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Fat Diabetes Connection

Dietary Fat And The Risk Of Clinical Type 2 Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation Of Cancer-norfolk Study

Dietary Fat And The Risk Of Clinical Type 2 Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation Of Cancer-norfolk Study

The role of dietary fat in the etiology of type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. The authors investigated the association between dietary fat composition and risk of clinical type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study and identified food consumption patterns associated with dietary fat composition. Diet was assessed at baseline (19931997) using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. From multiple sources of information, 414 incident cases of diabetes were identified among 23,631 men and women aged 4078 years during 37 years of follow-up. The capture-recapture ascertainment level was 99%. The energy-adjusted dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 0.84 per standard deviation change, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 0.94). Adjustment for age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, total fat, protein, and alcohol attenuated the association (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99), and it was no longer statistically significant after including body mass index and the waist:hip ratio (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.03). This prospective study showed that an increased dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio was associated with a reduced risk of diabetes, independent of age, sex, family history of diabetes, and other lifestyle factors. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation of Cancer; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; OR, odds ratio; P:S ratio, polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio. Received for publication November 12, 2002; accepted for publication July 2, 2003. The possibility that diet may be a cause of diabetes has been recognized for many years, although the specific dietary factors that are involved ar Continue reading >>

Is Fat Killing You, Or Is Sugar?

Is Fat Killing You, Or Is Sugar?

In the early nineteen-sixties, when cholesterol was declared an enemy of health, my parents quickly enlisted in the war on fat. Onion rolls slathered with butter, herring in thick cream sauce, brisket of beef with a side of stuffed derma, and other staples of our family cuisine disappeared from our table. Margarine dethroned butter, vinegar replaced cream sauce, poached fish substituted for brisket. I recall experiencing something like withdrawal, daydreaming about past feasts as my stomach grumbled. My father’s blood-cholesterol level—not to mention that of his siblings and friends—became a regular topic of conversation at the dinner table. Yet, despite the restrictive diet, his number scarcely budged, and a few years later, in his mid-fifties, he had a heart attack and died. The dangers of fat haunted me after his death. When, in my forties, my cholesterol level rose to 242—200 is considered the upper limit of what’s healthy—I embarked on a regimen that restricted fatty foods (and also cut down on carbohydrates). Six months later, having shed ten pounds, I rechecked my level. It was unchanged; genes have a way of signalling their power. But as soon as my doctor put me on just a tiny dose of a statin medication my cholesterol plummeted more than eighty points. In recent decades, fat has been making a comeback. Researchers have questioned whether dietary fat is necessarily dangerous, and have shown that not all fats are created equal. People now look for ways of boosting the “good cholesterol” in their blood and extol the benefits of Mediterranean diets, with their emphasis on olive oil and fatty nuts. In some quarters, blame for obesity and heart disease has shifted from fat to carbohydrates. The Atkins diet and, more recently, the paleo diet have popul Continue reading >>

The Basic Food Groups: The Insulin/fat Connection

The Basic Food Groups: The Insulin/fat Connection

The Insulin/Fat Connection The primary source of body fat for most Americans is not dietary fat but carbohydrate, which is converted to blood sugar and then, with the aid of insulin, to fat by fat cells. Remember, insulin is our main fatbuilding hormone. Eat a plate of pasta. Your blood sugar will rise and your insulin level (if you have type 2 diabetes or are not diabetic) will also rise in order to cover, or prevent, the jump in blood sugar. All the blood sugar that is not burned as energy or stored as glycogen is turned into fat. So you could, in theory, acquire more body fat from eating a high-carbohydrate “fat-free” dessert than you would from eating a tender steak nicely marbled with fat. Even the fat in the steak is more likely to be stored if it is accompanied by bread, potatoes, corn, and so on. The fatty-acid building blocks of fats can be metabolized (burned), stored, or converted by your body into other compounds, depending on what it requires. Consequently, fat is always in flux in the body, being stored, appearing in the blood, and being converted to energy. The amount of triglycerides (the storage form of fat) in your bloodstream at any given time will be determined by your heredity, your level of exercise, your blood sugar levels, your diet, your ratio of visceral (abdominal) fat to lean body mass (muscle), and especially by your recent consumption of carbohydrate. The slim and fit tend to be very sensitive (i.e., responsive) to insulin and have low serum levels not only of triglycerides but insulin as well. But even their triglyceride levels will increase after a high-carbohydrate meal, as excess blood sugar is converted to fat. The higher the ratio of abdominal fat (and, to a lesser degree, total body fat) to lean body mass, the less sensitive to i Continue reading >>

