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Gender Distribution Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus: Trends In Northern India Gutch M, Mohd Razi S, Kumar S, Gupta Kk - Indian J Endocr Metab

Diabetes Mellitus: Trends In Northern India Gutch M, Mohd Razi S, Kumar S, Gupta Kk - Indian J Endocr Metab

Diabetes mellitus is a major clinical and public health problem accounting for 4.6 million deaths annually worldwide. [1] According to the International Diabetes Federation, around 366 million people globally are currently estimated to have diabetes, of which 80% live in low and middle income countries. [1] The more worrisome fact is that about 50% of those with diabetes remain undiagnosed. [1] The Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB study) showed that India had 62.4 million people with diabetes in 2011. [2] These numbers are projected to increase to 101.2 million by 2030. [1] , [3] The ICMR-INDIAB study [2] , [3] showed that the weighted prevalence of diabetes in Tamil Nadu was 10.4%, in Maharashtra 8.4%, in Jharkhand 5.3%, and in Chandigarh 13.6%, and that overall 62.4 million people in India had diabetes in 2011. This emphasizes the sheer magnitude of the diabetes epidemic in India. [2] , [3] There is a series of epidemiological studies revealing different aspects of the disease in the different parts of the country, but most of these concentrate on the quantitative rather than qualitative aspects. ICMR-INDIAB study (2011) shows the maximum prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in the north Indian center of Chandigarh among the 4 selected regions. [2] A previous study shows a steep urban-rural gradient with regards to awareness regarding diabetes in northern India as compared to relatively homogenous awareness in the southern parts of the country. [3] These aspects-a higher prevalence and lower awareness-underscore the need for multifaceted action to combat diabetes in northern India. Gender distribution from community studies in India show conflicting Continue reading >>

Gender And Age Dependent Effect Of Type1 Diabetes On Obesity And Altered Body Composition In Young Adults

Gender And Age Dependent Effect Of Type1 Diabetes On Obesity And Altered Body Composition In Young Adults

Gender and Age Dependent effect of type1 diabetes on obesity and altered body composition in young adults Department of Pediatrics, Oncology, Hematology and Diabetology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, body composition and fatty tissue distribution in young adults with type 1 diabetes. 197 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 2040 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 138 healthy adults. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Analysis of body mass composition was performed using the bioimpedance. Study groups were stratified into cohorts aged < 30 and 30+ years. Overweight and obesity were diagnosed in 35.5% and 13.2% of diabetic patients and in 26.1% and 7.3% of the control group, respectively (p=0.016). In the whole study group, advanced age (OR=1.10; p < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (OR=2.25; p=0.001) predisposed patients to excess body weight. Women had a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, but a trend toward excessive body mass was observed in diabetic females (OR=1.18; p=0.181). Diabetic females more often had abdominal obesity than control females (mean difference 19.2%; p=0.020). Higher total body fat mass was found in the diabetic group (p=0.037). Diabetic females had a higher amount of absolute (p<0.001) and relative body fat mass (p=0.002), fat free mass (p=0.007), relative arm (p=0.007), leg (0<0.001) and trunk (p-=0.006) fat mass than control females. Diabetic males showed only higher relative fat mass of the lower limbs compared to control males (p=0.018). Patients with type 1 diabetes develop overweight and obesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and a Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Gender.

Diabetes And Gender.

Diabetes and Metabolism, Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, UK. It is often assumed that there is little or no sex bias within either Type I (insulin-dependent) or Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. This review considers evidence that sex effects of interest and importance are present in both forms of the disease. Type I diabetes is the only major organ-specific autoimmune disorder not to show a strong female bias. The overall sex ratio is roughly equal in children diagnosed under the age of 15 but while populations with the highest incidence all show male excess, the lowest risk populations studied, mostly of non-European origin, characteristically show a female bias. In contrast, male excess is a consistent finding in populations of European origin aged 15-40 years, with an approximate 3:2 male:female ratio. This ratio has remained constant in young adults over two or three generations in some populations. Further, fathers with Type I diabetes are more likely than affected mothers to transmit the condition to their offspring. Women of childbearing age are therefore less likely to develop Type I diabetes, and--should this occur--are less likely to transmit it to their offspring. Type II diabetes showed a pronounced female excess in the first half of the last century but is now equally prevalent among men and women in most populations, with some evidence of male preponderance in early middle age. Men seem more susceptible than women to the consequences of indolence and obesity, possibly due to differences in insulin sensitivity and regional fat deposition. Women are, however, more likely to transmit Type II diabetes to their offspring. Understanding these experiments of nature might suggest ways of influencing the early course of both forms of Continue reading >>

