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Future Treatment Options For Type 1 Diabetes

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes may soon have access to improved approaches to treat the disease, courtesy of new research out of Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research. The team of researchers, led by Professor Jenny Gunton, discovered that pancreatic islets transplants delivered into the quadriceps muscle work just as successfully as the current clinical practice of transplanting islets into a patient's liver via the portal vein. Lead researcher Ms Rebecca Stokes said that transplants into the liver can present certain risks for the patient, so their research investigated safer and more beneficial treatment options for transplant recipients. "Islets are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin," Ms Stokes explained. "Pancreatic islet transplantation is used as a cure for type 1 diabetes as it allows the recipient to produce and regulate insulin after their own islet cells have been destroyed by the disease. "Currently, islet transplants are infused into a patient's liver via the portal vein. This site is used for islet transplants due to its exposure to both nutrients and insulin in the body. "However, islet infusion into the liver also presents certain risks for the patient, including potential complications from bleeding, blood clots and portal hypertension. "This suggests that there may be better treatment options for patients receiving islet transplants. "We investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and mouse islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. "Colleagues in Professor Wayne Hawthorne's group also tested similar sites for pig islet transplants in their companion paper. "Professor Hawthorne's research examining xenotransplantation - the process of transp Continue reading >>

Harvard And Mit Close To Cure For Type 1 Diabetes Which Will End Daily Injections

Harvard And Mit Close To Cure For Type 1 Diabetes Which Will End Daily Injections

Harvard and MIT close to cure for Type 1 diabetes which will end daily injections Sufferes of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may have to inject insulin dailyCredit:Alamy A cure for type 1 diabetes is closer than ever after scientists showed they can switch off the disease for six months in animals which would equate to several years in humans. In 2014, researchers at Harvard University discovered how to make huge quantities of insulin-producing cells , in a breakthrough hailed as significant as antibiotics. Now a team at MIT has proven that planting the cells into mice can completely restore insulin function for a long time. "These treatments aim to effectively establish long-term insulin independence and eliminate the daily burden of managing the disease for months, possibly years, at a time" Julia Greenstein JDRF, the type 1 diabetes research charity It could mean the end of daily insulin injections for the 400,000 people in Britain living with Type 1 diabetes. Instead they would simply need a transfusion of engineered cells every few years. Researchers say human trials are just a few years away. We are excited by these results, and are working hard to advance this technology to the clinic, said Dr Daniel Anderson, professor of applied biology at MIT. These results lay the groundwork for future human studies using these formulations with the goal of achieving long-term replacement therapy for type one diabetes. We believe (the cells) have the potential to provide insulin independence for patients suffering from this disease. "It has the potential to provide diabetics with a new pancreas that is protected from the immune system, which would allow them to control their blood sugar without taking drugs. Thats the dream. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that causes Continue reading >>

Artificial Pancreas: The Future Of Diabetes Treatment

Artificial Pancreas: The Future Of Diabetes Treatment

Managing diabetes can be challenging. Even with careful monitoring and use of insulin, it’s not always easy to keep blood sugar levels normal. An artificial pancreas may be a way to help people with type 1 diabetes manage their condition. Researchers began studying the potential of these devices decades ago. The FDA recently approved it for treating type 1 diabetes in people age 14 and older. Artificial pancreases hit the market in 2016. The devices automate blood sugar management. They dose the correct amount of insulin when the body needs it. A smart phone or tablet can direct a computer program that controls the artificial pancreas. It links to a glucose monitor sensor and insulin pump to find out blood sugar patterns and control insulin delivery. The pancreas releases hormones and digestive enzymes in the body. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose (sugar) uptake from the blood into the cells to use for energy. This process lowers blood glucose levels. Glucagon is another hormone in the pancreas. It causes the liver to release stored glucose. This raises blood glucose levels. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can’t make the insulin needed to regulate a person’s blood glucose. Glucose stays in the blood. Insulin is not available to allow for cellular uptake. This makes blood sugar levels rise. It can cause serious acute and chronic health problems. The “hybrid system” is the only type of artificial pancreas available. It’s closed-loop system includes a sensor attached to the body. It measures glucose levels every five minutes. It also automatically gives or withholds insulin via an insulin pump. The pump is attached to the body via a catheter connected to the insulin pump. It also contains a computer chip that determines insulin doses. It’s considered Continue reading >>