Fats And Diabetes

Fats And Diabetes

Fat is very high in calories with each gram of fat providing more than twice as many calories compared to protein and carbohydrate. Eating too much fat can lead to you taking in more calories than your body needs which causes weight gain which can affect your diabetes control and overall health. The type of fat is important too. Having too much saturated fat in your diet can cause high levels of what’s known as ‘bad cholesterol’ (low-density lipoprotein or LDL), which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). People with diabetes are at increased risk of CVD, so it’s even more important to make healthier food choices. In this section Should I avoid fat completely? Fat plays a very important role in the body, so you need to include a small amount of it in your diet. Fat in our body fulfils a wide range of functions, which include: supplying energy for cells providing essential fatty acids that your body can't make transporting fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) providing a protective layer around vital organs being necessary in the production of hormones. However, fats are high in calories, so it’s important to limit the amount you use – especially if you’re trying to manage your weight. Next time you’re cooking or shopping, have a look at the nutritional label to see what types of fats are in the product you’re buying. The main types of fat found in our food are saturated and unsaturated, and most foods will have a combination of these. All of us need to cut saturated fat and use unsaturated fats and oils, such as rapeseed or olive oil, as these types are better for your heart. Saturated fats Saturated fat is present in higher amounts in animal products, such as: butter cream cheese meat meat products and poultry processed foods like pastri Continue reading >>

Dietary Fats And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

Dietary Fats And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes aClinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden bDepartments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA bDepartments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA aClinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden bDepartments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Corresponding author: Dr Ulf Risrus, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala Science Park, 75185, Uppsala, Sweden, Tel: +46186117971, Fax: +46186117976, E-mail: [email protected] The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Prog Lipid Res See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also summariz Continue reading >>

Dietary Fat And The Risk Of Clinical Type 2 Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation Of Cancer-norfolk Study

Dietary Fat And The Risk Of Clinical Type 2 Diabetes: The European Prospective Investigation Of Cancer-norfolk Study

The role of dietary fat in the etiology of type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. The authors investigated the association between dietary fat composition and risk of clinical type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study and identified food consumption patterns associated with dietary fat composition. Diet was assessed at baseline (19931997) using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. From multiple sources of information, 414 incident cases of diabetes were identified among 23,631 men and women aged 4078 years during 37 years of follow-up. The capture-recapture ascertainment level was 99%. The energy-adjusted dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 0.84 per standard deviation change, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 0.94). Adjustment for age, sex, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, total fat, protein, and alcohol attenuated the association (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99), and it was no longer statistically significant after including body mass index and the waist:hip ratio (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.03). This prospective study showed that an increased dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio was associated with a reduced risk of diabetes, independent of age, sex, family history of diabetes, and other lifestyle factors. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation of Cancer; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; OR, odds ratio; P:S ratio, polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio. Received for publication November 12, 2002; accepted for publication July 2, 2003. The possibility that diet may be a cause of diabetes has been recognized for many years, although the specific dietary factors that are involved ar Continue reading >>

Red Meat Consumption-diabetes Link Explored By Harvard Researchers | Harvard Magazine

Red Meat Consumption-diabetes Link Explored By Harvard Researchers | Harvard Magazine

