Cold And Flu And What To Do
Getting sick can be scary and especially when you or a loved one is Type 1. As the body tries to fight off the virus, blood glucose levels elevate, causing rapid and dangerous highs. And when youre not feeling well, you may find it difficult to keep down fluids or even eat, causing you to go too low. Then theres the issue of medicine which to take and how to dose for it if needed. Theres a lot to consider, but rest assured! Weve talked to doctors about what is recommended in terms of planning ahead and the protocol if you or your loved one are faced with a bug. While this season brings with it challenges to staying healthy, here are some helpful guidelines when facing off with the cold or flu. Whatsthedifference between a cold and flu? A cold is a milder respiratory infection than a flu. While both can cause a soar throat, cough, runny nose and congestion, a flu is usually accompanied by body aches, fever and lasts much longer than a common cold. As a Type 1 or as a caretaker of a Type 1, you should plan ahead so youre readynot only for the cold, a common and frequent ailment, but also, the more unruly cousin the flu, who outstays his welcome and can cause serious havoc if left unchecked. lists of recommended medications you can taketo alleviatecertain symptoms the contact of your doctor and when / where they can be reached during regular hours as well as holiday time a plan of action (if / then scenarios), how often you should check your BGLs and whenyou should contact a doctor. low-calorie sports drinks (for fast-acting sugars and electrolytes) These are usually offered in the fall and are highly recommended for anyone who is at higher risk for complications if they contract influenza. Youve heard it a million times, but it really is one of the best ways to prevent c Continue reading >>
Diabetes And The Flu
Diabetes can turn a simple case of the flu into a serious problem. "People who have diabetes are three times more likely to be hospitalized if they get the flu," says Helena Duffy, CDE, a nurse practitioner at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City. Diabetes can weaken your immune system and make it harder for your body to fight off the influenza virus, she says. The flu can affect your blood sugar levels. You're also at higher risk for pneumonia. And if you're not eating well while you're sick, you could be at risk for hypoglycemia. Get a Flu Shot for Prevention The best way to protect yourself is to get a flu shot at the beginning of every flu season. Avoid the nasal flu vaccine, which has not been extensively studied in people with diabetes (PWDs). Ask people living in your house to get a flu vaccine, too. PWDs also should get the pneumococcal vaccine to protect against pneumonia. If you have diabetes, ask your doctor about getting a second shot five to 10 years after the first. When You Have Diabetes and the Flu If you do get sick, ask your doctor about Tamiflu (oseltavimir), a prescription antiviral medication that can ease symptoms and shorten the duration of your illness. For best results, take it as soon as you notice symptoms. It's also important to pay close attention to your blood glucose levels. "Check your blood glucose every two to four hours, and record your readings," Duffy says. "If your blood sugar remains high or gets too low, call your doctor." Duffy says people with type 1 diabetes who feel ill and have a blood glucose reading over 250 mg/dl should test for ketones in the urine. Left untreated, excessive ketones can result in ketoacidosis, a dangerous condition that occurs when fat is burned for energy instead of glucose. If you have the flu, do Continue reading >>
Flu Virus May Trigger Diabetes, Study Says
Flu Virus May Trigger Diabetes, Study Says Researchers have prompted another reason to worry about flu season. The influenza virus may trigger diabetes. But, if the hunch is true, it may also help doctors target and prevent diabetes. There are two common forms of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, the more common form, occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or when the cells ignore the insulin that the body creates. The second, less common form of diabetes is Type 1, which affects 5 percent of people with diabetes ,is when the body does not produce insulin at all. It is normally diagnosed during childhood or young adulthood. While people are born with a genetic predisposition for the disorder, an environmental factor triggers the onset of the lifelong condition - though researchers have remained uncertain about what exactly the environmental factor is. As a result, researchers from Italy infected turkeys with the flu , because infected birds normally have enlarged pancreas after developing the flu, even if the virus does not spread beyond their respiratory tract. After flu infection, many of the turkeys developed severe pancreatitis, or pancreas damage, and diabetes. Subsequent studies by the same researchers infected human pancreatic tissue with two common influenza viruses. In both cases, the flu virus grew very well, producing the type of chemicals that are, in turn, central to the autoimmune reactions that lead to type 1 diabetes.According to New Scientist, researchers theorize that immune cells bring infected cells to the fighter T-cells to help them learn to destroy the disease. But the T-cells become carried away with their job, learning to not just recognize the disease, but the insulin-producing cells that carry them. Normally, in humans, the flu virus r Continue reading >>