[full Text] Sex Differences In Type 2 Diabetes: Focus On Disease Course And Outcom | Dmso

[full Text] Sex Differences In Type 2 Diabetes: Focus On Disease Course And Outcom | Dmso

Lisa Arnetz,1,2 Neda Rajamand Ekberg,1,2 Michael Alvarsson1,2 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 2Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are less likely to reach the goals for hemoglobin A1c compared with men, and have higher all-cause mortality. The risk of cardiovascular disease is elevated among both men and women with T2D, however, the risk has declined among men over recent years while it remains stationary in women. Reasons for these sex differences remain unclear, and guidelines for diabetes treatment do not differentiate between sexes. Possible causes for varying outcome include differences in physiology, treatment response, and psychological factors. This review briefly outlines sex differences in hormonal pathophysiology, and thereafter summarizes the literature to date on sex differences in disease course and outcome. Methods: Systematic searches were performed on PubMed using sex, gender, and various glucose-lowering therapies as keywords. Earlier reviews are summarized and results from individual studies are reported. Reference lists from studies were used to augment the search. Results: There is an increased risk of missing the diagnosis of T2D when screening women with only fasting plasma glucose instead of with an oral glucose tolerance test. The impact of various risk factors for complications may differ by sex. Efficacy and side effects of some glucose-lowering drugs differ between men and women. Men with T2D appear to suffer more microvascular complications, while women have higher morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease and also fare worse psychologically. Conclusion: Few studies to date have focused on sex differences in T2D. S Continue reading >>

Gender-specific Epidemiology Of Diabetes: A Representative Cross-sectional Study

Gender-specific Epidemiology Of Diabetes: A Representative Cross-sectional Study

International Journal for Equity in Health The North West Adelaide Health Study Team International Journal for Equity in HealthThe official journal of the International Society for Equity in Health20098:6 Grant et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2009 Diabetes and its associated complications are part of a chronic disease global epidemic that presents a public health challenge. Epidemiologists examining health differences between men and women are being challenged to recognise the biological and social constructions behind the terms 'sex' and/or 'gender', together with social epidemiology principles and the life course approach. This paper examines the epidemiology of a population with diabetes from the north-west metropolitan region of South Australia. Data were used from a sub-population with diabetes (n = 263), from 4060 adults aged 18 years and over living in the north-west suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. Eligible respondents were asked to participate in a telephone interview, a self-report questionnaire and a biomedical examination. Diabetes (undiagnosed and diagnosed) was determined using self-reported information and a fasting blood test administered to participants. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 10.0) and EpiInfo (Version 6.0). Factors associated with diabetes for both men and women were being aged 40 years and over, and having a low gross annual household income, obesity and a family history of diabetes. In addition, being an ex-smoker and having low cholesterol levels were associated with diabetes among men. Among women, having a high waist-hip ratio, high blood pressure and reporting a previous cardiovascular event or mental health problem were associated with diabetes. The results found that men and women with diabetes face different challenge Continue reading >>

Sex And Gender Differences In Risk, Pathophysiology And Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Sex And Gender Differences In Risk, Pathophysiology And Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Gender Medicine Unit (A.K.-W., J.H.), Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria; and Metabolic Unit (G.P.), Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, 35127 Padua, Italy Address requests for reprints to: Professor Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, MD, Gender Medicine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, Whringer Grtel 1820, 1090 Vienna, Austria., E-mail: [email protected] . This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License (CC-BY-NC; ). This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen exc Continue reading >>