Future Prospects - Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

Future Prospects - Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

Halting the autoimmune destruction of beta cells, ensuring their future survival and replacing cells already lost represent key future goals in type 1 diabetes research. Since much of the beta cell mass has already been lost at diagnosis, therapies must aim to salvage and replace beta cells. Currently, beta cells may be replaced by whole pancreas or islet cell transplantation, but the limited availability of human pancreas and the need for immunosuppression represent major drawbacks. Restoration of beta cells might be achieved by stem cell replacement therapy (embryonic or adult, including induced pluripotent stem cells) or by generation of new beta cells (e.g. by reprogramming alpha cells, or replication of existing beta cells). Encapsulation or other forms of sequestration from the immune system could also offer protection against rejection or recurrence of anti-islet autoimmunity without the complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, many attempts have been made to grow beta cells in culture, and to devise means by which these might be introduced into the body without provoking their immune destruction. These efforts all represent biological approaches to cure, but improved improved technology (insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors and when combined an artificial pancreas) offers the prospect of control in type 1 diabetes. What does the future hold for type 1 diabetes? Yogi Berra, the famous baseball player, once said that 'it's tough to make predictions, especially about the future'. [1] This applies to any attempt to predict the future for research in type 1 diabetes. Six approaches that currently appear to offer the greatest promise of practical progress are described here. At the current time, type 1 diabetes is predictable with the measurement of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment In 2025: Can Scientific Advances Keep Pace With Prevalence?

Diabetes Treatment In 2025: Can Scientific Advances Keep Pace With Prevalence?

Go to: Introduction Before the availability of insulin in the 1920s, hailed not only as the cure for diabetes but also as one of the greatest advances in the treatment of any disease, a person diagnosed with diabetes would have faced death within a few years. Today, diabetes is not the devastating diagnosis it would have been 100 years ago; in fact, it is now a common misconception among the public that diabetes is not a serious disease. In reality, the impact of diabetes is so significant that it is affecting overall life expectancy: in the United States (US), life expectancy is falling for the first time since statistics were collected, due to obesity and diabetes [Olshansky et al. 2005], and estimates of diabetes prevalence over the coming years suggest many of us reading this article will develop diabetes during our lives [Whiting et al. 2011]. The predictions of the increased prevalence of diabetes are rarely accompanied by predictions of improvements in the treatment of diabetes; however, given the impact of diabetes, it has been the focus of intensive research, resulting in major advances in our understanding of diabetes as well as in treatment options. As the centenary of the discovery of insulin approaches, it seems timely to consider how treatment options may look in the 2020s, and the likelihood that the elusive cure for diabetes could be found by that time. Go to: Technological solutions The majority of cases of diabetes are type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the predicted rise in diabetes prevalence is expected to be driven by increases in the number of T2DM cases. However, it is likely that significant advances in therapy for T2DM will result from the research in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), as they are both essentially disorders of glucose managemen Continue reading >>

Clinical Trials And The Type 1 Diabetes Cure

Clinical Trials And The Type 1 Diabetes Cure

WRITTEN BY: Stephen Gitelman, MD I am often asked the question, “Where is the cure for Type 1 diabetes (T1D)?” For those with long-standing diabetes, we are very close to replicating insulin producing beta cell functionality or the actual replacement of those cells — either with closed loop systems with continuous glucose sensor driving an insulin pump, or use of replacement beta cells derived from stem cells. However, as a Pediatrician, I think the ultimate cure for T1D will be prevention. Why can’t we screen and predict who is at risk, and then prevent someone from getting Type 1 diabetes in the first place? It turns out that T1D occurs in about 1 in 300 people in the general population, but if you already have someone in your family with diabetes, like a brother or sister, then the risk jumps to a 1 in 20 chance of developing Type 1 diabetes. This is why researchers in an NIH sponsored international research effort called TrialNet have been focusing prevention efforts on families with at least one T1D. T1D results from both underlying genetic risk and environmental exposures, but researchers are still working to determine these specific factors. Thanks to some of this work, we now have the ability to predict who will get T1D, in some cases as long as 10-20 years before it happens (see figure). Researchers use three different pieces of information for prediction. First, we look at the immune system. This is done with a simple blood test, measuring up to five different autoantibodies that the immune system might produce against beta cells. If no abnormality is found, then your risk of developing Type 1 diabetes in the near future is very low. However, if there is any abnormality found in the antibody profile, then additional tests are necessary to further defin Continue reading >>