Red-meat consumption is already linked to higher levels of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke). Now researchers from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have added an increased risk of type 2 (adult onset) diabetes to that list. The incurable illness occurs when the bodys ability to control blood glucose levels by means of insulin secretion becomes impaired, either because of insulin resistance (when insulin fails to trigger effective glucose uptake by muscle or other tissues), or because production of insulin by beta cells in the pancreas declines. The HSPH investigators, led by professor of epidemiology Frank Hu and research fellow An Pan , analyzed data from three longitudinal studies of male and female healthcare professionals who were followed for 14 to 28 years. After adjusting for other risk factors, the researchers found that a daily serving of red meat no larger than a deck of cards increased the risk of adult-onset diabetes by 19 percent. Processed red meat proved much worse: a daily serving half that sizeone hot dog, or two slices of bacon, for examplewas associated with a 51 percent increase in risk. (The average 10-year risk of getting diabetes for U.S. adults is around 10 percent.) Why is red meat harmful? Saturated fat, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, is really just the beginning of the story, explains Hu. Even though it is difficult to pinpoint one compound or ingredient as mechanistically linked to diabetes risk, three components of red meatsodium, nitrites, and ironare probably involved. Sodium is well known to increase blood pressure, but it also causes insulin resistance; nitrites and nitrates have also been shown to increase insulin resistance and to impair the function of the pancr Continue reading >>

Why Does Fat Increase Blood Glucose?

Why Does Fat Increase Blood Glucose?

Has this ever happened to you? — You eat a meal such as fettuccine alfredo with garlic bread and tiramisu for dessert. — You take either the appropriate amount of insulin for the carbohydrate in the meal or your oral medications. — You check 2 to 3 hours after eating and see a blood glucose reading that is in range. So far, so good, right? —Then you wake up the next morning with a very high number? Ever wondered what causes this? There are two reasons. First, Fettuccine Alfredo, garlic bread and tiramisu are, for the most part, a mixture of carbohydrate and fat. But it’s the fat in the meal that is contributing to the elevated readings. Although carbohydrate is the nutrient that has the most immediate affect on blood glucose levels, fat is not glucose neutral. But only a small portion of the triglyceride (fat) molecule, called the glycerol backbone, can be used as glucose. This very small addition to the glucose pool can’t be the source of your high blood glucose readings. So if fat doesn’t directly raise blood glucose, what is it doing? For many years scientists thought that fat was a metabolically inert substance. Fat on the body was considered dead weight, just extra blubber people carted around. Well it turns out that fat has been masquerading as the quiet shy guy in the back row, all the while packing a considerable metabolic punch. A high fat meal can increase the amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the blood. Both repeatedly elevated levels of FFAs as found in chronic intake of high fat (especially high saturated fat) meals and obesity are associated with both skeletal muscle and liver insulin resistance. That resistance means that it will take more insulin—either made by your pancreas or from an injection—to move the glucose in the blood strea Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Fat Vs Carbohydrates On The Etiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Effect Of Fat Vs Carbohydrates On The Etiology Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Effect of Fat vs Carbohydrates on the Etiology of Type 2 Diabetes This activity is intended for physicians, pharmacists, diabetes educators, and other professionals conducting diabetes research or providing care for persons with diabetes. Improve strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of diabetes. Reassess and modify current practice methods in order to enhance the care of persons with diabetes. Support the clinical practice of health professionals providing care for persons with diabetes. Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to: Recognize the impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes on global public health. Discuss the mechanisms regulating energy homeostasis and how they contribute to the development of obesity and diabetes. Review factors contributing to the development of macrovascular and microvascular complications in diabetes. Explain how diet influences the development and management of diabetes. Describe novel therapeutic approaches to increase insulin secretion. Medical Director, Weight Management Program, Preventative Medicine and Rehabilitation Institute and Chief, Section of Endocrinology, Christiana Care Health Systems, Wilmington, Delaware. Medical Education Collaborative, a nonprofit education organization, is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Medical Education Collaborative designates this educational activity for a maximum of 2 hours in Category 1 credit towards the AMA Physician's Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those hours of credit that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. This educational activity for 2.4 contact hours is provided by Medical Education Collaborative. Provi Continue reading >>

“sugar Does Not Cause Diabetes”: Did The Film What The Health Get It Right?

“sugar Does Not Cause Diabetes”: Did The Film What The Health Get It Right?