Viral Trigger For Type 1 Diabetes
Go to: INSIGHT FROM EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS The influence of the environment. Type 1 diabetes is a genetic autoimmune disorder caused by autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells that recognize pancreatic antigens such as insulin or GAD and subsequently destroy insulin-producing β-cells. The subject of very active research is the question of how endogenous β-cell antigens become immunogenic. Infiltration of the islets of Langerhans, where β-cells reside, by activated autoreactive T-cells is considered to be the major driving force in type 1 diabetes progression. The islet infiltrate in humans consists primarily of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells, followed by macrophages and dendritic cells of different subtypes (1). Interestingly, significantly fewer T-cells are found in human islets compared with islets from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The reduced numbers of T-cells, and in this way a limited autoreactive component in human islets, leads one to consider whether other contributing factors may be involved in disease development. Otherwise, sufficient insulitic infiltrate to destroy islet β-cells might not be easily maintained in humans. Further supporting a role for nongenetic factors in the control of type 1 diabetes is the observation that disease concordance among monozygotic twins is below 50% (2). Migrant studies also suggest the involvement of an environmental factor in type 1 diabetes, since disease incidence in migrating populations appears to conform to the incidence of the region to which there is migration (3). There is an ever-increasing body of literature suggesting that the significant environmental component to type 1 diabetes development and progression is a viral infection. However, this has not been clearly demonstrated. In fact, viral infectio Continue reading >>
Influenza A Viruses Grow In Human Pancreatic Cells And Cause Pancreatitis And Diabetes In An Animal Model
Influenza A Viruses Grow in Human Pancreatic Cells and Cause Pancreatitis and Diabetes in an Animal Model cViral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy dDepartment of Public Health, Comparative Pathology and Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agripolis, Legnaro, Padova, Italy fUnit of Pathology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy aDepartment of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Padova, Italy bDiabetes Research Institute-DRI, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy cViral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy dDepartment of Public Health, Comparative Pathology and Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agripolis, Legnaro, Padova, Italy eAnimal Health and Welfare Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Padova, Italy fUnit of Pathology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy Received 2012 Mar 27; Accepted 2012 Oct 17. Copyright 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Influenza A viruses commonly cause pancreatitis in naturally and experimentally infected animals. In this study, we report the results of in vivo investigations carried out to establish whether influenza virus infection could cause metabolic disorders linked to pancreatic infection. In addition, in vitro tests in human pancreatic islets and in human pancreatic cell lines were performed to evaluate viral growth and cell damage. Infection of an avian model with two low-pathogenic Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By A Common Virus, Study Suggests
Researchers found that kids exposed to enteroviruses are more likely to develop the autoimmune disease. A new study suggests that a common virus may increase children’s risk for developing type 1 diabetes, raising the possibility that a vaccine may one day help prevent the lifelong disease. The research is not the first to make a connection between enteroviruses and diabetes, but the authors say it’s the largest and most definitive study to date. Enteroviruses are a group of viruses that usually cause mild illnesses, like the common cold. Certain strains of enterovirus—such as the poliovirus, enterovirus-D68, and coxackievirus (also known as hand, foot, and mouth disease)—can cause more serious symptoms. Previous research has also suggested that children exposed to enteroviruses are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease that damages insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, than those who have not. To further study this link, researchers at the University of Tampere in Finland tested more than 1,600 stool samples from 129 children who had recently developed diabetes and 282 non-diabetic children for enterovirus RNA—a marker of previous infection. They found a significant difference between the groups: Only 60% of the control group showed signs of prior infection, versus 80% of the newly diabetic group. The results, published in the journal Diabetologica, also showed that enterovirus infection typically occurred more than a year before children tested positive for islet autoantibodies, the first sign of type 1 diabetes. Taking this time lag into account, the researchers determined that children with diabetes have roughly three times more enterovirus infections than those without the disease. The study could not prove a cause-and-effect re Continue reading >>
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What Is Influenza?
