Genetic Determinants Of Diabetes

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What is GENETIC ENGINEERING? What does GENETIC ENGINEERING mean? GENETIC ENGINEERING meaning - GENETIC ENGINEERING definition - GENETIC ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nuclease. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria generated in 1973 and GM mice in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in the United States in December 2003. Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.

Genetic Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Medicine Endocrinology and Metabolism "Type 1 Diabetes - Pathogenesis, Genetics and Immunotherapy" , book edited by David Wagner, ISBN 978-953-307-362-0, Published: November 25, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 license . The Author(s). Figure 1. Diagrammatic presentation of effects of cytokines gene polymorphisms in T1D.This schematic diagram explains the possible effects of cytokines in the initiation triggering of T1D by signals from either environmental factors A or immunogenic factors B or both. Release of IL-6 would change the counterbalance between TH1/TH2 C cytokines level. Increase level of TH1, IFN-, cause the cytotoxic process of break down of -cell by CD8. As a result of deviation of cytokine cross regulation to TH1 dominance TH3 lymphocyte subset produce immunosuppressive cytokines, TGF- 1, however, due to genetic malfunction this cytokines are proved not to be able to bring TH1/TH2 back to normal position, D. Which will lead to the death of pancreatic cell. This is a simplified schematic descriptions of the impact of cytokines in the pathogenesis of T1D, for detail please refer to Jahromi et al 2000, 2000a and 2010. [1] Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health,, Kingdom of B Continue reading >>

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  1. Pegsy

    Metformin and Diarrhea

    My dosage of Metformin has been increased from 1000 mg per day to 2000 mg per day. The higher dosage is doing a fantastic job of controlling my glucose. The increase was done gradually over a period of 2 weeks without incident. Then, after being on the full dose for 10 days I experienced explosive diarrhea while at work. It didn't last long and I did not discontinue or reduce the medication. All has been well for exactly one week and then last night I was awakened by cramping and diarrhea.
    I do not want to eliminate or reduce this medication if I can help it. My doctor says that occassional diarrhea is just part of living with this medication. Is it? Reading on this site I have noticed others have said they experienced diarrhea with Metformin when they ate the wrong things. What are the wrong things? On the first occasion I had Chinese food for dinner at a restaurant the night before. My husband also had stomach upset. I know I consumed more carbs than I should have. Last night, I had "tater tots" with my dinner but did not exceed my allowed amount for carbs. From now on, if I eat potatoes at all, they will be "real" ones, not the frozen prepared variety. As it is, I rarely consume potatoes at all.
    Has anyone here had this experience and found a solution? As I said, this medication is very effective for me and one of the safest available. I do not want to stop it if i can find a solution. Your input from personal experience would be greatly appreciated.

  2. Copperchef

    I did have a similar problem, my physician changed me to Metformin ER which is a slow release drug and the problem went away. The ER is gentler on the system.

  3. Pegsy

    I'm on ER too. It seems to be doing better. Not completely resolved but getting there.

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Marian Rewers (Denver, USA) presents the Joint ISPAD-ESPE session at ESPE 2015.

Aspph | Bu Identifies Genetic Determinants Of Diabetes In African Americans

BU Identifies Genetic Determinants of Diabetes in African Americans A new multi-ethnic study by an international team led by researchers from Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) and Massachusetts General Hospital has found that African Americans and white share some genetic determinants of Type 2 diabetes, while also carrying some unique genetic loci. The study, published online in the American Journal of Human Genetics , found that about half of gene variants identified in people of European ancestry were shared by African Americans, suggesting that genetic determinants of human glucose regulation are more similar than different across human populations. The study also identified two new genetic variants, bringing to 56 the number of Type 2 diabetes fasting-glucose and fasting-insulin-associated loci. Dr. Ching-Ti Liu, a lead author and associate professor of biostatistics at BUSPH, said the study is an important step to illuminating genetic variation underlying type 2 diabetes, which affects more than 400 million people globally. Racial and ethnic differences in diabetes have been understudied, Dr. Liu said. We feel strongly that the trans-ethnic approach, combined Continue reading >>

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  1. Brinerlady

    I am so surprised that your doctor didn't give you one free. Check magazines or even on TV. You can get a meter free from Medicare. Your reading of 106 is nothing to be alarmed about. My diabetes educator said that 80 - 100 is before meals and less than 180 after meals. If he gave you Metformin 500mg., is that once a day, twice? What? I take one Metformin with breakfast and one with supper. Then I have my insulin "pen" of Lantis Solostar in the evening. I test right away in the morning before I have anything to eat or drink. Then again before bed in the evening. I also keep a log book I made and if my count is high, I make notations as to why I think it is .I write down the date, day, time, reading count and notes. This will help you a lot. Check on line and I'm sure you can find some free. Good luck with this disease. Count your carbs and eat 45 - 60 per meal.