The documentary What the Health is receiving a huge amount of attention and most of it is positive. Many reports of people attempting to eat better are filling social media. I discussed the film on a local TV station in Detroit after two reporters indicated that the movie had made a big impact on their diets. There have even been reports that restaurants serving healthier fare have seen an uptick in customers attributing the change to the film. I have seen this in my own plant-based restaurant and have a What The Health Happy Hour that has been very popular. Naturally, there have been critics of the movie defending their viewpoint that meat based diets are healthy, but most have rallied around a statement in the film by Neal Barnard, MD that “sugar does not cause diabetes”. As the answer to this question may be important to you, I have done some research and share it here but this is in NO way an endorsement to add back soda and candy bars to your diet. In a world stressed by growing obesity and its medical consequences, limiting sugar is a universal recommendation from all health experts. 1) Type 1 diabetes is not caused by sugar. All agree on this as type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease leading to destruction of the insulin producing cells in the pancreas. However, patients with type 1 diabetes can develop and reverse insulin resistance (IR) in their muscles and liver so understanding the origin of IR is important. 2) Who is Neal Barnard, MD? Dr. Barnard is a graduate of the George Washington University School of Medicine and an adjunct associate professor of medicine there. He has published over 70 scientific publications (including long term studies on diet and diabetes) and 18 books including several New York Times bestsellers on health and diabe Continue reading >>

High-fat, Low-carbohydrate Diet And The Etiology Of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study

High-fat, Low-carbohydrate Diet And The Etiology Of Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study

High-Fat, Low-Carbohydrate Diet and the Etiology of Non-Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Reprint requests to Dr. Julie A. Marshall, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Box C-245, Denver, CO 80262. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 134, Issue 6, 15 September 1991, Pages 590603, Julie A. Marshall, Richard F. Hamman, Judith Baxter; High-Fat, Low-Carbohydrate Diet and the Etiology of Non-Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 134, Issue 6, 15 September 1991, Pages 590603, Diet has long been believed to be an important risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Animal studies generally support a relation between high-fat diets and development of insulin resistance. However, conclusive epidemiologic evidence is lacking. To further investigate the role of dietary fat and carbohydrate as potential risk factors for the onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, current diet was assessed among a geographically based group of 1,317 subjects without a prior diagnosis of diabetes who were seen in the period from 1984 to 1988 in two counties in southern Colorado. In this study, 24-hour diet recalls were reported prior to an oral glucose tolerance test. Persons with previously undiagnosed diabetes (n = 70) and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 171) were each compared w Continue reading >>

A Diabetes Link To Meat

A Diabetes Link To Meat

Right Now | Getting the Red out [extra:Extra] Read more about Harvard’s “Healthy Eating Plate.” Also: Red-meat consumption is already linked to higher levels of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke). Now researchers from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have added an increased risk of type 2 (adult onset) diabetes to that list. The incurable illness occurs when the body’s ability to control blood glucose levels by means of insulin secretion becomes impaired, either because of “insulin resistance” (when insulin fails to trigger effective glucose uptake by muscle or other tissues), or because production of insulin by beta cells in the pancreas declines. The HSPH investigators, led by professor of epidemiology Frank Hu and research fellow An Pan, analyzed data from three longitudinal studies of male and female healthcare professionals who were followed for 14 to 28 years. After adjusting for other risk factors, the researchers found that a daily serving of red meat no larger than a deck of cards increased the risk of adult-onset diabetes by 19 percent. Processed red meat proved much worse: a daily serving half that size—one hot dog, or two slices of bacon, for example—was associated with a 51 percent increase in risk. (The average 10-year risk of getting diabetes for U.S. adults is around 10 percent.) Why is red meat harmful? “Saturated fat, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, is really just the beginning of the story,” explains Hu. Even though it is “difficult to pinpoint one compound or ingredient” as mechanistically linked to diabetes risk, three components of red meat—sodium, nitrites, and iron—are probably involved. Sodium is well known to increase blood pressure, but it also c Continue reading >>