Who | Differences By Sex In The Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus, Impaired Fasting Glycaemia And Impaired Glucose Tolerance In Sub-saharan Africa: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Who | Differences By Sex In The Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus, Impaired Fasting Glycaemia And Impaired Glucose Tolerance In Sub-saharan Africa: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis Esayas Haregot Hilawe a, Hiroshi Yatsuya b, Leo Kawaguchi a & Atsuko Aoyama a a. Department of Public Health and Health Systems, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan. b. Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan. Correspondence to Esayas Haregot Hilawe (e-mail: [email protected] ). (Submitted: 13 November 2012 Revised version received: 21 February 2013 Accepted: 25 March 2013.) Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2013;91:671-682D. doi: Increasing urbanization and the accompanying changes in lifestyle are leading to a burgeoning epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. 1 , 2 At the same time, the prevalence of many acute communicable diseases is decreasing. 1 , 2 In consequence, the inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa are generally living longer and this increasing longevity will result in a rise in the future incidence of noncommunicable diseases in the region. 1 3 Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prominent noncommunicable diseases that are undermining the health of the people in sub-Saharan Africa and placing additional burdens on health systems that are often already strained. 4 , 5 In 2011, 14.7 million adults in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) were estimated to be living with diabetes mellitus. 6 Of all of WHOs regions, the African Region is expected to have the largest proportional increase (90.5%) in the number of adult diabetics by 2030. 6 Sex-related differences in lifestyle may lead to differences in the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and, in Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus On The Gender Difference In Coronary Artery Calcification - Sciencedirect

The Effect Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus On The Gender Difference In Coronary Artery Calcification - Sciencedirect

Volume 36, Issue 7 , December 2000, Pages 2160-2167 The effect of type 1 diabetes mellitus on the gender difference in coronary artery calcification Author links open overlay panel Helen MColhounMFPHM To examine whether the gender difference in coronary artery calcification, a measure of atherosclerotic plaque burden, is lost in type 1 diabetic patients, and whether abnormalities in established coronary heart disease risk factors explain this. Type 1 diabetes abolishes the gender difference in coronary heart disease mortality because it is associated with a greater elevation of coronary disease risk in women than men. The pathophysiological basis of this is not understood. Coronary artery calcification and coronary risk factors were compared in 199 type 1 diabetic patients and 201 nondiabetic participants of similar age (30 to 55 years) and gender (50% female) distribution. Only one subject had a history of coronary disease. Calcification was measured with electron beam computed tomography. In nondiabetic participants there was a large gender difference in calcification prevalence (men 54%, women 21%, odds ratio 4.5, p < 0.001), half of which was explained by established risk factors (odds ratio after adjustment = 2.2). Diabetes was associated with a greatly increased prevalence of calcification in women (47%), but not men (52%), so that the gender difference in calcification was lost (p = 0.002 for the greater effect of diabetes on calcification in women than men). On adjustment for risk factors, diabetes remained associated with a threefold higher odds ratio of calcification in women than men (p = 0.02). In type 1 diabetes coronary artery calcification is greatly increased in women and the gender difference in calcification is lost. Little of this is explained by kno Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 Diabetes Statistics And Facts

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Read on to learn some of the key facts and statistics about the people who have it and how to manage it. Risk factors Many risk factors for type 2 diabetes include lifestyle decisions that can be reduced or even cut out entirely with time and effort. Men are also at slightly higher risk of developing diabetes than women. This may be more associated with lifestyle factors, body weight, and where the weight is located (abdominally versus in the hip area) than with innate gender differences. Significant risk factors include: older age excess weight, particularly around the waist family history certain ethnicities physical inactivity poor diet Prevalence Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent but also largely preventable. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. The CDC also gives us the following information: In general Research suggests that 1 out of 3 adults has prediabetes. Of this group, 9 out of 10 don't know they have it. 29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes, but 8.1 million may be undiagnosed and unaware of their condition. About 1.4 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in United States every year. More than one in every 10 adults who are 20 years or older has diabetes. For seniors (65 years and older), that figure rises to more than one in four. Cases of diagnosed diabetes cost the United States an estimated $245 billion in 2012. This cost is expected to rise with the increasing diagnoses. In pregnancy and parentingAccording to the CDC, 4.6 to 9.2 percent of pregnancies may be affected by gestational diabetes. In up to 10 percent of them, the mother is diagnosed w Continue reading >>