People with diabetes are at high risk of serious flu complications. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting vaccinated each year, and vaccinating the entire family. If you have diabetes, you are three times more likely to be hospitalised and three times more likely to die from the flu and its complications than other people. The flu may also interfere with your blood glucose levels. So prevent flu and get a flu shot! Influenza is highly contagious as the viruses are spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes small virus-containing droplets into the air. If you’re nearby, you can breathe them in and infect your respiratory tract. However, it’s important to remember that touching contaminated surfaces (including hands) and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes can also lead to infection. Influenza infection usually has different symptoms and causes a more severe illness than most other common viral respiratory infections and may be a life-threatening infection in certain people; it should not be confused with the common cold! Influenza, and its potential complications, can be very serious for people living with diabetes. The NHMRC recommends vaccination in adults and children older than 6 months with chronic pulmonary or circulatory disease, including severe asthma, and other chronic illness that require regular medical follow-up or hospitalisation in the preceding year. People living with diabetes need to get vaccinated– it could save their lives and will ensure they are protected when others bring the infection into their workplaces or social environment. People who work with or live with people who are at risk of complications, such as people living with diabetes, should also be immunised to avoid spreading the flu. People can unknowingly infect othe Continue reading >>
Flu And People With Diabetes
People with diabetes (type 1 or type 2), even when well-managed, are at high risk of serious flu complications, often resulting in hospitalization and sometimes even death. Pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus infections and ear infections are examples of flu-related complications. The flu also can make chronic health problems, like diabetes, worse. This is because diabetes can make the immune system less able to fight infections. In addition, illness can make it harder to control your blood sugar. The illness might raise your sugar but sometimes people don’t feel like eating when they are sick, and this can cause blood sugar levels to fall. So it is important to follow the sick day guidelines for people with diabetes. Vaccination is the Best Protection against Flu CDC recommends that all people who are 6 months and older get a flu vaccine. It is especially important for people with diabetes to get a flu vaccine. Flu shots are approved for use in people with diabetes and other health conditions. The flu shot has a long, established safety record in people with diabetes. People with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia because of the flu, so being up to date with pneumococcal vaccination is also recommended. Pneumococcal vaccination should be part of a diabetes management plan. Talk to your doctor to find out which pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for you. Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and throw the tissue away after using it; Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after coughing or sneezing; Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth (germs are spread that way); and Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care. If you are sick with flu-like symptoms you should sta Continue reading >>
Flu Virus May Trigger Diabetes
Italian researchers have discovered that the flu virus may trigger the onset of type 1 diabetes. Sign Up for Our Healthy Living Newsletter Thanks for signing up! You might also like these other newsletters: Sign up for more FREE Everyday Health newsletters . MONDAY, Nov. 5, 2012 The flu virus may do more than just make you sick with the flu, say Italian researchers. It could also trigger diabetes. Type 1 diabetes , once known as juvenile diabetes, affects as many as 3 million Americans, most of them diagnosed as children. Type 1 diabetes develops when the bodys immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells found in the pancreas. The condition is genetic, but an environmental trigger is also necessary for it to appear. Researchers have suspected the flu virus might provide this trigger since the 1970s, because type 1 diabetes often sets in after an infection. Study author Ilaria Capua and her team from the World Organization for Animal Health infected turkeys with the flu to test their theory that it could trigger diabetes. They conducted the study on turkeys because they knew birds with the flu often have an inflamed pancreas, according to New Scientist . They found that many of the turkeys infected with flu virus developed severe pancreatic damage, as well as diabetes. The researchers then infected human pancreatic tissue with two common flu viruses and found that both viruses grew well in the tissue. The flu virus in the pancreatic cells triggered production of inflammatory chemicals that are central to the autoimmune reactions that lead to type 1 diabetes. Normally, in humans, the virus attacks the lungs and gut, but not typically the pancreas. But it can sometimes get into the blood and travel to the pancreas , researchers said. Capua is now testing th Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes And Flu: Does Illness Influence Blood Sugar Levels?
Nobody likes getting sick. Cos' let's face it, there are few things more miserable than being confined to a bed or couch struggling to breathe and carry out daily activities. And unfortunately, diabetes increases risk of illness of many kinds, including the flu. The reason this happens is because elevated blood sugar levels weaken the immune system, making it more susceptible to infection. And on the opposite side, infections raise blood sugar levels because as the immune system is mounting it’s attack, it needs energy to fight infection. So catching the flu can result in a bit of a vicious cycle. What is the Flu? Influenza is a viral infection that affects millions of people each year. It is a notoriously contagious respiratory illness that commonly infects the nose, throat and lungs. It spreads from person to person through droplets expectorated when people cough, sneeze or talk. Additionally, if these small droplets are on surfaces (counters, handles etc), people can touch them, then touch their face and infect themselves. People may be infected and infect others before they even know they’re sick and even after they’ve begun feeling better. Generally people are contagious for about a week, though this obviously will vary depending on the person. Once a person is infected, symptoms show up within 1-4 days. Symptoms of influenza Please note, not everyone will get all of these symptoms and some of them can be symptoms of other disease. If you have any of these signs, you should schedule a doctor’s visit for proper diagnosis. Symptoms of influenza include: Fever/chills Cough Sore throat Runny nose Body aches Headaches Fatigue Flushed skin Vomiting and diarrhea Complications of influenza Complications of influenza can include: Pneumonia Ear infections Sinus Infec Continue reading >>
Can The Flu Trigger Type 1 Diabetes In Children?