Experimental Therapy May Slow Type 1 Diabetes

Experimental Therapy May Slow Type 1 Diabetes

Experimental Therapy May Slow Type 1 Diabetes By Bahar Gholipour, Contributing Writer | It may be possible to slow the progression of type 1 diabetes , according to a new pilot study that used an experimental therapy that centers on the immune system. In the new study, researchers in Sweden tested a new method to train the immune system to stop attacking the body's own insulin-producing cells, according to the findings published today (Feb. 15) in the New England Journal of Medicine. With only six participants, the study was small, but experts called these early results exciting. In people with type I diabetes , the immune system mistakenly recognizes certain proteins in beta cells as foreign invaders and wages a war against them. Once the beta cells have been killed, the pancreas produces little or no insulin, the hormone that regulates how the body absorbs sugar from the blood to use for energy. As a result, patients need to follow lifelong treatments such as insulin injections to keep their blood sugar levels at normal ranges. [ 9 Healthy Habits You Can Do in 1 Minute (Or Less) ] This destruction of beta cells doesn't happen overnight, however. Although the majority of them are gone by the time someone is diagnosed, some cells manage to dodge the attacks and continue to produce some insulin. That's why several research teams have been working on finding ways to rescue the remaining cells, or delay their destruction in people who have been recently diagnosed with the condition . In the new study, the researchers injected a protein normally found on beta cells directly into the patients' lymph nodes . "This method has shown the best efficacy so far," at slowing the disease's progression, said Dr. Johnny Ludvigsson, senior professor of pediatrics at Linkping University Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes At A Crossroads!

Type 1 Diabetes At A Crossroads!

“Be at a crossroads”: to be at a stage in your life when you have to make a very important decision (1). Type 1 diabetes at a crossroads? What does that really mean? It cannot mean that progress has not been made! Indeed, in the field of diabetes, reporting of new information is clearly outpacing our ability to incorporate new findings into clinical treatment options and recommendations. Over the recent past, important new information regarding the burden of diabetes, prevention, and screening and comprehensive discussions on new therapies have been reported (2–7). However, on closer inspection, the most impressive changes in treatment and preventive strategies have been focused on type 2 diabetes. What then are the major advances in type 1 diabetes? How close are we to realizing an intervention that can delay or prevent type 1 diabetes? Are we any closer to a cure today than we were 10 years ago? What progress has been made toward the “holy grail” of offering a fully functioning artificial pancreas (AP)? To address these questions, our editorial team has elected to feature these topics in a series of articles in this issue of Diabetes Care. Specifically, articles in this issue describe research related to the present status of treatment methods and clinical outcomes in type 1 diabetes in the U.S.; discuss current concepts on the pathogenesis, prediction, and prevention of the disease; review the successes and ongoing challenges of islet transplantation; and describe a pathway for the translation of advances in diabetes technology into an AP suitable for home use by large numbers of patients (8–15). The limitations of current treatment of type 1 diabetes are addressed in the report by Miller et al. (8), which summarizes the most recent data collected on 16,6 Continue reading >>

5 Future Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes - Type2diabetes.com

5 Future Treatments For Type 2 Diabetes - Type2diabetes.com

Join the conversation. register now or log in About the author View all posts by Lizmari Collazo I am 38 years old and I have type 2 diabetes. I was diagnosed when I was 33 years young, and though Im not the youngest of people (by far) to ever be diagnosed with this disease, I still could potentially live another 40-50 years with this condition, if I play my cards right. With this in mind, I often ponder upon the future of type 2 diabetes management, and whats around the corner. There are always new studies outlining potential treatments and avenues of exploration for studying, treating and even potentially curing this disease. While every day we might see FDA approval for a new drug, or a new gastric bypass surgery method, these are potential treatments which are quietly etching themselves onto the surface of type 2 diabetes research, and show fresh and renewed promise for a brighter future with the condition: Oral Insulin: Current type 2 diabetes management entails an attempt to slow progression of the condition, while reserving insulin as a medication for the last stages, when a persons pancreas will stop producing insulin. This is generally, not the greatest approach because one of the best ways of slowing down progression of diabetes is by introducing insulin early in order to give the pancreas a rest, and delaying a full dependency on insulin. An oral insulin medication would eliminate the need for injections in persons with type 2, be able to be introduced much earlier in the treatment, and possibly greatly reduce injection needs for patients with type 1 diabetes. Oral insulin has one obstacle: our stomachs digestive juices. However, there are several giants in the race to bring us Oral insulin, and at various trial stages, with Israeli pharmaceutical, Oramed, c Continue reading >>

Could Future Vaccines Cure Type 1 Diabetes?