The 2017 National Diabetes Statistics Report Is Here

The 2017 National Diabetes Statistics Report Is Here

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released the 2017 Diabetes Statistics Report with estimates for “prevalence and incidence of diabetes, prediabetes, risk factors for complications, acute and long-term complications, deaths, and costs.” Where are we now? There are 30.3 million people with diabetes (9.4% of the US population) including 23.1 million people who are diagnosed and 7.2 million people (23.8%) undiagnosed. The numbers for prediabetes indicate that 84.1 million adults (33.9% of the adult U.S. population) have prediabetes, including 23.1 million adults aged 65 years or older (the age group with highest rate). The estimated percentage of individuals with type 1 diabetes remains at 5% among those with diabetes. The statistics are also provided by age, gender, ethnicity, and for each state/territory so you can search for these specifics. The CDC has produced wonderful infographics, “A Snapshot of Diabetes in the U.S.” and “Prediabes: Could it be You?” for everyone to use and reproduce. They illustrate estimates for diabetes, prediabetes, the cost of diabetes (dollars, risk of death, medical costs), specifics about type 1 and type 2 diabetes, risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and a “What You Can Do” section. If we compare the numbers with previous estimates, we see that there has been an increase in those with diabetes and a decrease in those with prediabetes. However, the numbers are all still extremely high, and the costs and health burdens are staggering! What can we do with these statistics? Use them to help focus efforts to prevent and control diabetes in the U.S. Share the positive messages regarding prevention strategies with those at risk of developing or with type 2 diabetes Distribute the information to local media and Continue reading >>

Gender Differences In The Relationship Between Diabetes Process Of Care Indicators And Cardiovascular Outcomes

Gender Differences In The Relationship Between Diabetes Process Of Care Indicators And Cardiovascular Outcomes

Gender differences in the relationship between diabetes process of care indicators and cardiovascular outcomes 1 Laboratorio Management e Sanit, Istituto di Management, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: 2 Agenzia Regionale Sanit, Regione Toscana, Florence, Italy Search for other works by this author on: 2 Agenzia Regionale Sanit, Regione Toscana, Florence, Italy Search for other works by this author on: 2 Agenzia Regionale Sanit, Regione Toscana, Florence, Italy 3 Centre of Study for Gender Health, Azienda USL 3, Pistoia, Italy Search for other works by this author on: European Journal of Public Health, Volume 26, Issue 2, 1 April 2016, Pages 219224, Chiara Seghieri, Laura Policardo, Paolo Francesconi, Giuseppe Seghieri; Gender differences in the relationship between diabetes process of care indicators and cardiovascular outcomes, European Journal of Public Health, Volume 26, Issue 2, 1 April 2016, Pages 219224, Background: Adherence to recommended guidelines in the care for diabetes has been demonstrated to significantly prevent the excess risk of hospitalization and mortality for cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether adherence to a standardized process quality-of-care-indicator in diabetes, is able to predict, equally in men and women, first hospitalization or mortality risk after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic stroke (IS), congestive heart failure (CHF), lower extremity amputations (LEA) or any of above major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Methods: Guideline composite indicator (GCI), a process indicator including one annual assessment of HbA1c and at least two among eye examination, serum lipids measurement and microalbuminuria, was measured in the year 2006 in 91 826 ( Continue reading >>

Gender And T2dm - Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

Gender And T2dm - Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

In the first half of the last century the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher among women than among men, but this trend has shifted, so more men than women are now diagnosed with type 2 diabetes . This change in the gender distribution of type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by a more sedentary lifestyle particularly among men, resulting in increased obesity. However, recent data have also shown that men develop diabetes at a lower degree of obesity than women a finding which adds support to the view that the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes differs between men and women. Observations of sex differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance, sex hormones, and blood glucose levels further support this notion. Figure 1: Cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance image of an obese woman and an obese man [1]. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and especially the abdominal visceral fat is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Body fat distribution differs by sex [1] , and in general men have more abdominal fat, whereas women have more peripheral fat also denoted as apple versus pear shape. Looking into the abdominal fat, men also tend to have more visceral and hepatic fat than women, whereas women have more subcutaneous fat than men (Figure 1). In contrast to visceral fat, subcutaneous fat is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and is therefore protective against type 2 diabetes. Thus, the phenomenon that men develop diabetes at a lower body mass index than women [2] can be explained by the fact that men have more visceral fat for a given body mass index than women and thereby a higher relative risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and blood glucose levels The sex differences in body fat distribution a Continue reading >>

Men 'develop Diabetes More Easily'

