activity alone often do not suffice to normalize the blood sugar levels. In most cases, therapy must involve medications which facilitate the entry of glucose into the cells, and often insulin must be added to the treatment regimen. More detailed description about type 2 diabetes Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases in the world. It affects 2.8% of the world population. Of all diabetic patients, 80-90% suffers from type 2 diabetes. The disease usually manifests after the age of 40, most commonly around the age of 55. The number of cases is steadily increasing; scientists believe that in 15 years the number of patients will double. Worldwide, there are vast differences in the incidence of this disease-- for instance, certain Native American tribes exhibit a high incidence while in some African territories t Continue reading >>

[full Text] Predictive Value Of Genomics In The Screening Of Type 2 Diabetes: Limi | Agg

[full Text] Predictive Value Of Genomics In The Screening Of Type 2 Diabetes: Limi | Agg

Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Centre, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control, International Diabetes Federation Centre of Education, Chennai, India Abstract: Multiple genetic variants and environmental factors interact resulting in the causation of type 2 diabetes. The advent of genome-wide association studies has accelerated the pace of discovery of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes. These variants could potentially be useful for the prediction, prevention, and early treatment of diabetes. Although a number of studies have been conducted on the predictive value of genetic polymorphisms, its value in the general population is unclear. Although in monogenic forms of diabetes genetic screening yields excellent predictive value, genetic profiling for polygenic type 2 diabetes currently appears to be limited in its predictive ability compared with conventional clinical risk scores. Performing a genetic profiling of strongly associated and replicated genetic variants seem to be the way forward, although such analysis is not yet successful. It is hoped that combined analyses of these genetic factors or hitherto unidentified genes would help in better genetic prediction of type 2 diabetes in the future. Keywords: predictive value, genomics, monogenic diabetes, polygenic type 2 diabetes, genes, genetic risk variants, clinical risk factors Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative insulin deficiency. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure, and limb amputation, and a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 1 It is possible to slow, or sometimes even reverse th Continue reading >>

Genetic Testing Improves Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment

Genetic Testing Improves Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment

Genetic testing improves type 2 diabetes risk assessment The accuracy of type 2 diabetes risk assessment in the general population could be improved with the implementation of genetic testing, according to research presented at the 51st European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed more than 80 genic loci associated with prevalent type 2 diabetes, improving the understanding of molecular pathways leading to the disease, the researchers wrote. However, practical usefulness of such results in [type 2 diabetes] prevention is still heavily disputed. Krista Fischer, PhD, of the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu in Estonia, and colleagues evaluated data from the Estonian Biobank cohort on 10,273 individuals to determine the relationship between genetic risk score for type 2 diabetes with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality . Follow-up was conducted for a median 5.5 years. Overall, there were 1,181 cases of prevalent and 386 incident type 2 diabetes cases. Compared with the whole cohort, the odds for type 2 diabetes prevalence in the highest genetic risk score quintile were 2.2 times higher. Similarly, the odds for type 2 diabetes prevalence in participants in the highest genetic risk score quintile were 3.66 times higher compared with participants in the lowest genetic risk score quintile. There was a 1.78 times higher estimated hazard for developing type 2 diabetes among participants in the highest genetic risk score quintile compared with the whole cohort and 2.72 times higher estimated hazard compared with participants in the lowest genetic risk score quintile. A significantly higher risk for CV mortality was found among participants in th Continue reading >>

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening for the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Valeriya Lyssenko , MD, PHD1,2 and Markku Laakso , MD, PHD3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University, Malm, Sweden 2Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lund University, Malm, Sweden 2Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark 3Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland Corresponding author: Valeriya Lyssenko, [email protected] . Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are increasing rapidly throughout the world. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise from 366 million in 2011 to 552 million by 2030 if no urgent action is taken. Furthermore, as many as 183 million people are unaware that they have diabetes ( www.idf.org ). Therefore, the identification of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of great importance and interest for investigators and health care providers. Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder resulting from an interaction between genes and environment. Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, including age, sex, obesity and central obesity, low physical activity, smoking, diet including low amount of fiber and high amount of saturated fat, ethnicity, family his Continue reading >>

Genetic Testing In Diabetes: Separating Hope From Hype

Genetic Testing In Diabetes: Separating Hope From Hype

By Kelly Close, Alexander Wolf, and Maxwell Votey Twitter summary: We sit down with diabetes luminary Dr. Anne Peters to talk genetic testing, #diabetes, + an upcoming revolution in individualized care When the genetic ancestry company 23andMe was launched in 2007, it came with a bold promise: for $999 (now $99) and a mail-order saliva sample, you could learn the secrets of your genome – your ancestry, your relatives, your ethnic background – essentially information telling you about what makes you, you. Check that out! Over time, 23andMe (named after the 23 pairs of human chromosomes) focused on an even loftier promise: learning how genetic information (DNA) can affect your long-term health. For instance, do you have a risk for Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s? 23andMe offered this service directly to consumers – without the supervision from a healthcare professional. It was trailblazing for sure. But in 2013 the FDA banned the company from marketing these health reports, citing uncertainty over whether the test was safe and accurate for patients. Indeed, many doctors and researchers questioned whether genetic data could truly tell people about disease risk, and whether the results might cause more harm than good. Without a healthcare professional’s interpretation, could patients understand 23andMe’s information? This debate dovetailed with larger ethical discussions about patient privacy, genetic discrimination, and a whole host of big picture questions about the access to one’s genome – discussions that continue today. Despite this rocky history, some healthcare professionals have not been deterred. Many continue to use 23andMe to help patients understand disease risk and even to inform therapeutic decisions. While 23andMe can’t provide a full medical a Continue reading >>