Could Future Vaccines Cure Type 1 Diabetes?

For years there has been talk about developing a vaccine for type 1 diabetes, but is it actually possible? While an effective vaccine to cure or even treat type 1 diabetes still remains out of reach, researchers believe that we are not far off from developing one. Many researchers would urge you to remain cautiously optimistic about a vaccine becoming available anytime soon. However, some studies, being conducted around the world, are showing promise for the development of a diabetes vaccine. You may be wondering, why a vaccine? To understand why diabetes researchers are looking to develop a vaccine, it may be best to examine what we know about type 1 diabetes first. What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, unlike type 2 diabetes, is an autoimmune disease. Also known as juvenile diabetes because it tends to develop in childhood, type 1 diabetes causes the body to attack itself. In the case of autoimmune diseases, the body’s immune system, designed to protect our body from foreign invaders, malfunctions and attacks our own cells. While there are many forms of autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, type 1 diabetes is one of the most common. In the U.S. alone it is estimated around 1.25 million people have type 1 diabetes. This condition occurs when beta cells are mistaken for invaders and attacked by the immune system. Beta cells are cells in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin. As more and more beta cells are eliminated, the body begins to lose the capacity to produce insulin. Although type 1 diabetes can be treated through regular insulin injections, the injections can be painful and inconvenient. Researchers hope that a vaccine will be able to reduce the need for regular injections or cure the disease altogether. How a Vaccine Would W Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatments Of The Future

Diabetes Treatments Of The Future

When you think of long-term diabetes care what do you imagine? I know the first thought that pops in many peoples heads that deal with diabetes on a daily basis is CURE . And that is something we all want, in the meantime however, I posed a question to the DOC about what types of treatment options they would like to see available for those with diabetes. Heres what they had to say: Bridget: I know we all want a cure but I got to thinking so much has changed in just Treatment options in the past few years, so what types of treatment options would you like to see in the future? Zak Grigsby: A cure. Period. Im tired of new gadgets and gizmos that Ill never be able to afford. I can barely afford the pump and sensor that I have now. Kathy Klusman Lentz: Something that can be worn on the wrist that will be a CGM that can send your levels right to your pump and it can deliver insulin to you without having to do anything. It wont wake you up, it and the pump will just do it all. No more finger sticks and insurance will cover it! Amy Bryant: I agree Bridget. I have been diabetic for over 30 years and diabetes care has come a long way! The only thing that I wish they would come up with is a pump that can calculate your carb intake by what we enter. Pretty much, our phones can have my fitness pal or calorie king down loaded and we can enter what we are eating to calculate the carbs; but I want the pump to be connected to the pdm so once its entered our bolus would start from that. I dont mind diabetes, CGM, shots or anything about it; but I dont do good with counting carbs and doctors tend to ask what my last meals are, so if this could be created, doctors and ourselves would have everything we need at our fingertips and downloadable. Rianne Ferguson: Not really a treatment but a Continue reading >>

The Future Of Care For Type 1 Diabetes

The Future Of Care For Type 1 Diabetes

David M. Nathan , MD and Steven Russell , MD PhD David Nathan and Steven Russell are with the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Correspondence to: David M. Nathan, [email protected] Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer Copyright 1995-2013, Canadian Medical Association See the article " Glucose-responsive insulin and glucagon delivery (dual-hormone artificial pancreas) in adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover controlled trial " onpage297. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by gross dysregulation of glycemia, owing to autoimmune destruction of -cell function, and by long-term complications associated with hyperglycemia. The current approach to improve the long-term course of type 1 diabetes is to try to replace insulin physiologically, with the goal of achieving blood glucose levels as close to the nondiabetic range as possible. Near-normal glycemia has been shown to reduce the development and progression of microvascular and cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. 1 3 Two approaches to achieving near-normal glycemia have dominated our efforts in the past 3 decades. Biologic approaches that replace missing -cell function by transplanting whole-organ pancreas or isolated islets, although far more effective than in decades past, have been limited by the need for immunosuppression and its attendant risks, the risks of procedures necessary to transplant insulin-producing tissue, and the availability of organs. In addition, the limited survival of transplanted tissue, particularly isolated islets, necessitates adding exogenous insulin therapy within 2 to 4 years of transplantation. 4 The mechanical approach has been to develop devices that emulate physiolo Continue reading >>