  2. coconoah1949

    I have had diabetes for 15 yrs. Normal range is 70 to 115. And people vary. It is also important to know when to take your sugar test. If you take it after a meal it could be as high as 180 or more. But that's normal to. You just ate. Your sugar will go up and down all day. Depending on what you eat. And what activity you are doing or have done. Do a fasting blood sugar test . Try not eating anything after 6 p.m. Like nothing after supper. Then take it first thing in the morning for an accurate reading. If you are between 70 to 115. No problems. There are two types of diabetes also. Typ1 and type 2. If and I say if, you are a diabetic. You are probably type 2. Type 1 requires insulin.

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Genetic engineering has allowed insulin to be created in the lab instead of harvesting it from the pancreases of cows and dogs. Understand the development of synthesized insulin with information from a biochemistry professor in this free video on genetic engineering. Expert: M. Rahman Bio: M. Rahman is a professor of bio chemistry at University of California San Diego. Filmmaker: Bing Hugh

Update On Genetic Determinants Of Type1 Diabetes

1Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Belgium 2Pôle PEDI, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique", Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium Citation: Lysy PA (2014) Update on Genetic Determinants of Type 1 Diabetes. J Mol Genet Med 8:126. doi:10.4172/1747-0862.1000126 Copyright: © 2014 PALysy, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine Abstract Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a progressive destruction of insulin-secreting β cells with consecutive life-long dependence to exogenous insulin. Avoidance of end-stage β-cell mass destruction through primary and secondary prevention strategies requires understanding of initial molecular events leading to insulinopenia. Although autoimmune dysregulation is predominant in T1D, environmental and genetic predisposing factors have been identified and partly account for the heterogeneity of the disease. The use of patient d Continue reading >>

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  1. Armourer

    Water retention quick check

    Today on the Dr. Oz show was a brief explanation about retaining water. If one suddenly finds themselves bloating as the pants suddenly don't fit, or the ankles seem to be swelling it may be not because your eating to much salt (i.e. potato chips, or Chinese food), but kidney disease. Quick test is to press on the shin bone above the ankle a couple of inches. If the skin doesn't pop-up immediately, but makes a divot or depression, then one MAY HAVE kidney disease. i have this big time! Several years ago was told by endo doc that the metformin I was taking was destroying my kidneys & liver and to stop immediately and start shooting insulin. I switched my internist doc and in about six months my new doc stated my kidneys & liver had reversed. But for the past year he hasn't told me why I'm suddenly holding water.
    If you do this quick test and have lingering depression please see the doc! My next visit in two months will be asking some questions.

  2. pixsidust

    Thanks for the info. Why since Metformin causes so many another dire illness of kidney failure is it being prescribed or still on the market?
    Ask your doctor about congestive heart failure. That causes fluid storage. Prior to my last job I worked for almost 7 years in Cardiology & part of the code team for a huge Medical center here in St louis. Along with that the heart is enlarged.
    Draw a box with 4 squares, number them 1-4 with 1-2 on one side and 3-4 on the other. These are the 4 chambers of the heart. Blood comes in box one and is squeezed into box two where it leaves to go to the lungs to get oxygenated. It comes back into box three which is squeezed into box 4 and out to the body. Box 4 does not empty all the way because the heart is enlarged and the muscle is weaker. So the next heart beat, box three can only empty part of its contents because box four already has something in it and so on. This eventually backs the fluid into our lungs and tissues. This is congestive heart failure and only one possibility.
    The other thing that came to mind is gout.
    Thanks so much for sharing and let us know what your doctors visit reveals.

  3. kdroberts

    Actually, metformin is one of the safest and most beneficial drugs out there. In diabetics it reduces the death rate overall, not just in a single category, basically diabetics who take metformin live longer than those who don't. It is filtered by the kidneys but it is extremely rare for it to cause kidney failure and when amongst those who take it and develop kidney failure it's almost exclusively in people with several other risk factors so metformin is likely not a major factor in the cause.

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