Is Genetic Testing Useful To Predict Type 2 Diabetes?

Is Genetic Testing Useful To Predict Type 2 Diabetes?

Is genetic testing useful to predict type 2 diabetes? General Medicine Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA. [email protected] Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Apr;26(2):189-201. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2011.09.002. The early identification of individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) enables prevention. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have added at least 40 genetic variants to the list of already well characterized T2D risk predictors, including family history, obesity, and elevated fasting plasma glucose levels. Although these variants can significantly predict T2D alone and as a part of genotype risk scores, they do not yet offer clinical discrimination beyond that achieved with common clinical measurements. Future progress on at least two research fronts may improve the predictive performance of genotype information. First, expanded GWAS efforts in non-European populations will allow targeted sequencing of risk loci and the identification of true causal variants. Second, studies with longer prediction time horizons may demonstrate that genotype information performs better than clinical risk predictors over a longer period of the life course. At present, however, genetic testing cannot be recommended for clinical T2D risk prediction in adults. Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Integrated Genomic And Bmi Analysis For Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment | Genetics

Frontiers | Integrated Genomic And Bmi Analysis For Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment | Genetics

Front. Genet., 17 March 2015 | Integrated genomic and BMI analysis for type 2 diabetes risk assessment 1Institute of Mathematics, School of Science and Technology, Universidad Metropolitana, San Juan, Puerto Rico 2Department of Health Behavior, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA 3Department of Statistics, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Mxico 4Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease arising from the development of insulin absence or resistance within the body, and a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors. The incidence of T2D has increased throughout the last few decades, together with the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. The consideration of variants identified by Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) into risk assessment models for T2D could aid in the identification of at-risk patients who could benefit from preventive medicine. In this study, we build several risk assessment models, evaluated with two different classification approaches (Logistic Regression and Neural Networks), to measure the effect of including genetic information in the prediction of T2D. We used data from to the Original and the Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study, which provides phenotypic and genetic information for 5245 subjects (4306 controls and 939 cases). Models were built by using several covariates: gender, exposure time, cohort, body mass index (BMI), and 65 SNPs associated to T2D. We fitted Logistic Regressions and Bayesian Regularized Neural Networks and then Continue reading >>

Increasing Knowledge About Genetic Testing For Type 2 Diabetes

Increasing Knowledge About Genetic Testing For Type 2 Diabetes

Increasing Knowledge About Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes Increasing Knowledge About Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes Certified diabetes educators (CDEs) can benefit from becoming more knowledgeable about and more comfortable with genetic testing for type 2 diabetes, according to a speaker at the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) 2016 Annual Meeting .1 Genetic markers associated with the development of type 2 diabetes have been identified, noted Jacqueline Martz, DNP, RN, CDE, associate professor at Rhodes State College, Lima, Ohio, but recommendations for genetic testing for type 2 diabetes are not yet part of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care. However, CDEs could be utilized to educate patients about this option, she said, although there appears to be a greater need for awareness of the current state of the science. I'm only asking that a recommendation for genetic testing for type 2 diabetes mellitus be added as an option for a CDE, Martz told Endocrinology Advisor. She cited a Swedish study, which has demonstrated that common variants in 11 genes may be significantly associated with the risk of future type 2 diabetes.2 The researchers genotyped 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined clinical factors in 16 061 Swedish and 2770 Finnish adults. In this study, 2201 (11.7%) developed type 2 diabetes during a median follow-up period of 23.5 years. Martz noted that the study showed that more participants who were diagnosed with diabetes (32%) than those without the diagnosis (22.1%) had a high genetic risk.2 As part of a doctoral study, registered CDEs were asked about their knowledge regarding genetic testing for type 2 diabetes , said Martz. They were also asked about their attitudes toward genetic Continue reading >>

Genetic Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes In Mexican Mestizos

Genetic Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes In Mexican Mestizos