Care And Cure: Engineering The Future Of Diabetes Treatment

Care And Cure: Engineering The Future Of Diabetes Treatment

February 10, 2016 / 10:05 PM / in 2 years Care and Cure: Engineering the future of diabetes treatment Cambridge, MASS (Reuters) - For diabetics, life is a constant struggle to maintain balance - keeping track of your carbohydrate intake, constantly monitoring blood-sugar levels, and injecting insulin. Its a never-ending cycle to stay healthy. But now major advances in engineering could end that cycle. Two labs are tackling diabetes very differently. At Harvard University more than two decades of research aims at automating diabetic care by developing an artificial pancreas. Youve got the sensor, the way that we measure the critical variable, in this case glucose. You have the actuator that is the agent of change, thats the thing that influences your dynamic system. In this case that is a pump delivering insulin and then you have the controller, the brains, said Frank Doyle, Dean of the Harvard School of Engineering & Applied Sciences. Insulin pumps and sensors are commonplace, but developing an algorithm to allow these two technologies to work together has proven difficult. But several trials and another one just beginning are putting the artificial pancreas within reach. In essence, we use a patient model, a computational model, a mathematical model, to forecast into the future. So we get a sense of how past insulin affects future glucose, how the past trajectory of glucose is going to play out for the next hour or two, added Doyle, who has been working on the project for more than two decades. Within five years Doyle predicts a fully functional automated system for diabetes will exist. It wont be a single device, but a upgrades to devices biomedical companies already offer. Two miles away on the other side of Cambridge, Massachusetts, scientists at MIT are hoping to Continue reading >>

The Future Of Diabetes Research And Treatment

The Future Of Diabetes Research And Treatment

The Future of Diabetes Research and Treatment Bart Roep, Ph.D., director of the Wanek Family Project for T1D Diabetes affects over 422 million people worldwide according to the World Health Organization, but no two patients are alike. So in 2017 and beyond, treatments will increasingly make use of precision medicine to personalize treatment options. At City of Hope, researchers are using a transformative gift to speed these treatments to patients. On January 16, the Wanek family bestowed City of Hopes DiabetesandMetabolismResearchInstitute with a significant contribution to support the institutions goal of curing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in six years and create TheWanekFamilyProjectforType1Diabetes . The gift follows on the heels of an alliance between City of Hope and the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an organization that applies genomic analysis and bioinformatics in the development of personalized approaches to therapies for diseases like cancer and diabetes. One of the lessons weve had recently is that every patient is different, said BartRoep , M.D., Ph.D., director of the Wanek Family Project. So you really have to do a fine diagnosis, like we do in cancer, to offer the best type of therapy to the individual patient something we call personalized medicine, or precision medicine. But for that, he says, researchers first need to understand what makes one T1D patient different from another. They also need to understand the mechanisms behind how the immune system mistakenly destroys beta cells the cells that make insulin to cause T1D. That is what the Wanek Family Program entails, and were taking it from different angles, said Roep, who is also the Chan Soon-Shiong Shapiro Distinguished Chair in Diabetes and Professor and founding Chair, Department o Continue reading >>

Diabetes Cure

Diabetes Cure

Tweet Cures for both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes have not yet been discovered, but progress is being made to prospectively cure type 1 diabetes in this generation. As studies continue, the root causes and mechanism behind both forms of the disease are becoming more clearly understood all the time. People with type 2 diabetes can go into remission, but while a cure is still elusive for type 1 diabetes, research from major angles is contributing towards a potential cure. Type 1 diabetes cure Researchers are beginning to get excited again that a cure or near-cure treatment could come as early as within the next decade or two. A diabetes vaccine diabetes vaccine is consistently being investigated to provide a true biological cure for type 1 diabetes. The aim is for a vaccine to be created that stops the immune system from attacking the body's insulin-producing beta cells. Another cure prospect gaining momentum is islet cell encapsulation, with stem cells used to create insulin-producing cells that can work without immune system interference. Type 1 diabetes vaccine Research into a diabetes vaccine is being made on several fronts, with Selecta Bioscience, a clinical bioscience company, developing a Synthetic Vaccine Particle (SVP) as an immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes. The vaccine is expected to reprogram the immune system to prevent inflammatory responses to insulin cells, with Selecta currently trialling SVP on mice courtesy of funding from JRDF, a leading global organisation funding type 1 diabetes research. Elsewhere, the Faustman Lab at Massachusetts General Hospital is currently leading a human clinical trial program to test the efficiency of their Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. Positive results have already been reported from their Phase I study. An Continue reading >>

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