Can the Flu Trigger Type 1 Diabetes in Children? Ginger Vieira / @GingerVieira , Patient Expert Every year approximately 15,000 children and teenagers are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. There are various things that can trigger the disease, one of which is the flu. To be clear, the flu does not cause type 1 diabetes, but it can serve as a trigger for the onset of the disease in someone who is essentially pre-programmed to develop it. Autoimmune diseases often are just waiting for their trigger. One 2011 study in the International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology found a correlation between a specific flu virus (H1N1) and development of type 1 diabetes; another one, published in a 2012 issue of the Journal of Virology also found an association. The theory is that while fighting off the flu virus, the immune system accidentally begins destroying the cells within the pancreas that are essential to insulin production. Undiagnosed type 1 diabetes has become enough of an issue that organizations like TestOneDrop.org have formed to keep parents better informed and more aware. And the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of five is sky-rocketing, according to Terri Lipman, Ph.D.,at the Philadelphia Pediatric Diabetes Registry. While type 1 can certainly run in families with trends of autoimmune diseases, it can also develop in anyone. Nothing you do causes it (no, eating too much candy doesnt cause it), and unless youre testing your child each year via TrialNet and are a candidate for current research studies, theres nothing you can do to prevent it, either. Despite how easy it is to test for and diagnose type 1 diabetes, young people die every year because the symptoms are easily dismissed as an extended flu or even strep throat. Here are the sig Continue reading >>
Why Diabetes Can Sometimes Look Like The Flu
Today is World Diabetes Day, turning the spotlight on this silent killer of almost 5 million people worldwide each year. In the U.S. alone, 25.8 million people suffer from diabetes, including 7 million people who don’t even know they have it. And the number is growing, with two million adults newly diagnosed every year. Today is World Diabetes Day, turning the spotlight on this silent killer of almost 5 million people worldwide each year. In the U.S. alone, 25.8 million people suffer from diabetes, including 7 million people who don’t even know they have it. And the number is growing, with two million adults newly diagnosed every year. While the most common complications of diabetes, such as heart attack and stroke, can be years in the making, other severe complications can come on suddenly and may even be mistaken for something as commonplace as the flu. In this video, Deborah, a 57-year-old who didn't know she had type 2 diabetes, talks about how she was diagnosed with the disease. At first she went to her doctor for a sore throat, but was so sick she eventually went to the hospital. In fact, her blood sugar had soared to 10 times what it should have been, and she began t to slip into a diabetic coma. She woke up in the intensive care unit. Fortunately, Deborah recovered to tell her story, but not all people are so lucky. Uncontrolled high blood sugar can cause both diabetic ketoacidosis and diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, both of which can lead to a diabetic coma, which can be fatal. “This state is a life-threatening emergency,” said Spyros Mezitis, MD, PhD, an endocrinology consultant and clinical investigator at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome is more often seen in type 2 diabetics, which is by far the most common form o Continue reading >>
Flu And Diabetes
Tweet People with diabetes are generally at a greater risk if they catch flu (influenza) as it can pose significant difficulties with diabetes management. Flu is a viral infection which is easily caught through inhaling small droplets released when someone with the flu virus nearby coughs or sneezes. A dangerous complication of the flu is pneumonia and people with diabetes are more at risk of developing this complication than people without diabetes. Flu, and other viral infections, can lead to higher blood sugar levels and increase the risk of serious short term complications risk, particularly short term complications such as ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS). Read more on getting vacinated against the flu. What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms of flu may occur rapidly and include: Severe aching and pain in joints Aching muscles Aching around the eyes Fever Warm, flushed skin Headache Dry cough Sore throat and discharge from the nose Complications of the flu Influenza can lead to chest infections which may develop into pneumonia. Rarer complications include tonsilitis, meningitis and encephalitis. The flu can be a killer and is responsible for around 600 deaths a year. During an epidemic, flu can kill thousands of people in a year. Diabetes and flu medication Some over-the-counter flu medication is suitable for people with diabetes. Some over-the-counter flu medication will be more suitable for people with diabetes than others. For instance, some flu medications contain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, which are not usually recommended for people with diabetes because they may slightly increase the risk of heart problems and stroke. A number of flu medications may contain a relatively high level of sugar which could pre Continue reading >>
The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection
A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>
Can Catching The Flu Cause Type 1 Diabetes?
Many a type 1 diabetes diagnosis occurs right after the flu or other big virus or illness. This leads some to believe that the flu or other illness caused their diabetes. While those are good powers of observation, it’s not accurate. To help us better understand, Dr. Stephen Ponder, a fellow person living with type 1 diabetes and a pediatric endocrinologist from Texas who wrote the book, Sugar Surfing: How to Manage Type 1 Diabetes in a Modern World explains: “What happens is that the hormonal stress from a major infection like the flu overwhelms what little insulin capacity is left after a long period of autoimmune erosion of the beta cell mass. This unmasks the glucose intolerance sooner. Because it is a proximal event relative to the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, the infection itself wrongly gets blamed as the culprit.” In other words, a major illness such as the flu will speed up the process of type 1 diabetes developing, leading more quickly to the symptoms that lead to diagnosis. In such cases it can appear that the flu caused type 1 diabetes but really it was a mere catalyst for it happening as soon as it did. Without the flu or other illness being contracted, type 1 diabetes would still develop in time. Continue reading >>