Copyright © 2017 Eiralí Guadalupe García-Chapa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract There are currently about 415 million people with diabetes worldwide, a figure likely to increase to 642 million by 2040. In 2015, Mexico was the second Latin American country and sixth in the world in prevalence of this disorder with nearly 11.5 million of patients. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the main kind of diabetes and its etiology is complex with environmental and genetic factors involved. Indeed, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with this disease worldwide. To estimate the genetic epidemiology of T2D in Mexican mestizos a systematic bibliographic search of published articles through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was conducted. Just case-control studies of candidate genes about T2D in Mexican mestizo inhabitants were included. Nineteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were found. In total, 68 polymorphisms of 41 genes were assessed; 26 of them were associated with T2D risk, which were located in ABCA1, ADRB3, CAPN10, CDC123/CAMK1D, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, CRP, ELMO1, FTO, HHEX, IGF2BP2, IRS1, JAZF1, KCNQ1, LOC387761, LTA, NXPH1, SIRT1, SLC30A8, TCF7L2, and TNF-α genes. Overall, 21 of the 41 analyzed genes were associated with T2D in Mexican mestizos. Such a genetic heterogeneity compares with findings in other ethnic groups. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose uptake in muscle and fat, altered glucose-induced insulin secretion, and increased hepatic glucose production, which lead to hypergl Continue reading >>

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Genetic Screening For The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are increasing rapidly throughout the world. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the number of people with diabetes is expected to rise from 366 million in 2011 to 552 million by 2030 if no urgent action is taken. Furthermore, as many as 183 million people are unaware that they have diabetes (www.idf.org). Therefore, the identification of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of great importance and interest for investigators and health care providers. Type 2 diabetes is a complex disorder resulting from an interaction between genes and environment. Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, including age, sex, obesity and central obesity, low physical activity, smoking, diet including low amount of fiber and high amount of saturated fat, ethnicity, family history, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, history of the nondiabetic elevation of fasting or 2-h glucose, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and different drug treatments (diuretics, unselected β-blockers, etc.) (1–3). There is also ample evidence that type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis. The concordance of type 2 diabetes in monozygotic twins is ~70% compared with 20–30% in dizygotic twins (4). The lifetime risk of developing the disease is ~40% in offspring of one parent with type 2 diabetes, greater if the mother is affected (5), and approaching 70% if both parents have diabetes. In prospective studies, we have demonstrated that first-degree family history is associated with twofold increased risk of future type 2 diabetes (1,6). The challenge has been to find genetic markers that explain the excess risk associated with family history of diabetes Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic?

Is Diabetes Genetic?

Diabetes is a complex disease. Several factors must come together for a person to develop Type 2 Diabetes. While genetics may influence whether you’ll get this disease or not, other factors like environmental risk factors and a sedentary lifestyle also play a huge role. So, is type 2 diabetes genetic? And if not, which type of diabetes is genetic? Those are the questions we are faced with today. And unfortunately, the answer is not that simple. Yes, genetics can play a role in increasing the risk for both Diabetes Type 1 as well as Diabetes Type 2, but genes alone will not determine whether you will develop diabetes or not. Will You Get Diabetes If It Runs In Your Family? If you’ve just been diagnosed with diabetes, chances are that you’re not the first person in your family who has diabetes. The details of whether diabetes can be inherited, and how this occurs, are not clear yet. About 10% of patients diagnosed with insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes have a first degree relative with this type of diabetes. By first degree relative, we mean father, mother, sibling, twin and child. However, when it comes to the more common type of diabetes, which is Diabetes Type 2, it has a tendency to occur in families, but this is also not very strong and not predictable. A Swedish study on Metabolic Consequences of a Family History of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus concluded that abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and decreased resting metabolic rate are characteristic features of first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (in other words, Diabetes Type 2). And that the decrease in resting metabolic rate is partially related to the degree of abdominal obesity. Many doctors with clinical practice treating diabetes believe that thi Continue reading >>

New Genetic Test For A Better Diagnosis Of Diabetes

New Genetic Test For A Better Diagnosis Of Diabetes

A new way to distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes Dr Richard Oram (left) received the Nick Hales Young Investigator Award at the Diabetes UK Professional Conference in 2014 Researchers from the University of Exeter have developed a new genetic test to help diagnose diabetes. This study by Dr Richard Oram from the University of Exeter,published in Diabetes Care, shows how a genetic test can help doctors to differentiate between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in young adults. Uncertainty in diagnosis It can often be difficult for doctors to distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, particularly in people aged 20 to 40. Current clinical methods for diagnosis and available tests are not always helpful when trying to reach the right diagnosis. A correct diagnosis is really important, as Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are treated in different ways. Type 2 can be controlled with tablets, or through diet and weight loss, while Type 1 diabetes requires insulin therapy. Dr Oram is a prior Diabetes UK research fellow who is currently carrying out work funded by Diabetes UK. He is part of a group of researchers at the University of Exeter, one of the world’s leading research centres focusing on the genetic risk of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. New genetic risk test for Type 1 Dr Oram and colleagues have developed a test which looks for 30 genetic changes in a person’s DNA. Each of the 30 genetic changes carries a small risk of Type 1 diabetes, and the test combines all these risks into a single score, which represents a summary of a person’s genetic risk for Type 1 diabetes. If a person score is high, they are more likely to have Type 1 diabetes. If the score is low, they are more likely to have Type 2 diabetes. You can watch a video about this exciting research on theR Continue reading >>

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