Unc Study Helps Clarify Link Between High-fat Diet And Type 2 Diabetes

Unc Study Helps Clarify Link Between High-fat Diet And Type 2 Diabetes

CHAPEL HILL, NC A diet high in saturated fat is a key contributor to type 2 diabetes, a major health threat worldwide. Several decades ago scientists noticed that people with type 2 diabetes have overly active immune responses, leaving their bodies rife with inflammatory chemicals. In addition, people who acquire the disease are typically obese and are resistant to insulin, the hormone that removes sugar from the blood and stores it as energy. For years no one has known exactly how the three characteristics are related. But a handful of studies suggest that they are inextricably linked. New research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine adds clarity to the connection. The study published online April 10 in the journal Nature Immunology finds that saturated fatty acids but not the unsaturated type can activate immune cells to produce an inflammatory protein, called interleukin-1beta. The cellular path that mediates fatty acid metabolism is also the one that causes interleukin-1beta production, says senior study co-author Jenny Y. Ting, PhD, William Kenan Rand Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology . Interleukin-1beta then acts on tissues and organs such as the liver, muscle and fat (adipose) to turn off their response to insulin, making them insulin resistant. As a result, activation of this pathway by fatty acid can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes symptoms. Ting is also a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center , and the UNC Inflammatory Diseases Institute. Other authors of the report, all in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, are postdoctoral researcher and first author Haitao Wen, Denis Gris, Yu Lei, Shushmita Jha; Lu Zhang, Max Tze-Han Huang, and Willie June Brickey. Th Continue reading >>

This Kind Of Fat Lowers Your Risk For Diabetes

This Kind Of Fat Lowers Your Risk For Diabetes

TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. Not all saturated fats are created equal, it appears. A pair of new studies suggests that certain sources of saturated fat may be worse than others—especially when it comes to raising risk for type 2 diabetes. In one study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers from Harvard University and the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Spain tracked 3,349 Spanish adults for about 4.5 years. Overall, they found that people who consumed higher amounts of saturated fats and animal fats were twice as likely to develop diabetes than those who consumed a lower amount. When the researchers broke down the results by specific food type, the consumption of butter (at 12 grams a day) and cheese (at 30 grams a day) were both linked to an increased risk of diabetes. On the other hand, people who ate whole-fat yogurt actually had a lower risk than those who didn’t. The researchers have several explanations for these findings. Yogurt contains healthful ingredients, like probiotics and protein, that may have protective effects when it comes to diabetes risk, says lead author Marta Guasch-Ferre, a nutrition research fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Even though the results were adjusted to account for other food intake, unhealthy eating patterns may have influenced them. “Butter and cheese often come with carbohydrates, like toast or crackers,” Guasch-Ferre says. Plus, people who eat more yogurt tend to have better diets than those who don’t, she adds. The study did not find any significant links between diabetes risk and consumption of red meat, processed meat, eggs or whole-fat milk. That was a surprise to the researchers, who suspect that other factors may have diluted these results. They poi Continue reading >>

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 29 million people in America have diabetes and 86 million have prediabetes. Insulin resistance is recognized as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. But what causes insulin resistance? In this NutritionFacts.org video, Dr. Michael Greger talks about how fat affects insulin resistance, and about how the most effective way to reduce insulin sensitivity is to reduce fat intake. We’ve also provided a summary of Dr. Greger’s main points below. Insulin Resistance of People on High-Fat Diets vs. High-Carb Diets In studies performed as early as the 1930s, scientists have noted a connection between diet and insulin intolerance. In one study, healthy young men were split into two groups. Half of the participants were put on a fat-rich diet, and the other half were put on a carb-rich diet. The high-fat group ate olive oil, butter, mayonnaise, and cream. The high-carb group ate pastries, sugar, candy, bread, baked potatoes, syrup, rice, and oatmeal. Within two days, tests showed that the glucose intolerance had skyrocketed in the group eating the high-fat diet. This group had twice the blood sugar levels than the high-carb group. The test results showed that the higher the fat content of the diet, the higher the blood sugar levels would be. What Is Insulin Resistance? It turns out that as the amount of fat in the diet goes up, so does one’s blood sugar spikes. Athletes frequently carb-load before a race because they’re trying to build up fuel in their muscles. We break down starch into glucose in our digestive tract; it circulates as blood glucose (blood sugar); and it is then used by our muscle cells as fuel. Blood sugar, though, is like a vampire. It needs an invitation to enter our cells. And that invit Continue reading >>

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