Men 'develop Diabetes More Easily'

Researchers may have discovered why men may be more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women, BBC News has reported. The broadcaster said that a new study has found men are biologically more susceptible and need to gain far less weight than women to develop the condition. In the study, Scottish researchers examined the records of 95,057 men and women with type 2 diabetes (a condition caused by too much glucose, a type of sugar, in the blood), lookingat their ages and body mass index (BMI) scores at the time of diagnosis.A clear trend was foundin their results, with men developing type 2 diabetes at a lower BMI than women of a similarage. The researchers have speculated on why this may be the case, and have offered theories that men may be less sensitive to insulin than women or that males tend to store fat around their organs rather than under the skin as women do. However, the proposed reasons are only theories and cannot be confirmed by this study, which examined a limited range of factors at a single point in time. Overall, the observation that men seem to develop type 2 diabetes at a lower BMI than women of the same age is worthy of further exploration. As Dr Victoria King, Head of Research at Diabetes UK, told the BBC: "It is worrying that men develop type 2 diabetes at a higher rate than their female counterparts. Research like this will help us understand reasons why and provide greater insight into what we can do to improve prevention of type 2 diabetes." The study was carried out by researchers from several Scottish research institutes, including the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group at the University of Glasgow. The research received funding from the Wellcome Trust. The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Diabetolo Continue reading >>

Leptin Correlation With Obesity, Diabetes And Gender In A Population From Faisalabad, Pakistan

Leptin Correlation With Obesity, Diabetes And Gender In A Population From Faisalabad, Pakistan

Leptin Correlation with Obesity, Diabetes and Gender in a Population from Faisalabad, Pakistan Syeda Sadia Najam 1 , Fazli Rabbi Awan 1 * , Mehboob Islam 1 , Mohsin Khurshid 1 , Abdul Rehman Khan 1 , Tehmina Siddique1, Maryam Zain1 and Ahmed Bilal2 1 Diabetes and Cardio-Metabolic Disorders Lab, Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan 2 PMC/Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan Diabetes and Cardio-Metabolic Disorders Lab Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE) P.O. Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan Received date: September 01, 2016; Accepted date: October 21, 2016; Published date: October 28, 2016 Citation: Najam SS, Awan FR, Islam M, et al. Leptin Correlation with Obesity, Diabetes and Gender in a Population from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Arch Med. 2016, 8:5 doi: 10.21767/1989-5216.1000169 Copyright: 2016 Najam SS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Archives of Medicine Background: Leptin is an important adipokine hormone released from adipose tissue which is associated with obesity and diabetes in different populations. Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentrations for its correlation with diabetes, obesity and gender in a small population from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods: From our sample collection of more than 500 subjects for metabolic disorders research, we have carefully selected 80 subjects for the present case-control comparison study. These subjects were grouped on Continue reading >>

Sex Differences In Risk Factors For Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusthe Monica Augsburg Cohort Study

Sex Differences In Risk Factors For Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusthe Monica Augsburg Cohort Study

Objective To examine sex-specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors, a parental history of diabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods The study is based on 3052 men and 3114 women (aged 35 to 74 years) who participated in one of the 3 MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Augsburg surveys between 1984 and 1995, who were free of DM at baseline and returned a follow-up questionnaire in 1998. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Results A total of 128 cases of incident DM among men and 85 cases among women were registered during the follow-up period. The age-standardized incidence rate was 5.8 per 1000 person-years for men and 4.0 per 1000 person-years for women. In multivariable survival analyses, age, body mass index, and a positive parental history of diabetes were important independent risk factors for DM in both sexes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was inversely associated with DM in men and women. For other risk factors, sex-related differences were observed. Systolic blood pressure (HR per 10 mm Hg increase, 1.16), regular smoking (HR, 1.75), and high daily alcohol intake (HR, 1.95) predicted the development of DM in men only, whereas uric acid (HR per 1 mmol/L increase, 2.05) and physical inactivity during leisure time (HR, 1.80) were associated with diabetes development in women only. Conclusions In men and women, most variables predicting future diabetes in the present study are also known to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and arteriosclerosis. However, there are sex-related dissimilarities that seem to be involved in disease development. WORLDWIDE, there are at present approximately 110 million people with diabetes, the Continue reading >>

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